The architectural elements of the facade have not only a practical functional purpose, but also serve to decorate the building, giving it an aesthetically complete appearance. A well-thought-out combination of decorative elements can radically transform a house, highlighting its advantages and hiding possible disadvantages. Architecture is a harmonious union of the science of urban planning and art, with an interesting centuries-old history. It is to her that we must be grateful for such a variety of beautiful and original facade elements that exist today.
This article will acquaint you with the main types of architectural elements of the facade, as well as with the features and characteristics of the materials from which they are made.
Architectural elements of the facade
Currently time in a kaleidoscope of decorative and functional elements of facade decoration, an ignorant person can easily get confused. Balustrades, pilasters, frescoes, bas-reliefs ... All this variety of design solutions created by masters of the past and present, at first glance, seems mysterious and incomprehensible.
However, we will try to clarify the understanding of this issue and introduce you to the basic architectural terms and concepts in more detail.
Column - one of the most ancient architectural elements
A column is a column, usually of a cylindrical shape. It can be stone, marble, metal, wood, and even made from artificial materials. Initially, in architecture, columns were used to provide support for entablatures and arches. Nowadays, they often play the role of an exclusively decorative element of facade design without a functional load.
A column usually consists of three main parts:
In some cases, it may be absent.
Gypsum Columns and Decors
Columns boast their own "relatives" in the field of construction and architecture, known as "semi-columns" and "pilasters". Pilasters are, in fact, columns that partially protrude from the plane of the facade of the building.They come in a wide variety of types:
Semi-columns, in turn, are a subspecies of rounded pilasters that protrude from the wall of the building by half or three-quarters of their thickness.
Pilasters and columns
The cornice of a building is a protruding element of the external design of facades that separates the wall from the roof, or visually divides the plane of the walls into pieces along parallel lines horizontally to the ground.
Eaves of the roof of a house
A pediment is an architectural element of a triangular (less often semicircular) shape, the boundaries of which are indicated on the sides by two roof slopes, and outlined below with cornice.
A cornice with a pediment, located above the doorway or a niche in the wall of the building, is called a sandrik.
The word "baluster" has Greek roots and literally means "pomegranate flower" in the original language. In architecture, it is often used for the design of balconies, loggias and terraces. It is a neat row of columns that resemble miniature columns.
The functional purpose of the baluster is to support the railing of various fences. As in the case of columns, baluster posts can be additionally decorated with various decorative elements.
Types of balusters
Bas-relief is one of the most ancient architectural elements. It is a convex sculptural image that protrudes no more than half of its volume above the plane of the facade wall. It does not carry a functional load, it is used exclusively as a design solution.
High reliefs differ from bas-reliefs in that they can protrude above the level of the wall by more than 50% of their thickness.
Bas-relief in the form of a griffin
Frescoes are picturesque images created directly on the inner or outer surface of the walls of the building. As a rule, they are rarely used to decorate the facades of houses. However, there are exceptions. Modern technologies, in which reinforced mesh and colored polymer-based finishing compounds are used to create outdoor frescoes, make it possible to create images that are completely resistant to external weathering.
Fresco on the facade of the house
Consoles are supporting elements used to provide mechanical support to various protruding elements of the facade, such as cornices and balconies. Externally, they can represent a sculpture and are quite often also used to implement original design solutions in the architectural design of buildings.
Various options for consoles created by Parisian architects
The balcony is a fenced platform that protrudes from the wall of the facade of the building and is supported by beams either console.
Balcony supported by the original console in the shape of an eagle
Let's make a reservation right away that in construction, when finishing the facades of buildings, many materials of various types are used. We will consider only those that are most popular and are often used in practice.
Despite the fullness of the construction market with various modern analogues, gypsum stucco molding remains one of the most popular building materials today. It is used not only for the design of facades, but also used for interior finishing work.
The main advantage of gypsum is its natural origin and ecological purity.
Gypsum is plastic and with its help you can effortlessly create sophisticated and complex architectural forms.
Making stucco using ready-made forms can be done by hand right during the construction process.
Unfortunately, gypsum elements are rather heavy, which should be taken into account during finishing. It is permissible to place massive stucco molding only on solid facades equipped with a high-quality foundation. In addition, the significant weight of gypsum products requires the use of additional equipment, which leads to an increase in the cost of finishing work. And by themselves, decorative elements made of such material are quite expensive.
Element of facade decor made of plaster
Gypsum stucco molding
Concrete, like gypsum, in its original state has significant plasticity, which makes it possible to create on its basis very original architectural forms.
However, this material is also very massive, which leads to the appearance of many additional inconveniences during finishing work.
Modern facade finished with concrete
However, modern industry has solved this problem by providing us with artificially created analogues: fiberglass concrete and polymer concrete ... The first is a fiberglass-penetrated composition of dry building mixtures with a cement base.
The composition of polymer concrete, in turn, includes crushed natural building materials with the addition of resins: sand, quartz flour, granite chips. Thus, these two materials have a significantly lower specific gravity while maintaining their strength.
Fiberglass décor can be easily painted in any color at the production stage by adding a dye to its composition. This material is distinguished by the highest strength, withstands the effects of atmospheric precipitation and is not afraid of sudden temperature changes. Glass fiber concrete is also resistant to mechanical damage to a greater extent than ordinary concrete.
Polymer concrete can boast of practically the same useful qualities.
Monolithic concrete facade with original finish
Cement and base mixtures
Both of these materials belong to the class of gas-filled plastics, and, at first glance, are very similar between yourself. However, in practice, their functionality is very different. For a more convenient comparison, consider the table:
| || |
|When heated over 60 degrees releases a chemical called phenol||Resistant to temperature effects, retains its structure and properties when heated to 180 degrees inclusive, without emitting toxins|
| Fairly flammable. In the process of combustion, it breaks up, which contributes to the rapid spread of the flame. |
|Expanded polystyrene retains its functionality for no more than 15 years, showing a noticeable decrease characteristics after 10 years of use. It is able to settle and shrink, changing its shape, which leads to a distortion of the facade geometry.|| Durable, immune to ultraviolet light, able to last longer than load-bearing structural elements of the house. During the entire period of operation, it does not lose its functionality, retaining its original characteristics.
| The fragility of the material leads to the fact that architectural elements from expanded polystyrene often break during installation. |
During installation, requires the use of adhesives specially designed for this material.
|Has higher durability. It is perfectly fixed by means of various universal building compounds.|
| High humidity can lead to the formation of mold and mildew on surfaces of finishing elements. |
It is capable of absorbing moisture, which, with sharp drops in temperature, leads to its freezing and subsequent destruction of the material.
|Has a moisture-repellent properties that prevents the formation of mold and premature destruction of the finishing material.|
It is obvious that polyurethane foam for exterior finishing works is better than expanded polystyrene. That is why the latter finds its application, as a rule, in the process of interior decorative finishing.
Working with various materials and facade elements has its own specifics and it is better to entrust it to professionals.
However, in the case of polyurethane foam and polystyrene foam materials, you do not need special skills.Installation of elements of this type can be done independently. Below we will consider detailed instructions on the facade design of the building, which will allow you to understand the general principles of the final finishing work.
| Packaged in stretch sets of details for the external design of facades must be signed and distributed to the nodes and elements of the building, in accordance with the plan set in the architectural project.
Therefore, first of all, sort each of the sets by windows and other areas of the facade of the house.
|All elements of the facade design have an article with a name on the back. Your task is, focusing on the assembly diagram (design project), to figure out where which part should be placed in the future and carefully arrange them in order on the ground.|
3. Mark the element joints on the facade and fit the details
| First, use a marker or pencil to make marks on the facade at the locations of future joints. When marking up, remember that the joints, to one degree or another, will be noticeable, so their placement must necessarily be symmetrical.
A sharp knife or a hacksaw with fine teeth on the blade is perfect as a tool for cutting and adjusting elements to size. Carry out the cutting according to the previously made markings, taking into account the gaps for the joints.
Tip. The remaining waste should not be immediately thrown into the trash, they may be useful to you in future work.
| Attach multi-studs along the perimeter of the window (or other mounted element), maintaining a step of about 50 centimeters. The task of this fastener is to ensure reliable fixation of the parts while the glue dries. Remember that oblong pieces must be attached with at least three studs.
Even for the smallest parts of the decor, at least one fixation point should be provided.
| This step is necessary in order to prepare for the assembly of the façade element and to make sure that the parts have been adjusted correctly earlier. Put the decor pieces on the corresponding multi-studs according to the markings made, taking into account the thickness of the seams using tiled crosses. It is recommended to carry out "dry" fitting from the bottom up.
If everything looks good, proceed to the next step.
|Having previously removed the assembled facade element from the spikes, prepare a special adhesive according to the attached instructions. Using a comb-type trowel, evenly apply the ready-made glue along the entire back side and on the ends of the joints of the part to be mounted.|
| From bottom to top, as with dry fitting, place the pieces onto their respective multi-studs. For perfectly straight joints, use tile crosses. Remove excess adhesive from the joints, leaving a free space of 0.
5 cm for the acrylic sealant. After waiting for the adhesive to dry completely, treat the joints with a sealant.
Here that's all. The installation process is completely completed and it remains only to observe the results of our hard work with pleasure. Now, guided by our instructions, you can easily carry out many facade work yourself.
I hope we were able to reveal for you some of the secrets of the art of building and helped to deepen your buildings in terms of classification and installation features of architectural elements of the facade.
Posted By: Work Style |08, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020