A completely new building material for cladding facade walls of buildings, including basement parts. It is used both during new construction and for overhaul of basement parts of buildings.
Basement thermal panels
Due to the use of modern materials and technologies, the material has high performance.
Basement thermal panels - both decorative finishing and reliable insulation
Depending on the production technology, basement thermal panels can be ordinary or reinforced. Ordinary ones are made of two layers: external decorative (clinker tiles, ceramic tiles, etc.) and insulation (durable polyurethane foam).
Polyurethane foam used as a base has a number of advantages over other heat insulating materials
The reinforced version has an additional intermediate layer of OSB board, which significantly increases the physical strength indicators. It costs a little more, but we recommend this option for finishing plinths.
In the photo, the basement thermal panels
The basement part of the facade absorbs most of the mechanical efforts, for finishing you need to use strong plates. The thickness of the insulation is 40-80 mm, specific indicators must be selected depending on the climatic zone of residence and the presence or absence of operated basements. There is one drawback for basement thermal panels of all types - a rather high cost.
|Name||Indicator and short description|
|Density|| Depending on the brand of expanded polystyrene, the density is 40-60 kg / m3. Density indicators are directly related to physical strength, individual panels can withstand loads up to 1.
93 kg / cm2. Maximum bending force 500 kPa, compressive force 200 kPa, tensile force 300 kPa.
|Vapor permeability and water absorption|| In direct contact with water, the material absorbs no more than 0.1 kg / m3, vapor permeability 0.05 mg / M * h * Pa.
Low vapor permeability and water absorption rates ensure stable performance throughout the entire period of use. In addition, basement thermal panels do not require special waterproofing. Completely closing the pores of expanded polystyrene make up at least 95% of the total.
|Thermal conductivity|| According to these parameters, extruded polystyrene foam is almost as good as foam and mineral wool. The slight difference does not matter.
The panels inhibit the reproduction of microorganisms, are not afraid of rodents and sudden temperature changes. The cost depends on the parameters of the materials and ranges from 1200 rubles. / m2 up to 2500 rubles. / m2 and more.
Technical characteristics of thermal panels
Samples of textures of panels
Taking into account the peculiarities of manufacturing, the thermal panels are installed in two ways:
In such thermal panels, part of the insulation is not covered with facing tiles; it is pushed onto them during the installation of the next element. The result is a strong lock. Benefits - The installation process is faster. Disadvantage - the surface of the base must be perfectly flat. Another drawback - due to a loose fit, natural air exchange between the panels and the plinth may appear, which significantly reduces the effectiveness of the insulation of the structure;
Facade thermal panels, installation
The panels are glued with glue or polyurethane foam. Disadvantage - installation time increases. Advantages: surfaces do not require preliminary leveling, the possibility of air convection between the panels and the base is completely excluded, and heat saving indicators are improved.
Thermal panels installation method
When choosing, consider not only the state of the base, but also your capabilities. If for some reason it is difficult for you to level the surface, then it is better to use panels for the second installation method.
If the base is initially flat or you can fix the problems, it is much easier to work with the first installation method. But remember that the use of special dowels in all cases is a prerequisite for reliable fixation.
To facilitate the installation process, manufacturers produce a set of additional elements .
|Name||Purpose and short description|
|Outside and inside corner||The height corresponds to the parameters of the panel, used for corner decoration A prerequisite is that the angle of the base must be exactly 90 °. They can be with locks or attachments, they have different types and widths.|
|Stripes with vertically arranged tiles||Used to improve the decorative characteristics of the plinth finish.|
|Starting and finishing strips||Elements are installed at the beginning and at the end of installation. They protect the finish from moisture penetration, serve as decoration elements for the basement. They can be used for covering window and door openings.|
Facade thermal panels and additional elements
Corner thermal panel
Corner elements of several types
The basement profile is required for mounting panels
You need to work with an assistant, it is very difficult, long and there is a danger of damage or incorrect installation of materials.
Measure the area of the base and purchase materials in the required quantity. Do not make any special supplies, you will always have one extra stove, this is quite enough.
Calculate the area of the base by taking measurements
If there are ready internal and external corners - excellent. If not, no problem, we will tell you how the installation is done without these additional elements. Before buying ready-made corners, check the sides of the base, everywhere there should be exactly 90 °.
If this is not the case, then do not purchase factory corners, there will be big problems with their installation.
Checking the inner corner - photo
From the tools you need a grinder with a diamond disc, dowels with wide and ordinary caps, a hammer, manual hacksaw and drill with a set of drills. Of course, you need to have a level and a tape measure. At the same time, you need to buy two types of dowels: with large and ordinary caps. Washers should be placed under ordinary dowels according to the size of the joints between the tiles.
If there are none in the implementation, then you can make it yourself from a strip of iron of appropriate dimensions.
Facade dowel with a rim with a locking screw and a press washer
Important. Some manufacturers make panels with installed plastic parts of the dowels, this greatly simplifies the installation process. If possible, buy exactly these types of basement thermal panels.
Check the condition of the base / plinth surface. We have already mentioned that basement thermal panels with locks can only be mounted on flat surfaces. The surface is checked with a long wooden or metal strip.
Determining the evenness of the walls using a two-meter rail
Place it in different places and look at the gaps. They should not exceed 4-5 mm.
The depressions are not as terrible as the protrusions; the latter are noted during the inspection and must be removed in the future. The fact is that the locks can only be connected on a flat surface, the panels should fit into them without much effort. Otherwise, there is a possibility that one of the two elements (expanded polystyrene or tiles) will break off.This is not critical, but it will take a lot of time to fix the problem.
It is better to remove large protrusions on the wall with a grinder
Angle grinders (grinders)
Mark the bottom row. A very crucial moment, do the work with great care. Remember that it is impossible to correct the mistake made, you will have to remove all installed panels and start installation from the beginning.
Facade before finishing
How to make markings?
Attaching the starting profile with dowels
If your blind areas are not made horizontally, then fasten the starting profile along the lower inclined line basement. Consider this particular more complex finishing option.
To increase the tightness before fixing the board, it is recommended to apply a line of foam to the surface of the basement profile.
Layout for applying polyurethane foam
Step 3. Now it is necessary to determine the magnitude of the horizon lines. This is necessary in order not only to align the position of the tiles, but also to reduce the amount of waste of expensive material.
The minimum height of the tiles to be cut must be at least two clinkers. Otherwise, there will be no place for fixing the dowel, you will have to install it in the tile, which is highly undesirable.
At this height, beat off another horizontal line, along which the upper part of the cut tiles will be mounted. In the future, it is recommended to install the tiles along a stretched rope, fix it at the corners of the building and carry it through each row.
Exactly remove the dimensions of the first panel, taking into account the slope, cut off the excess part along the drawn line with a grinder with a diamond disc. We advise you not to cut the entire thickness of the tile, but only the clinker. Cutting further is much easier with an ordinary hand saw with fine teeth.
Cutting clinker with a grinder
Cutting the panel
Step 5. Attach the tile to the plinth, let the assistant hold it, and you make the holes for the dowels.
If you do not have a purchased corner, then you must do it yourself. To do this, from the inside, you need to cut the insulation at an angle of 45 °. If it turns out a little more, it does not matter, the gap between the two slabs docked in the corner will be sealed with polyurethane foam.The main thing is that the angle is not smaller, otherwise the two plates at the junction will have a gap. Specific values of the filing angle depend on the actual angle of the base, and it can be either sharp or obtuse.
Practical advice. When cutting clinker tiles, set the direction of rotation so that the blade cuts from top to bottom, not vice versa.
If the disc cuts the clinker from the bottom up, then chips will appear on the face. This is one of the few cases when you have to violate safety rules while working with a circular saw, according to the instructions, the direction of rotation should be opposite. And one more remark.
Use only special diamond discs for tiles, never work with concrete discs. The fact is that they have deep through cuts that hit the tile surface. As a result, not only chips are formed, but also the probability of complete cracking of the tile is high.
Step 6. Before installing the plastic parts of the dowels in the expanded polystyrene, drill a shallow hole in the diameter of the large head.
It must be drowned flush with the surface of the insulation, this is the only way to ensure proper adhesion to the locks of the next plate.
Drilling depth of holes
Do not tighten the screws too much
Expanded polystyrene has sharp corners, which greatly complicate the process of joining, at the slightest distortion, the protruding clinker sections touch them and the process stops. It is strictly forbidden to make great efforts, the elements may crack. To facilitate the connection, we strongly recommend using a sharp assembly knife to remove a small chamfer from the polyurethane foam in those places where the clinker tiles come from above.
Scheme of installing the panel on the starting profile
It is important to leave a gap between the profile and soil
Installation diagram of the first thermal panel
After the first plate fixed, proceed to install the second.
Installation diagram of the second thermal panel
First, lean it against the base at a short distance and check the position with a flat bar. It should be in line with the one already installed. If it does, find the interfering bump and cut it down. This should be done without fail, do not try to force the locks together.
Thus, you will not save time, but on the contrary, you will end up losing it on eliminating additional problems created by your own hands. First, there is a risk of cracking. Secondly, the free end of the slab connected in this way will move away from the plane of the basement, and this will further complicate the further installation of the cladding.
Thermal panels installation diagram
Step 8. Fix the installed plate.
It is necessary to put dowels with a wide head in each protruding part of the joint and at least six ordinary dowels evenly over the entire plane in the seams between the clinker tiles.
Constantly check the position of the casing with a level, eliminate deviations in time.
Scheme for verifying the verticality of the casing
Note on the installation of corner elements
Base / plinth and wall after finishing with thermal panels
Select grout taking into account the existing material for filling joints between clinker. It can be both cement-based mixtures of various colors, and silicone-based sealants. The first grout is much stronger, the silicone after a few years will surely peel off a little, and the tightness will be broken.
More expensive material with UV protection can last up to five years, cheap brands will begin to flake off in the second or third year. Cement based grout is much stronger, we recommend using it. Moreover, when imitating real brick or masonry, it is advisable to make the seams in a natural gray color.
You can choose a grout to match the panels
How to speed up grouting work?
otherwise, it will be difficult to remove it from the recesses. This should be done with a damp washcloth or rag, constantly rinsing them in clean water. On a damp surface, traces of putty are invisible, but after drying you will be unpleasantly surprised. The putty will become so visible that the surfaces will have to be cleaned again.
Temperature range when grouting
Carefully cut tiles in the areas of window and door openings.
The parameters must be taken taking into account the type and size of platbands, slopes and sinks.
Installation of the panel near the opening
Ceresit Super construction grout
We have already mentioned that panels of this type can be mounted on uneven base / plinth surfaces - they do not have locks.But this does not mean that irregularities can be any, with the help of glue it is possible to correct a gap of no more than 1-2 cm. If there are more protrusions, then they will have to be removed first: chop with a chisel, perforator or hammer. The choice of tool depends on the strength of the base and the specific dimensions of the unevenness.
The algorithm for counting the amount of materials and marking is identical to the above method.
Step 1 . Prepare the adhesive according to the manufacturer's instructions. Choose its brand depending on the base material and the actual condition of the surfaces.
Apply adhesive around the perimeter of the board and in several places in the middle with an even trowel. The height of the glue is about 2 centimeters, but the indicator may increase or decrease depending on the unevenness.
Step 3. Start installation, as always, from the corners of the structure. There is one more feature of laying such a cladding.
If in the first case the holes for fixing the dowels are drilled after installing the plate in the right place, then this sequence of actions is impossible here. The fact is that during the drilling of the slab, it will slightly shift from the optimal position, it is difficult to fix this later. We'll have to remove the plate and repeat the spreading with glue, again align the position. To prevent such problems, drill holes in the plate before gluing it, and after that the drill should only work in the base, the plate does not press down and does not change its original position.
For gluing thermal panels it is better to use polyurethane foam adhesive
Observe the standard spacing between seams adjacent slabs, the gap should be foamed in the future. After the foam has set, the excess is cut with a knife to a standard depth.
Foam application pattern
Do not apply foam to the entire space between the wall and the panel
Installing dowels in drilled holes
Foam at the panel joints
In this way, fit all base / plinth plates. Grouting is done in the usual way.
Decorating the base with thermal panels is one of the most expensive methods.
According to the technical data, the material has excellent heat saving indicators, but only under one condition - the work technology should be strictly followed. If there are gaps between the base and expanded polystyrene, then the effectiveness of insulation decreases significantly. With the slightest suspicion of your ability, it is better to use familiar technologies and cheaper materials.
Do not feel sorry for the foam during work, with its help you can improve the heat saving performance. It can be applied not only to the base, but also to the opposite side of the plates.
During the shift of the locks, part of it will be removed, but the rest will fulfill its tasks. It is impossible to achieve the ideal surface of the plinths, but only flat polystyrene plates will fit snugly to such planes.This means that all measures should be taken to, if not improve the fit, then at least reduce the likelihood of large gaps forming along the entire height of the base. In closed air chambers, air convection does not do much harm, the main thing is that cold air does not fall on the surface of the warm base, and warm air does not go outside.
Pay close attention to the tightness of the ebb.
The trapped water does not dry out, but is absorbed by the plinth.
In the photo there is a low tide, the starting profile and the process of installing the panel
In the future, it slowly seeps into the basement, as a result - on mold appears on the walls. It is impossible to get rid of it, damp walls and high temperatures create favorable conditions for the reproduction of microorganisms.
Facade thermal panels
In the photo clinker facade thermal panels of different shades
With the help of facade thermal panels for stone or brick, you can create an almost ideal facade cladding
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