This method is used not only for facing the facade walls of various buildings, brick fences, gazebos and barbecues, and decorative architectural elements are also erected in this way. What is "Bavarian brickwork"?
The best option for wall cladding is Bavarian brickwork
First, you need to clarify that this is not some unknown German masonry, but a special type of brick. As for the direct masonry, the Germans did not come up with anything original, everything is done according to the usual and long-known technology. The name comes from the appearance of the brick walls, caused by the parameters of the brick. By the way, the walls of all old buildings not only in Germany, but also in other European countries, including Russia, have this look.
The front side of the houses is not monochromatic, but has different shades that form unpredictable ornaments. Previously, no one specifically tried to build houses with "multi-colored" facades, on the contrary, they tried to achieve a monochromatic color. But the imperfection of the brick production technology did not allow obtaining material with absolutely identical properties, depending on the method of preparation of the mixture, the chemical composition of the clay, temperature conditions and firing time, each batch unloaded from the furnace turned out to be of an unequal shade.
Bavarian masonry near
Prestigious buildings were plastered, and industrial buildings and houses of poor residents had a colorful appearance. Nowadays, modern technologies make it possible to produce bricks of the same appearance, the mixing and chemical composition of clay is precisely controlled, the constant temperature regime of annealing makes it possible to obtain bricks that are absolutely identical in physical characteristics and appearance at the output.
But the country style (rustic) came into vogue, the motley facade walls became not a drawback, but design solutions. Manufacturers had to develop special firing technologies for producing Bavarian bricks, a material with various shades of the front surface. Sophisticated technology, of course, has led to an increase in production costs, which explains the high price of bricks.
Examples of houses using Bavarian brickwork
It is produced using the flash firing method.
Flash firing technology
At the final stage, air is additionally pumped into the furnace, oxygen increases the heating temperature of the upper layer, becomes a catalyst for removing certain chemical compounds from clay.
As a result, the surface changes color. The color gamut of products changes in a planned manner, precise control of modes makes it possible to obtain predictable shades.In addition, due to the high temperature, the outer layer is sintered to a glassy state, the brick becomes much stronger, does not absorb moisture, does not change its original properties for the entire period of operation, and it reaches several hundred years.
Face brick "Bavarian masonry", smooth
The thickness of the vitreous layer is also adjustable and, depending on the specific brand, varies within 2 -4 mm. Another plus of the Bavarian brick is that efflorescence does not appear on the surface, this phenomenon is excluded even theoretically.
The fact is that during a short-term increase in firing temperatures, the salts have time to decompose. In addition, the glassy front surface does not allow the release of salts, it is almost airtight.
Facing brick "Flash firing" - Bavarian masonry
The most technologically advanced enterprises have learned to achieve on the surface not only a single color, but also bizarre multi-colored stains. Such a brick is used only on the most critical buildings and structures. External surfaces can be smooth or textured.
BRAER facing bricks "Bavarian masonry" oak bark with sand
The color scheme of Bavarian masonry
Brick for Bavarian masonry
We have figured out the peculiarities of the technology for making Bavarian brick, now we can consider recommendations for its laying.
Before giving step-by-step instructions for laying, we will consider several features of Bavarian laying.
Practice shows that 3-4 shades are quite enough to give the facade walls an original look. On the Internet, you can find recommendations to develop color alternations using special programs. This path is not worth going, do not waste your time. No professional bricklayer adheres to the exact location of each brick.
An example of a Bavarian masonry scheme
Bavarian masonry, by the way, is different in that there is no exact pattern in the alternation of different bricks, it is not strict geometric ornament.
Decide on the main tone and two or three complementary ones. The main tone should be at least 50%, the rest can be selected in arbitrary proportions. If it is difficult for yourself to choose a basic tone and additional ones that match it, contact the designers or look for options on the Internet. When purchasing a brick, the number of shades should correspond to the percentage of each tone. Keep this in mind, calculate the required materials before you visit the store.
Brick "Bavarian Vanilla"
What you need to have, we will tell you in the article below.
Laying is performed under the jointing
Bavarian masonry can be used as a hotel cladding or as an outer row of a brick wall. During separate cladding, foam boards can be used to insulate the wall.
But we do not recommend using this method of insulation, its actual effectiveness is far from expected. The fact is that the foam plates freely lying in the space between the bearing wall and the cladding do not interfere with the thermal convention of the air, namely, it leads to the main heat losses.
Wall insulation outside
Thermal insulation materials
In order to exclude convection, it is necessary to additionally tightly fill the space between the foam and the walls with liquid foam. This significantly increases the cost of construction work.
Thermal insulation with foam
There is another method of insulating facade walls for cladding with slabs - plaster the wall, glue or fix the slabs with dowels, seal up there are gaps between them and only then begin facing with Bavarian brick.
But even this method significantly increases financial losses. From an economic point of view, it is better to insulate such walls from inside the premises.
Bavarian bricks can be used both for individual cladding and for the outer visible row of load-bearing facade walls during their laying. The physical characteristics of the material make it possible to use it for the manufacture of loaded architectural elements.
|Resistance to freezing / defrosting||F50|
|Thermal conductivity|| 0. |
51 W / (m2 * С °)
|Maximum moisture absorption||8-10%|
For example, we will consider variant of facing brickwork of Bavarian bricks. How to make the insulation yourself, detailed comparative characteristics are on our website.
Tools for working with facing bricks
Step 1. Check the verticality of all facade walls.To do this, you need a plumb line, check the position of the walls along the entire height, mark the preliminary position of the cladding on the foundation.
Pay attention that the minimum distance between the main wall and the cladding is not less than the thickness of the insulation. If there is no insulation, then choose the minimum distance, all the cracks will be sealed with mortar.
Step 2. Mark the position of the first row of bricks, it is very important that all bricks on the facing are intact. Lay out one row of Bavarian bricks, start at one corner and work your way to the opposite.
The distance between them is within 8-10 mm. Prepare fixtures to control seam width You can buy them at a hardware store or make them yourself. We propose to do it ourselves, for this you need a square profile roll with a side of 8-10 mm. One piece approximately 50-60 cm, with its help horizontal seams are controlled. Second piece 15-20 cm long for vertical seam installation.
Use a metal bar when laying out the first row.
If the layout does not end with a whole brick, then slightly widen the gaps. Increase the distance between adjacent bricks by no more than 2-3 mm at a time, otherwise the discrepancy will become noticeable. After 20-25 bricks, you can eliminate up to 10 cm in size, this is enough for most possible cases. Is it difficult to adjust the gap? We'll have to cut off the brick, then use it in inconspicuous places.
Step 3. Free up the space near the wall from construction debris and unnecessary items. Take care of the scaffolding right away, they will be needed already at a cladding height of 1.5-1.6 meters.
Scaffolding can be made independently from sawn timber, you can borrow or rent ready-made metal. The second option is preferable: it is much safer to work, the speed of masonry is noticeably increased due to the promptness of changing the height of the site, depending on the number of facing rows.
Step 4. Prepare the mortar at the rate of one part cement to four parts sand. Water is added as needed.
The mortar should be somewhat thicker than for masonry with ordinary red brick. The fact is that the Bavarian one absorbs less moisture and can "float" when using a liquid mixture.
Step 5. Lay waterproofing on the foundation, for this purpose it is better to use two layers of roofing material. Laying starts from two opposite corners, raise them to a height of 4-5 rows.
Always check the position of the corners with a plumb line or level. Remember that the most accurate tool for verifying verticality is an ordinary plumb bob, the level has tolerances that can accumulate over time and create problems. Each corner should have a width of 4-5 bricks at the base, then its width is reduced by half a brick. While working with corners, do not remove the alignment row. It will gradually be removed during further laying.
High-quality Bavarian bricks have high dimensional accuracy and surface parallelism, which simplifies work. What to do with low-quality material, we will tell you below.
Laying the first row
Observe the distance between seams
Step 6. Pull the rope between the corners, check that it is horizontal.
Tighten the threads to control the evenness of the masonry
Everything is in order - start laying one brick at a time.
Take it from the previously laid out row and put it on the mortar. Adjust the width of the seams with metal square bars. Wash off the mortar on the front side of the facing immediately with a damp cloth. Move the twig along the rows as they increase. Don't forget to use different shades of Bavarian brick according to the previously developed plan.
There is no need to count them, the main thing is that the approximate ratio of different colors is observed. Do not forget that the main background must occupy at least 50% of the area of the facades. There is a desire - you can approximately observe the alternation of colors, make a mistake - not a problem. Bavarian masonry has no symmetrical patterns.
Facades decorated with colored bricks look very original only for window and door openings, corners, arches, etc. And for other surfaces, you can use ordinary facing bricks. But this is a matter of taste, make your own decisions.
The main thing in laying facing bricks is to be careful and to ensure the uniformity of the joints
Step 7. After 4-5 rows, start grouting the masonry joints.
The number of rows depends on your skill and professionalism, change it according to individual capabilities. The main criterion for starting grouting is that the mass should harden a little, but not completely harden. Grout is done with commercial plastic tools, homemade metal or wood. The width of the fixtures should allow working in seams without jamming. If gaps are found during grouting, add and re-level.
Constantly clean surfaces from dirt, do not leave work for later. Long stay on the surface of the Bavarian lining of the cement mortar can cause the appearance of stubborn stains, it is much more efficient to do all the work on time.
Sewing the seams
After the jointing, the surface is cleaned with a brush
Step 8. Carefully lay the cladding in the openings. In most cases, the brick will have to be cut to length.
Use a circular grinder with a diamond disc for this. The cut brick should not be placed at the corner of the opening, place it a few bricks earlier.
Step 9. To increase the stability of the cladding, tie it to the load-bearing wall. For these purposes, constructional reinforcement of a periodic profile, a metal mesh or perforated galvanized strip is used.
Hangers for connecting the wall and facing masonry
It is easiest to work with a perforated strip: it has decent strength indicators, its position without problems, it is adjusted taking into account the height of the cladding row, fixation to the load-bearing wall can be performed with ordinary dowels. Practitioners recommend making bindings at a distance of 2-2.5 m horizontally and 1-1.5 m vertically. There are craftsmen who do not use bindings, they assure that the cladding even without it has sufficient stability due to the common corners.
This is correct, but for peace of mind it does not hurt to additionally tie the structures to each other. Moreover, it takes little time.
How to fix the strip?
The facing brick wall must be connected to the wall of the house
Binding of facing masonry to existing walls
Further work continues according to the above algorithm. Do not forget to constantly alternate the colors of the Bavarian masonry. Scaffolding scaffolds rise as needed, in several places place bricks of various shades on them.
Step 10. If the Bavarian brick is all over the cladding, continue laying as usual. If you want to use it only in some places of the facade wall, then proceed according to the previously drawn up sketch.
To cover the openings, use the corners
Laying the mortar
With a pick we cut off part of the brick
Lay the brick on the steel corner
Laying along a tight thread
The depth of the jointing has its own features. Deep jointing perfectly hides existing irregularities and minor imperfections in the shade.
Do it for the common masses. But in Bavarian masonry, white jointing is often used, it gives the facade of buildings an exclusive look. The shadow for white jointing is not an assistant, but an enemy, it smooths out the contrast of the facade design. Keep this in mind, white joining must not be made deep, a maximum of 1-2 mm. This automatically means that the seams should be perfectly even and without gaps, the slightest problems are noticeable against a white background.
How is the jointing of brickwork done
Correct and incorrect views jointing
Light masonry mortar
Dark masonry mortar
There are cases when developers out of inexperience or in order to save money buy low-quality bricks. The best option is to take several bricks before purchasing, in turn lean them against each other with all edges and check the gaps and size spread. But if a low-quality material has already been purchased, then you will have to learn to work with it. It is necessary to put this on a slightly modified technology.
What to do if a brick with uneven edges
Therefore, a new device must be made to control the height. You can use ordinary flat pieces of boards 20 mm thick. Screw them with small screws with the letter T, one face will rest against the upper plane of the bricks, and the second against the side. When moving the device to a new place, be sure to use a trowel to trim the place where the fresh mass adjoins it, otherwise it will shift. Then, during grouting, more effort will be required.
In this way, you can even use a brick that has edges curved with a saber. Constantly visually control the appearance of the seam, immediately remove the emerging mortar with a trowel. The laying will of course be slower, but this is the price of saving money or carelessness.
While the mortar is soft, place an even lath with an edge on the outer corner of the bricks (a mile) and lightly taps to level it, the edges of the bricks will move in one line. As you can see, during the masonry, you will have to use two devices with different thicknesses, otherwise you will never be able to align the defective bricks. If everything is done correctly, then on the finished Bavarian masonry, only a professional master will be able to distinguish between defective bricks from high-quality ones, and then only with careful study from a close distance.Do the jointing with a minimum deepening, the bricks are uneven, you do not need to open their planes.
If the technology of the Bavarian masonry is followed exactly, the facade will be not only beautiful, but also durable .
.. Never rush to get work done, remember that correcting mistakes in any case takes more time than careful laying. It is impossible to describe in one article all possible cases, learn to make independent decisions, the more practical experience you have, the easier it is to solve the difficulties that arise.
Quality Bavarian masonry
As practice has shown, Bavarian masonry is very popular with consumers
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