Leveling the walls with plaster with your own hands
"Your own master" is not a sentence, and every person can independently make repairs in a house or apartment, especially since this will open up space for creativity, and also make it possible to significantly save on the services of specialists.
Finishing work after a competent study of professional recommendations and advice will definitely be within your power. Even if you need to paint the walls or want to glue the wallpaper, the result may not please, and not because of lack of experience, but because the surfaces are curved.
If you level the walls with plaster, then the paint and varnish material, as well as other types of coating, will perfectly fit the surface.
Nuances in preparation.
There are 2 leveling methods such as:
It turns out that walls are either sheathed with sheets of drywall, and this method is usually called "dry plastering". The case will progress quickly, there will be less dirt than when working with plaster. But there are also tangible disadvantages:
There is another scenario when plaster mixes are used. Such materials are devoid of the drawbacks that are inherent in drywall sheets. The working technology with plaster is not the most difficult, and the market offers an incredibly huge range of different mixtures, and therefore it is necessary to take into account the composition of the area of use of the material in order to choose correctly.
There are different types of materials - cement, clay and gypsum.
Each of them has both positive and negative qualities. The clay composition is used much less often than others, because it has a couple of significant disadvantages - it dries for a long time (a layer from 5 to 10 cm will dry up to 3 weeks), not the most durable (it cracks quite often). But it is the cheapest, can be made by hand, and is the only one of all plasters to adhere equally well to all surfaces (adobe, wood, brick or concrete).
Please note that the lack of strength problem can be easily resolved by adding cementitious mortar, and for wall leveling with a huge slope this mixture is ideal (but only when applied to shingles).
Cement mixtures can be divided into a couple of types:
- For the final type of finish - with the addition of fine sand.
- For the first (that is, the rough layer) coating - with the addition of coarse sand.
The advantages of plaster include low price, speed of preparation and ease of application of the composition, long operational life of the resulting type of coating. The fact that the composition does not dry out so quickly makes it possible to work normally with it even for novice craftsmen, but at the same time it will make the repair longer. Moreover, there is a risk of cracking when applying a layer with a thickness of 2.5 cm, in which case a reinforcing lining will be needed.
Gypsum plaster is a very popular material due to the following properties:
The gypsum composition hardens faster, which can be considered both a minus and a plus, since a certain skill in handling the material is required, but to save a lot of work time, and you only need to prepare the mixture in a small quantity.
The best plaster for leveling walls is gypsum, and at a cost it is more expensive than others, but taking into account the economy of consumption, the difference will be insignificant.
It is difficult to give an exact answer to such a question only if all conditions of use of the material are taken into account. For the main (rough) coating with a large wall curvature, a clay mixture would be ideal. If the deviations are not the greatest, gypsum or cement plaster can be recommended. In this case, the price and experience of the employee will be decisive factors.
It will also be of great importance in which room the work will be performed.
For residential-type rooms, any composition at the customer's choice is suitable. When facing a children's room, gypsum plaster is the ideal option. For finishing a room with high humidity (for example, a toilet, bathroom or kitchen) - it is recommended to use a mixture of cement. Plaster can be used to level not just walls, but also ceilings.
But recently, drywall sheets have been used for this, and they also finish using the stretch ceiling technique, where surface leveling is not needed. The reason is that the application of a plaster layer on a horizontal surface, and at the same time overhead, is a laborious process than the other methods mentioned. For floors, the use of plaster mixes is not recommended, and here it is best to use concrete or special mixes for screed.
There are 2 main methods for plastering walls:
The first method is used when the surface is practically not curved.At the same time, it is required to throw plaster on the prepared walls with a spatula and level it with the rule, leading it from the bottom to the top along the surface. When you have covered the entire wall, use a longer rule to iron the surface in different directions to remove any unevenness. It should be noted that in this case, it is unlikely that an ideal result will be obtained. Such alignment is more suitable for wallpaper or other dense decorative coatings, but definitely not for painting.
It is usually used for utility rooms. The beacon method is used more often. It will include several stages.
Preparation. In order for the plaster layer to be durable and strong, it is important to prepare the walls.
Here it is required to remove, if possible, all layers with the old finish. To decide whether to remove the old layer of plaster, you need to check whether it has begun to move away from the walls, and whether voids have appeared under it. This can be determined by tapping all surfaces from the floor to the ceiling itself. If the sound is muffled, then in such a place the layer has probably moved away, and the old plaster needs to be removed, and even more so with a large area of voids.
Please note that it is better to close up large and very noticeable irregularities at once, to cover the pits with putty.
Try to knock down bulges. If the walls are finished with very smooth compounds, there is a risk of poor adhesion to the plaster. In this case, it is required to make notches with an angle grinder (i.e. grinder) or a hammer drill, about 100 per square meter.
The primer is applied with a brush, roller or spray gun. For brick walls, instead of a special composition, the use of pure water is allowed. In this case, they plaster immediately, without waiting until everything dries out. When using a primer, the drying time should be followed according to the instructions.
For high quality alignment, special guides are used, which are called landmarks (beacons). By means of a level, the angle of deviation of the surface and the plane in which the beacons will be are verified. In the role of guides, it is best to use special T-shaped metal profiles. you can take wooden planks, but they must be even, and it is difficult to choose such. A little skew will ruin all work.
To level the walls under the plaster, you first need to fix the extreme beacons, retreating from the corners no more than 0.3 meters. For this, it is convenient to use screws or self-tapping screws.To begin with, screw in the lower and upper ones, and then along the general profile at a distance of 0.4 meters.
The guides must hold tight and not move anywhere. After that, between the extreme beacons from the bottom, top and in the middle, stretch the line / rope. Focusing on the ropes, other profiles are screwed at a distance that is less than the length of the rule with which the plaster will stretch. It will be more convenient to move from the doorway, if there is one.
The verticality of the guides must always be verified by the building level, and thereby adjusting the screwing depth of the hardware.
To do this, you can use plumb lines that are lowered from the upper screws. After the rope needs to be removed, the surface is again cleaned of dust and the process of plastering begins. Sometimes curbs made from a similar plaster mix that will be used in the future act as beacons. But to obtain a high-quality result, this method will take much more time, and even more inexperienced workers.
Plastering - prepare the plaster mortar in accordance with the instructions on the package.
The dry mixture must be diluted with water in the recommended proportions, mixing with a construction mixer. After the mixture, it is required to stand for some time and mix again until smooth, and then the prepared plaster is thrown onto the walls with a spatula, starting from the bottom and moving up. A very dense layer should come out that will not cover the lighthouses. It does not need to be aligned as it is the foundation.
When the first layer dries out, the surface needs to be moistened and the process repeated, but after covering the strip with plaster, it is important to follow the rule over it.
The tool is applied perpendicular to the surface, slightly below the lighthouse edges. The rule is to lead from below to the top, gently pressing, but not very hard, so as not to bring the plaster. Remove excess mixture from the tool with a spatula and apply again to the wall. The surface must be ironed with a rule until the mixture begins to set and collect.
After that, all other strips will go through in stages.
It is necessary to take into account that when using gypsum-based plaster, the mixture for each stage must be prepared in the right amount, accurately calculated, because the remaining will quickly harden and become unsuitable for work. After that, the layer of plaster should be level with the beacons. Waiting for complete drying, the guides must be removed. This is especially true for metal profiles, because if they are left inside the plaster in the future, rust may form, which will spoil the decorative outer coating. The grooves that appear after the removal of the beacons will be filled with a plaster mixture of a similar composition, and align everything into a single plane using the rule.
Also fill in the gaps that remain near the floor, walls and ceiling with plaster. To level and smooth the mixture in the corners, use an angled spatula.If required, you can lay layers 2 and 3, which usually will not be more than 0.2 cm. Leveling door and window openings, and also slopes with plaster is required in the same way using guides on both sides of the surface, and if the opening is not wide, enough one profile in the middle.
Final treatment - when the wall is completely dry, the plastered surface needs to be moistened again and smoothed again with a trowel or a special leveler. To strengthen the layer of plaster, the surface must be primed with a finishing compound.
For an objective assessment of the result of work, compare it with the requirements of SNiP 3. 04. 01-87 "Finishing and insulating coatings", or rather:
3 cm per meter.
Also, do not forget to follow the recommendations of experts when leveling the walls with plaster with your own hands.
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