Building a house is an important event for any person, besides, the pleasure is not cheap. And everyone tries to do so that the house will serve for many years without frequent repairs. There is such a simple structure as a soft blind area that helps to preserve and extend the life of your structure. This is due to the fact that in the autumn period, excessive accumulation of melt water accumulates near the base, and in winter it freezes and expands, which contributes to its destruction.
As a result, cracks appear in the base, into which moisture also enters and causes more global destruction of the base.
Therefore, in regions with high rainfall and groundwater, the blind area is an extremely important element of the house. However, many still neglect this issue, most often due to the laboriousness of the device of the classic multilayer blind area. So, relatively recently, another version of the blind area of a more simplified type began to pour into use, for which many cubic meters of concrete are not required.
A blind area is a strip with an impenetrable surface located along the perimeter of the building foundation. Its main task is to remove destructive moisture from the base and prevent the soil near it from getting wet and further freezing.
Important: If there is no blind area, the foundation will be exposed to regular contact with the liquid, which will undermine its durability and strength.
Also, during heavy rainfall, the facade of a building without a blind area will be constantly contaminated. Such a covering also serves as a sidewalk path, which allows unhindered movement in any weather.
There are two types of blind area - monolithic and soft.
Note: A distinctive advantage of soft versus hard is that soft is easier to arrange (no concreting stage) and does not threaten destruction due to heaving of the soil.
There is a certain classification of the blind area according to the type of material:
For its manufacture, a trench is pulled out along the perimeter of the house, a sand-crushed stone pillow is made with an admixture of clay, and then it is poured with a concrete solution. This type is relatively inexpensive, simple, functional and durable. The downside is the need to periodically seal the resulting cracks.
It is not only the protection of the structure, but also an excellent decorative element.
Note: Asphalt, soil or brick is also used as a track.
Each material has its own characteristics that must be taken into account. For example, on heaving soil, a soft blind area made of crushed stone or gravel will feel better, and for soil with a lower degree of watering - a hard look from concrete, paving slabs, etc. It is the soft look that has many advantages that is widespread. In addition, it is just an ideal protection option for both tape and other types of foundation.
This type of blind area is most common on soils prone to heaving.
In such cases, it is often done using sheets of extruded polystyrene foam insulation material. Also, insulation may not be performed if the goal is to simplify the process, and not to prevent heaving. With the help of a soft blind area, you can add variety to the exterior of the house. A concrete and paved path is something boring and mundane. In addition, when installing the pile-grillage base, it will be necessary to hide the inner side of the blind area with a hinged plinth that closes the distance under the floors.
The principle of a solid blind area is the continuation of the yard covering and basement finishing. A soft, on the contrary, is the continuation of the front garden or flower beds next to the house.
The complexity and complexity of the device of all types of blind area are more or less similar, but the alternation of layers and the technique of laying the embankment have their own characteristics.
The following advantages of a soft blind area stand out:
Perhaps the only disadvantage of this species is the need for regular care - getting rid of weeds, cleaning the embankment, mowing the lawn.
The device of the soft blind area is as follows : Layout on the site; Markup; Digging a trench from thirty to forty centimeters in depth and from 60 to 80 cm in width; filling the trench with a layer of clay of more than fifteen centimeters, tamping well, which creates a good waterproof layer; a waterproofer is placed with an overlap on the wall from 10 to 15 cm; sand is poured over the waterproofing; then geotextile spreads; crushed stone is poured from above at least fifteen centimeters thick; then another layer of geotextile and sand; laying the material of the future blind area.
If necessary, the blind area is insulated to increase the temperature of the basement, save fuel and prevent soil freezing. For this purpose, the most relevant materials are:
polystyrene foam or extruded polystyrene foam, which has durability, strength and ease of processing;
foam, which has good sound and heat insulation properties, as well as an acceptable cost ;
foamed polyurethane or sprayed insulation. Possesses durability, wear resistance, resistant to decay, temperature extremes, does not absorb liquid. But the price is relatively high due to the need for special equipment.
Hence we can conclude that the standard soft blind area consists of the following layers: insulation, waterproofing, drainage layer, geotextile and finishing material.
Important: The blind area must be at least sixty centimeters wide. The maximum width will depend on the size of the roof overhang, which is made wider by twenty centimeters overhang.
The depth is selected based on the characteristics of the soil cover, the presence of insulation and finishing material, and be equal to 30 to 40 centimeters.
Waterproofing is the basis of the soft blind area.
It must have good strength and be able to withstand the load of topcoats. The geotextile plays the role of preventing mixing of these layers, which can lead to siltation and degrade throughput.
Currently, materials are produced with a two-layer membrane, which consists of a polyethylene base and thermally bonded geotextiles.
Note: Placed on top of the polyethylene layer, the geotextile performs the function of quick liquid withdrawal. So, one membrane is at the same time waterproofing, drainage, geotextile, which greatly facilitates laying.
Thus, the double-layer membrane of the filtered liquid not only quickly drains away from the base, but also simplifies the problem of choosing a topcoat. Here, the usual filling with gravel or fertile soil, later covered with lawn grass, is suitable.
Note: Plant roots cannot damage polyethylene.
The device of a soft blind area with a base made of a similar membrane consists of the following moments:
A layer of sand or, in the case of very loose soils, clay is poured down with a slope from the wall surface;
The top layer of the earth is removed under a soft blind area to a depth of forty to forty-five centimeters less than the lowest point of this plot.
Excavation work should consist in making careful measurements with a level or water level.
On the sides, reinforcement of the trench is not required, and along the perimeter a ditch of 25 * 40 mm (depth * width) is pulled out under hidden storm system. After leveling the bottom, it is covered with a layer of wet clay with its thorough mixing. A common plane and a storm channel tray are formed from it, as a result, the thickness is twenty centimeters.
In the course of leveling with clay, the total slope is set in the direction of the building in a ratio of five to one hundred.
Then, this layer is left to dry, with occasional spraying of the surface with water to prevent cracking.
Liquid is removed by means of a drainage system. If there is no such nearby, then the discharges can be performed in the ground at a distance of 8 to 10 m across or down from the slope level of the system. For this, special pipes for drainage can be used, as well as steel and HDPE pipes from 100mm in diameter.
Holes of 16-20 cm are made in the walls of the pipe, after which they are wrapped in needle-punched geotextiles.
This is done in case the liquid starts to migrate from the muddy soil.
In the corners and where the channels intersect, the connection is made using T-channels with an upper outlet. Water must be dumped into a meter-long trench, which is 70% filled with gravel and 30% with soil. Distributors are perforated pipes. Important: It is advisable to assemble the canal system well in advance of the complete drying of the clay layer.
Blind area layers
Crushed stone (10-20 cm) is poured on top of the clay to form a slope. Crushed stone is taken with a fraction of 1 to 20 mm. Finally, the slope is leveled using a sand cushion from 5 to 10 cm with a horizon deviation of 3: 100. Important: The part of the embankment that is planned for the establishment for the building must be raised from fifteen to twenty centimeters from the facade with a slope of 2:10.
In the process of laying the cake, the blind area must be tamped and spilled with water.
It is possible to improve the stability of the embankment layer by adding geotextile layers along the clay-gravel boundary, and then the gravel-sand boundary. The sand surface is leveled and an insulating material is placed on it. A geocomposite material with a thickness of 7 to 10 mm is rolled out on top of the insulator, which will contribute to even minor accumulations not to stagnate in the embankment, but to easily exit through the channel.
Next, a sand and gravel layer is planned from 30 to 40 cm in thickness, on top of which geotextiles are laid. All materials poured above this layer are considered a protective and decorative covering of the blind area.
Materials such as bricks, ceramic elements, free-lying slabs, etc. can also be used as a finishing layer.
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