The base / plinth is a very important part of the house, both from a functional and decorative point of view. Therefore, finishing the basement is a separate task, which a good owner of a country cottage will definitely pay a lot of attention to. Most often, decorative stone is used for these purposes - an expensive material that is not available to everyone in large quantities. But today the material has a cheaper and not inferior alternative in its performance characteristics. This is an artificial stone for the base.
Artificial stone for the base
Let's start with a list of requirements that any high-quality base / plinth finish must meet, regardless of what material it is made of. This fully applies to artificial stone.
Artificial stone on the base
Facing the base with artificial stone
They can also occur for other reasons. Therefore, artificial stone and other materials must be strong enough to remain under moderate mechanical stress in their original form.
And good material should fully meet these expectations.
Facing the basement with artificial stone
Now it's worth telling why artificial stone has become such a popular material for base / plinth finishing. It should be noted that this is due not only to its cheapness relative to natural material, since there are many other advantages.
Therefore, you can do all the work yourself, without attracting third-party specialists and without spending your money on their services.
Another example of cladding
Basement of a wooden house
Installation of finishing stone
The only drawback that discourages some homeowners from using artificial stone is its "unnaturalness" ...
But here it should be understood that the material is made from the same mineral components and it repeats the color and texture of the original so accurately that you can distinguish them only close.
Base for artificial stone
Today in the construction market a huge number of different types of artificial stone are presented. So that you can navigate this variety, we made a table showing the main types of this material and their features.
Currently, there are facing materials made of artificial stone that are completely different in appearance, shape and color range
. Artificial stone for the basement - the main types.
Cement-based artificial stone
| The most popular type of artificial stone, widely used for finishing plinths, facades and internal walls in private cottages, apartment buildings and public buildings. This material is made as follows: a solution prepared from high-quality cement, sand, dye, plasticizers and other additives that improve certain properties of the final product is poured into a plastic, rubber or silicone mold. Depending on the type of dye and form used, the appearance and texture of a particular type of stone is reproduced.
The result is a beautiful, strong and durable material, but quite heavy.
Polymer artificial stone
| Composite finishing material. It is created, as the name implies, from a mixture of sand, which acts as a filler, and various polymers used as binders, plasticizers, etc. It is produced in the form of individual tiles that are connected to each other using locks of various designs. On the basement and other surfaces of buildings, polymer-sand artificial stone is fixed using a frame and self-tapping screws.
Lightweight and fairly durable material, the installation of which is well combined with the insulation of the basement, facade and other surfaces.
Flexible artificial stone
| This material is a multi-layer composite produced in the form of individual tiles or solid sheets. A very thin cut of rock is fixed to the fabric base with glue. On the inside there is another layer of glue - it is necessary to fix the canvas or tiles to the surface. To protect against premature drying, the material is covered with paper.
It is distinguished by the smallest mass among all types of artificial stone, flexibility, versatility and good resistance to temperature changes.
| According to your method workmanship and appearance resembles an artificial cement-based stone, but in this case, the material is made of clay. In its class, clinker tiles have the most outstanding performance and high cost.
Homemade artificial stone
| The cheapest a variant of an artificial stone for a basement - a layer of concrete mortar is applied to the surface, on which, with the help of tools, a finish resembling natural stone is formed - with roughness, irregularities and seams between individual elements. The color is imitated with several layers of paint.
Important! It is worth highlighting siding facade and basement panels separately. They have a polymer base with holes for fastening to the frame and locks for connecting to each other. And their outer side can be made of concrete mix or polymers. But at the same time, it accurately imitates the color, appearance and texture of a real stone.
Basement siding under a stone
The basement and the house are tiled panels under the stone
Before considering the methods of laying artificial stone on the basement, let us familiarize ourselves with the recommendations for choosing a high-quality finishing material that will be beautiful, sturdy and durable.
Choosing an artificial stone
Firstly , pay attention to the price of an artificial stone.Please note that although it is cheaper than natural, it cannot be too cheap. If the cost of the material is significantly lower than the average market value, then, most likely, it is made of poor quality, with a violation of technological processes. Such a stone will be fragile and short-lived, it will also have significant differences in color and texture, which will stand out on the base and spoil its appearance.
Secondly , if we are talking about an artificial stone on a cement basis, then ask the seller what form the material was cast with.
It is desirable that it is not plastic or rubber, but silicone - with its help a conscientious manufacturer is able to very accurately convey the texture of a natural stone.
Silicone mold for casting artificial stone on a cement basis and components added to it during manufacture
Third , examine the surface of the artificial stone. If there are several elements of different colors on one tile, then their painting should not "creep" over each other. Individual stones should look beautiful and not have significant external defects.
Above is an example of a quality artificial stone tile.
Below is a marriage, you can see that the painting is uneven and "creeps" onto an element of a different color, which is indicated by a red arrow
Fourthly , none of the artificial stone tiles should have through holes. This is an obvious defect, a product with a short service life. It shouldn't be on your plinth.
Water gets into such holes in the artificial stone. Subsequently, with temperature drops, it freezes and expands, destroying the finish, spoiling its appearance and significantly shortening the service life
Fifth , check if there are any on the back of the tiles artificial furrow stone.
Their presence is necessary for better "adhesion" of the finish to the tile adhesive and the base surface of the base.
Furrows are required for better "adhesion" of the finish to the tile adhesive and the base surface of the base
Sixth , if we are talking about rectangular tiles that only imitate natural stone with their outer side, the material should have smooth borders that fit well with each other.
Finally, always pay attention to the quality of the artificial stone exterior. The texture should repeat its natural counterpart. Also, make sure by the cut that the material is painted over to its full depth - in this case, in the future, with chips and under the influence of the wind, the artificial stone will not lose its original color and will remain as you chose it.
In addition, on a cut or chip, it should be noted that the artificial stone does not have too large (more than 0.5 cm) foreign inclusions
Important! It is desirable that, in addition to the usual tiles, an artificial corner stone should be included in the kit. This will greatly simplify and speed up installation on the base.
Corner element made of artificial stone
Consider the most common way to finish the basement with artificial stone - laying on tile adhesive. Here's a standard step-by-step guide showing how to properly work with this material.
Everything that is stated in it can be successfully used to decorate the basement with artificial stone.
Works on laying artificial stone
But first, let's get acquainted with the list of tools required for laying artificial stone:
Step 1. Prepare the surface of the base, if there are significant (more than 5 mm) unevenness - plaster it. Then apply two coats of primer in succession, which will ensure better adhesion of the tile adhesive to the plinth surface.
Preparing the primer
Applying the primer
Important! When working with a brick plinth, it will be useful to pre-treat it with a salt prevention agent. Without this, the adhesion of tile adhesive to the surface of the house will be significantly worse, therefore, the durability of the finish will suffer.
Step 2. Perform preliminary marking - determine which stones will fit in which places. Pay special attention to the corners and top.
It will be useful to first lay out the stones in the same order in which they will be attached to the surface of the base. At the same time, check how well they fit together and if there are any samples between them that seriously stand out from the general color scheme.
Stones are laid out in the same order in which they will be attached to the surface of the base
Stones are laid out
The presence of corner elements made of artificial stone greatly facilitates the process of laying on a basement or any other surface
Step 3. With a brush, clean the inner surface of artificial stones from cement laitance - a foamy light layer.
Cleaning the inner surface of the stone
Prepare the tile adhesive. To do this, follow the instructions written on the packaging from under it. When stirring, be sure to use a mixer - this is the only way to achieve a uniform composition that will hold the finish of your base firmly and for a long time.
Observe the proportions indicated in the manufacturer's instructions
Preparation of tile adhesive
Step 5. Spread a layer of tile adhesive 5-8 mm thick on the back of the artificial stone with a trowel.
Do not leave areas not covered with adhesive on the surface - this will significantly reduce the life of the finish.
Glue is applied to the back of the artificial stone
Step 6. Carefully attach the stone to the desired location on the base ...
At the same time, move it slightly to the sides so that the tile adhesive "adheres" better to the base surface.
Fastening the artificial stone
Step 7. Carefully remove the excess tile adhesive from the joints between the individual trim elements ...
At this point, the instructions for laying an artificial stone without "seams" on the base are completed. In the future, you only need to repeat the previous steps and fix one tile after another. But if you have chosen a finish with grout "seams", then be sure to study the second instruction in this section, presented below.
Step 1. Lay the individual elements of the artificial stone according to the same principle as in the previous instructions, but observing the gaps, which will subsequently be grinded.
Insert plastic or wood wedges between the slabs to maintain exact dimensions.
Wedges for maintaining precise gaps between elements
Step 2. Prepare the grout mixture and draw it into a construction syringe.
Step 3. Using a construction syringe, apply grout to the gaps between the artificial stone tiles.
Choose the thickness of the layer yourself, based on personal preference.
The gaps are filled with the prepared mixture
Step 4. Using a narrow spatula or any other similar tool, smooth the grout applied between the tiles of artificial stone.
Finished artificial stone masonry with a seam
Artificial stone, laid on the base in any way, requires mandatory treatment with a water repellent - a composition that protects the finish from moisture, sunlight and other factors.
In addition to individual cement-based tiles, artificial stone is produced in the form of panels similar on siding. Their installation has serious differences, which you will learn about from the step-by-step instructions below.
Step 1. Begin finishing the plinth with artificial stone siding by making the frame. To do this, use either a wooden beam or a metal profile like the one used for drywall.
The frame includes lower and upper straps, vertical posts and intermediate horizontal beams.
The frame for basement siding must be strong - it must withstand the mass of panels with artificial stone
Important! Before installing the plinth trim, it makes sense to use the free internal space formed during the manufacture of the frame and insulate the structure with mineral wool or foam panels.
Step 2. Unpack the basement siding and fit the panels to the frame. At the same time, most likely, solid panels will not pass in height - they will have to be cut either from above or from below.
Unpacked panels need to be tried on
Step 3. Install the basement siding corner panels and profiles used to fix the remaining cladding elements.
Installing corner panels and profiles
Step 4. Cut the left edge of the panel so that it is completely upright. Install it on the frame.
Then install the second panel, securing it to the side of the first with a tongue-and-groove lock. From above, the siding is fixed on self-tapping screws, screw them strictly in the middle of the holes in the finishing material.
Fixing the basement siding
Important! Screw the self-tapping screws holding the basement siding panel into the frame not all the way, but observing the gap between the trim and the fastener head of about 1 mm. This is necessary to compensate for the thermal expansion of the resin-based finish.
In the same way, install the rest of the basement siding panels. In this case, the upper or lower rows will have to be cut if they do not fit in height.
Installing the rest of the panels
Step 6. Separately install the artificial stone panels on the "difficult" basement places - where the ventilation pipe comes out, where the gas pipeline enters the house or where there is a basement window. Then install a metal shim on top to protect the finish from excess moisture.
At this point, the installation of the plinth trim made of artificial stone in the form of siding panels can be considered successfully completed.
Sandstone for the facade
In modern construction, sandstone is widely used, primarily for facing facades. Such buildings look very attractive, and in addition, they have a number of advantages in terms of operation. True, before choosing sandstone as a facing material, it is necessary to study the features of the stone and the rules for working with it.
The essence of the method is that a layer of a solution created on the basis of cement is applied to the base.
Then, using the tools at hand, a surface is formed that imitates the appearance and texture of the stone.This method of finishing the basement is well suited for those homeowners who, for one reason or another, do not want to spend money on buying ready-made material, and for those who want to do all the work on their own.
To form an artificial stone on a plinth, you will need the following materials.
In addition, to form a layer of artificial stone on the base, you will need:
Preparation - finish the base with magnesium glass plates. Due to better "grip" with concrete, they will provide greater durability of the layer of artificial stone formed from the solution.
Step 2. Cover the magnesium glass plates with two coats of deep penetration primer. Apply the second layer only after the first one is completely dry.
Step 3. In a separate container, mix the concrete solution from those components that were mentioned earlier. Use a drill with a mixer attachment to work with the mixture. The resulting solution should be thick, plastic and homogeneous.
Mixing the mortar
Take the ready-made concrete mortar on a trowel or trowel and start applying to the surface of the base. At the same time, do the work arbitrarily, it is not just not necessary to achieve a perfectly even layer, but even harmful - remember that the finish should reproduce the appearance of a natural stone.
Application of the mortar to the surface of the base
Step 5. Wait until the applied solution begins to dry slightly.
The solution should dry a little
Mark the horizontal lines relative to which the joints of stones will form ... To do this, use a regular building level - choose the right place and lean the tool at an angle to the base so that a trace remains on the solution.
The building level marks a horizontal line
The second line is marked
Important! The formation of the finish of the basement with an artificial stone from a layer of cement mortar is carried out in small sections along the length.
This is due to the fact that it will not be possible to do everything at once - the applied mixture will have time to dry by this time. When working on a new area, consider the appearance of the finish that you formed before. The transitions between sections should not stand out.
The junction of the old "site", where the formation of a layer of artificial stone was carried out a long time ago, and the new one, where the main part of the work is yet to be done
Step 7. Using a screwdriver or any similar tool, scrape off some of the mortar applied to the plinth surface and form seams between the trim stones.
Do not throw away the mixture removed during the work, but collect it in a separate container - in the future it (the mixture) will be needed to give the cement a texture similar to a real natural stone.
The seams left after working with the screwdriver are indicated in this photo by red arrows
Seam forming process
Several ready-made seams
Step 8. To randomly selected areas of the mortar lying on the plinth, apply an additional amount of cement mixture. This is necessary to give a greater "bulk" to the artificial stone and a more reliable reproduction of natural finishing material.
Applying additional solution to give more "bulk"
Wet in a bucket of water sponge and wring it out. Then walk over the concrete. Lean the sponge against the mortar and smooth it slightly, creating a texture that resembles a real stone.
Formation of stone texture using a sponge
Example of finished texture
Above and on the left you can see areas that have passed through the formation and outwardly already resemble a real stone for finishing the basement
Step 10. Wet the brush and run it along the "joints" between the stones.
This will smoothen the edges for a more natural finish. In addition, such an operation is necessary to combat porous areas, which can subsequently collapse during sudden temperature changes.
The edges of the joints are smoothed with a brush
Step 11. In the process of passing the brush along the seams of the masonry, do not forget to easily moisten the surface of the concrete solution applied to the base.
The surface needs to be moistened
Wait until the mortar from which the artificial stone masonry is formed completely dry. Then cover it with several coats of paint to simulate the look of the natural material. Use light shades first, then apply dark ones. Mix them together using a sponge soaked in water.
In the center, you can see a section of the base that has not yet been darkened.
You can also see that several shades were chosen as the base - this makes the finish more consistent with natural stone, heterogeneous in its appearance
Application with a dark brush paint on the edges of one of the "stones"
Smear the applied paint with a sponge and mix with a base shade
At the end of the work you will get a beautiful finish of the base with an artificial stone, which will successfully fulfill both protective and decorative functions.
Posted By: Work Style |08, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |11, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |08, Nov 2020