Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The use of decorative elements on walls and windows can transform the appearance of any building for the better. Columns, keystones, arches, stucco moldings and consoles allow you to hide various flaws and focus on the advantages of the building. The main thing is to place everything correctly. If you are planning to build not a simple country house, but a real cottage, a manor house - you need to get basic knowledge of what architectural elements of the building facade exist, what they are made of and how they are installed. You can find all this here.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Architectural elements of the facade of the building

Architectural elements of the walls of the facade

First, consider those decorative elements of the facade that are located not on window openings, but simply on the walls. Most of them are shown in the images above and below.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The main elements of decorative finishing of the facade

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

An example of how the house looked like before installing decorative elements and after

Cornice is a protruding element. As a rule, it stretches along the entire wall and visually separates it from the roof, or splits the wall plane itself into several separate zones. At its location, the cornice is under-roof, interfloor and basement.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Cornice under the roof

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Cornice between floors

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Base cornice. As a rule, it is supplied with an ebb

Rust - rectangular overlays at the corners of the walls, also known as basage. As a rule, they alternate in size and have small margins between each other. Rust is also called the external finishing of the facade with rectangular stone slabs, the outer part of which remains uncouth.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Corner rustic

Rosette is a round decorative element on the wall, provided with a three-dimensional pattern with patterns.

As a rule, it is installed above the entrance to the building or in the center of the pediment.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Rosette

Fresco is a color image applied to the wall using plaster or other materials. When creating such decorative elements, great attention must be paid to resistance to external influences.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Fresco on the facade of the house

Bas-relief - a three-dimensional image protruding half from the wall. One of the most ancient architectural elements of the facade, and at the same time the most complex.

It has a subspecies called high relief - in it, individual parts of the picture can protrude from the wall by more than 50%. Both elements and other similar wall decorations are generally referred to as stucco.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Bas-relief in modern architecture

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

High relief

Arch is a through or blind opening with a semicircular top. It is most often used to frame an entrance door or large windows. It is often supplemented with its own decorative elements.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Arch

Panels - rectangular extended or recessed framing of any decorative element, for example, rosettes ... Sometimes there are panels of other forms, as well as those that do not have any decorations inside.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

In this image, the panels are located under the windows

Frieze - a rectangular strip framing a certain part of the facade.

Often located next to the cornice (this sometimes leads to confusion in terms).

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Entablature - the upper horizontal part of the structure

Console - support protruding from the wall, fixed on only one end. Typically used to support balconies, cornices and other relatively heavy objects extending far beyond the façade plane. The cornice is not only a load-bearing, but also a decorative element - it is decorated with stucco, patterns and high reliefs.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Example of using consoles

Balustrade - a railing of a balcony, terrace or stairs made of balusters (curly columns of complex shape).

The top is complemented by a railings, and in some cases - vases located on the pedestals.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Balustrade

Column and its components

Such an architectural building element as column . It is a pillar with a circular or rectangular cross-section, used as both a load-bearing part and decoration of the facade. It is made of stone, wood, metal and other building materials. The column can be conditionally divided into three parts.

  1. Base - the lower base of the column. As a rule, its diameter is larger than that of the main part of the given architectural element. The base of the column must be very strong, since a significant mass is pressing on it.
  2. The trunk or body of the column is the main part of the architectural element. As mentioned above, it has a square or circular cross section.

    Sometimes the stem of the column tapers towards its top. The body can be either smooth or embossed - with horizontal and vertical grooves.

  3. Capital - the upper part of the column, as a rule, is larger than its main part. Evenly distributes the load on the barrel from the supported structure. The capital is supplied with stucco molding, patterns and consoles.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Column and its constituent elements

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Various column styles

It is also worth noting two subspecies of columns - semi-column and pilaster . The first is an architectural element in the form of a round or square column protruding from the wall by 50-75%. As a rule, it is installed near doorways and more often serves not as a structural, but as a decorative element. Pilaster is a small vertical ledge, in its shape and structure resembling a column. Performs an exclusively decorative function.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Semi-columns at the corners of the building

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Pilasters framing the entrance on the facade

Architectural elements of window and door openings

Let's move on to another very important part of the facade - window and door openings. Let's consider the main decorative elements used for their framing and decoration.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Architectural elements of window openings

Sandrik - a small cornice, often rectangular in shape and with a pediment, located above the window, door and niche. Supplied with stucco, patterns and other decorative elements. In addition to the function of decorating the facade, the sandrik covers the window panes from rain.

Keystone - a wedge-shaped decorative element located in the middle of the cornice or sandrick of a window opening or arch.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Sandrik is triangular in shape, equipped with a pediment. Under it you can find several key stones

Platbands - strips installed along the edges of the window opening and oriented vertically. Decorated with stucco details and carvings. They are supplemented with slopes - metal or other surfaces that decorate the window opening along their inner part.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Carved platbands on the windows of a country house

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Stucco window sill with consoles

Tympanum - the plane of the pediment above the window and under the archway framing it. Decorated with stucco, rosette, patterns, bas-reliefs, and sometimes frescoes.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Tympanum

Materials from which the architectural elements of the facade are made

Decorative elements facades are made of a variety of materials, here we will consider the most popular options.

  1. Gypsum is a mineral sedimentary rock of natural origin. One of the oldest materials used for the manufacture of architectural elements of the facade.

    Gypsum is plastic and very malleable in its soft form, but at the same time decorations and stucco molding from it are of great weight and value. Plaster decorative elements can be placed only if there is a very solid foundation and walls.

    Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

    Console, decorated with plaster molding

  2. Glass fiber concrete - a composite material in which the main part is cement solution, and the binder is fiberglass. The result is lightweight yet durable decorative elements for walls and openings. At the same time, in comparison with gypsum, stucco molding and consoles made of fiberglass have better resistance to weathering.

  3. Polymer concrete - a mixture of various rocks with resins and polymer components. The result is a lightweight and durable material that can outwardly reproduce the texture of natural stone.
  4. Polyurethane and expanded polystyrene - are used for the production of very light and inexpensive decorative items. It is worth noting that if you have some skills and tools, you can make such products yourself.Installation of architectural elements of the facade made of expanded polystyrene and polyurethane is also not a big problem.

    You can learn more about this process in the next section of the article.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Styrofoam decorative elements

Video - Facade decor: step-by-step installation instructions

Installation of architectural elements of the facade made of expanded polystyrene - step-by-step instructions

Let's consider step by step the process of installing architectural elements for the facade made of expanded polystyrene.

List of tools

As an introduction, let's take a look at a list of tools that you may need to do this job.

Table. Installation of architectural elements of the facade - a list of tools.

Tool name What it is used for

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Notched trowel

Applying an adhesive mixture to the wall or the back of the decorative element.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Narrow spatula

Working with putty or an adhesive mixture on narrow areas of decorative elements or on curved surfaces where special precision is required.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Wide spatula

Putting putty or adhesive mixture on straight and large surfaces of decorative foam elements.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Attachment mixer for drill

Preparing an adhesive mixture for polystyrene foam decor or kneading putty.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Buckets and other containers

Preparation and storage of glue mixture and putty.


Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Building level

Control of the position of the decorative element vertically and horizontally.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Roulette

Distance measurement.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Roller and brush

Paint application on decorative elements and preliminary priming of surfaces for their installation.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Retractable blade

Cutting packaging or small parts made of foam.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Machine with hot nichrome thread

Cutting and sawing foam.

If absent, it is replaced with a hacksaw with a fine tooth.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Scaffolding

For work on more than 2 meters high.

Construction mixer price

Construction mixer

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions Combined chalet-style houses projects

Mountain romance, simplicity and elusive beauty are found in chalet-style houses. They are not called combined for nothing, because they are built simultaneously from wood and stone.Thanks to this, such buildings acquire unique properties.

Chalet-style combination houses, with a wide variety of designs, have long attracted the attention of architects.

Installing decorative elements on window openings

Start decorating your home with architectural elements from one of the most important parts of any facade - from window and door openings.

Step 1. Prepare the walls and openings themselves for decorating work - complete the construction of all structures, insulate the house and close the thermal insulation layer with a rough finish. In this case, the cottage is covered with foam slabs, which were then covered with reinforcing mesh and plaster.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

First you need to prepare the walls

Step 2. All the architectural elements of the house presented in this example, will be fixed on the walls with a special adhesive. For better adhesion, first apply a primer to window openings and other parts of the building where the decor will be attached.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Primer Application

Step 3. Unpack the decorative elements for the window openings.

Check their integrity and completeness. Cut those parts that will be fastened to each other at the corners of window openings at an angle of 45 °. At home, use a retractable knife or a fine-toothed hacksaw for this. And in the image below you can see how a red-hot nichrome thread is used to accomplish this task - the best tool for cutting foam, allowing you to achieve a perfectly even cut.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Trimming elements with red-hot nichrome thread

Important! If you wish and have the appropriate tools, you can make decorative elements for the facade yourself.

To do this, assemble a machine for cutting polystyrene with nichrome thread and prepare metal templates that repeat in their shape the profiles of certain architectural details.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Cutting foam plastic with hot nichrome thread according to a pre-created metal template

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Finished decorative element - interfloor cornice, also known as molding

Step 4. Prepare an adhesive mixture for installation of expanded polystyrene parts.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Preparation of an adhesive mixture for expanded polystyrene

Prices for Ceresit glue

Ceresit glue

Step 5. Apply a layer of glue on the surface near the window openings, where the styrofoam decorative elements will be applied later.

Use a notched trowel for this job.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Applying the adhesive mixture with a notched trowel

Step 6. Apply a thin layer of the adhesive mixture to the back of the details of the decor made of foam, which you are going to install on the facade at the moment.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Glue is applied to the decorative element

Step 7. Install decorative platbands on the window openings.

As shown in the previous step, apply the glue to the wall itself and apply it, but in a thin layer, to the part itself. Then place it in the right place and press down firmly. Align the position manually or using a builder's level and move on to the rest of the decorative trim.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Platband installation

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The platband is pressed against the wall

Step 8. Carry out similar actions with other decorative elements of openings - window sill and cornice.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Installing the window sill

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The window opening is decorated

Step 9. Install the styrofoam decorative elements with adhesive mixture on the balcony opening.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Decorative elements are installed on the balcony opening

Step 10. Attach the key stones to the pre-marked places and other especially complex decorative elements for openings. As a rule, they are installed after reinforcement and putty of platbands, cornices and other similar parts.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Attachment of the keystone

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Check the position of the keystone horizontally with building level

Prices for building levels

Building levels

Installation of decorative elements on walls and corners

Now let's move on to the wall decorative elements of the facade. In this case, the installation of interfloor molding and corner rustication is carried out.

Step 1. Along the perimeter of the walls, measure a perfectly flat horizontal line at the transition between the first and second floors. Take it out strictly according to the indications of the building level.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The transition between floors is indicated by a straight line

Step 2. Apply a strip of adhesive mixture along the previously drawn line , in height comparable to the installed decorative element. Use a notched trowel just like with window openings.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Applying the glue mixture

Step 3. Apply a thin layer of glue mixture to the back of one of the parts interfloor molding, and then glue this part in its place.

Start this work from one of the corners of the building.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Bonding a part of the interfloor molding

Step 4. Install this part of the interfloor molding on the other side of the corner. To join with the previous element, cut the edges in advance at an angle of 45 °.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Installing the second part of the molding

Step 5.

Install the remaining parts of the interfloor molding. At the same time, tightly join them to each other and be sure to check the conformity of the horizontal line with the building level.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Checking the horizontal alignment of the molding elements

Important! If, for some reason, the gap between two adjacent foam elements becomes too large, treat the joint with a special adhesive mixture.

Step 6. Calculate in advance on paper at what heights relative to the ground the elements of the corner rustic will be located.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The diagram must be drawn in advance

Step 7. Using the ruler and level, transfer the numbers from the plan to the corners themselves - put down the necessary marks.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The necessary marks are put down

Step 8. In front of that part of the rustic, which will adjoin the plinth, fix the reinforcing mesh - apply the glue mixture, sink the mesh into it and cover the top with the same mixture.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The reinforcing mesh is covered with adhesive mixture

Step 9.

Apply adhesive mixture to the back of one of the elements rust and firmly press it to the installation site, guided by the pre-set marks.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Applying glue to the rusticated element

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Fixing the element

Step 10. Repeat the previous step and set all the rustic elements. The installation of other decorative foam products on the facade of the house is carried out according to the same principles.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The rest of the rustic elements are fixed

Scaffolding prices

Scaffolding

Reinforcement and finishing of architectural elements of the facade made of expanded polystyrene

At the installation, work with architectural elements of foam for the facade does not end - they must be protected with reinforcement and putty, and then finish with paint.

Step 1. Prepare the mixture to attach the reinforcement mesh to the façade decor.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Preparation of the putty mixture

Step 2. Using spatulas of different sizes, apply this mixture in a thin layer on all surfaces of decorative elements made of foam at the corners, transitions between floors and window openings.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Putting putty on decorative elements

Step 3.

Cut out pieces of reinforcing mesh to the required length / width and cover all the styrofoam decor elements with it. In this case, it is necessary to observe the overlap between adjacent segments. Lay the net so that its edges protrude beyond the elements themselves and press against the wall.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Laying the reinforcing mesh

Step 4. Press the reinforcing mesh onto the foam parts using spatulas so that the canvas completely repeats the shape of the decorative elements.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The mesh is pressed with a spatula

Step 5. Apply another layer of adhesive mixture on top of the mesh and smooth all with a spatula and brush.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Applying glue over the mesh

Step 6. Reinforce the corners between the trims and the cornices with additional mesh sections ( and window sill elements) on openings.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Reinforcement of corners with additional pieces of reinforcing mesh

Step 7.

Apply a finishing putty to the surfaces of all decorative elements ...

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Applying the finishing putty

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The process of applying the finishing putty

Step 8. Install the window sills by securing them to the screws.

Then coat the joints of this part with the styrofoam decorative elements with a sealant.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Installation of window sill

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Sealing joints with sealant

Step 9. Complete the finishing of the decorative elements of the facade - cover them with several layers of paint.

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

Painting decorative elements of the facade

Architectural elements of the facade of the building - types, descriptions, installation instructions

The paint must be applied in several layers

After completing all these operations, proceed to finishing with colored plaster of the entire surface of the building facade.

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