Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

The porch is the hallmark of the house, it is its integral part and the main element of the entrance group. But it does not always correspond to its purpose, does not decorate the house, but spoils its appearance. In many buildings, even recently built ones, you can see a porch with peeling cladding, cracks at the joints with the facade walls.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

The photo shows the consequences of improper manufacturing of the foundation

Another sad surprise - the doors touch the surface of the porch when opening. They have to be cut (if they are made of wood) or completely reinstalled (if they are metal).

All these negative phenomena are the result of one mistake - an inattentive attitude to the foundation. It is generally accepted that a brick porch is not a construction that requires special attention, everyone can make it. This is a deep misconception, if you do this, then you cannot do without unpleasant surprises.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Brick porch

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

The porch is built on a solid foundation and decorates the house

What stages of construction should be followed so that there are no problems with the porch during operation?

Features of the foundation for a brick porch

Remember, that not only the house itself, but also all the buildings depends on the quality of the foundation. A brick porch is one of these buildings, in addition, it has a lot of weight, is operated in the most difficult conditions, under the constant negative influence of climatic features, and this increases the requirements for foundations.

In some articles, there are recommendations to make a reinforced concrete platform under the porch and complete the foundation work on this. This is a deep misconception.

What should be the foundation for a brick porch?

  1. There is an opinion that the porch does not carry significant loads, it is enough for it to make a shallow foundation up to 30-40 cm, and sometimes pour an ordinary concrete slab, for reliability, tie it up with reinforcement with the main foundation. Invalid recommendation. You don't need to invent your own foundation under the porch, it should be completely identical to the strip for the house.

    The depth is the same as for the main tape.

  2. Do not tie up the porch and house foundation with reinforcement.

    Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

    Bunch of the foundation of the porch and the house - scheme

    Why? The task of the foundation is to take on the load of the house and distribute it evenly around the entire perimeter. If the porch foundation is attached to it, then the load is distributed skewed, the porch has less weight than the house, and the foundation is common. The pressure on the strip foundation from the side of the porch and the opposite side will be different, which can cause unequal shrinkage rates.

    As a result, there is a possibility of cracking of the main tape with very negative consequences. Of course, only if the dressing is done correctly and firmly connects the two elements, or the foundation under the porch is poured simultaneously with the tape under the house.Although there are recommendations from architects to pour the foundation under the porch at the same time as the tape under the house.

    Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

    Binding the foundation of the porch and the house - scheme

    How to do it right? Consider the physical characteristics of the soil, the amount of precipitation and the weight of the structures. In winter, during the freezing of the ground, the porch is subjected to greater heaving forces than the foundation of the house: freezing is more significant due to the lack of a warm underground, the moisture of the ground around the porch is higher (there is no drainage system), the mass is less than at the wall of the house.

    As a result, the heaving forces can lift the porch, and the house itself remains motionless.

Conclusion. If the house is relatively light, and the soils are sandy, then the foundation under the porch and the house should be cast at the same time and tied with a reinforcing belt. If the house is heavy, and the earth is clay, then the foundations must be made separately, but the depth is necessarily the same.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Monolithic strip foundation for a house with a porch

Another problem is that ceramic tiles are falling off the porch.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Tiles on the steps of the porch

This is due to improper waterproofing between the concrete and the brick or the top slab under the porch landing. Concrete draws in moisture from the ground, then it gets on the bricks and accumulates under the ceramic tiles. In winter, the water freezes; as a result of the expansion of the ice, the tiles detach. To avoid such phenomena, you need to be very careful about waterproofing, depending on the architectural characteristics of the structure, isolate all junction points of various materials, exclude the possibility of moisture from the ground under the ceramic tiles.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

You can't do without waterproofing during the construction of the porch

Prices for roofing material

Roofing material

An ordinary brick porch

With the foundations sorted out, now you can start laying bricks.

The first option is simpler, the steps will be straight. The front porch has steps, the side surface is solid vertical with a parapet. First, you should calculate the number of steps, such work is performed even before laying the foundation. The distance of the foundation tape under the porch to the main foundation and the dimensions of the horizontal platform, if any, depend on the obtained values. The parameters of the steps are governed by the current building codes and regulations.

It is convenient to climb the porch if the double height in total with the step width is equal to the step length of an average person. The length of the step is about 60-64 cm, the width and rise are determined by the ratio 2a + b = 60-64 cm, where a is the height of the riser, b is the width of the step itself.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Calculation of the optimal tread width

The width of the step should provide an emphasis on the entire leg area, the parameter ranges from 20-32 cm. Optimal height is allowed within 15-18 cm, tilt angle 23 ° -37 °. Having these initial data, we calculate the steps of the porch.

For an example of calculation, we take the distance of the doorway to the ground level of 1 meter; a horizontal platform with a length of one meter is provided on the porch.

  1. Determine the number of steps, the height of each we want to have 16 cm. 100: 16 = 6.25. The number must be rounded to the nearest whole number, as a result we get 6 steps.

    Now we calculate the final height of each of the six steps. 100: 6 = 16.6 cm. The parameter fits into the values ​​regulated by the standards; for easier marking, it can be rounded up to 17 cm. A few millimeters are eliminated when tiling the porch with ceramic tiles.

  2. Determine the width of the steps. For the porch, the recommended value is 30 cm, multiply it by the number of steps 30 * 6 = 180 cm. This is the minimum distance of the extreme point of the foundation under the porch from the front wall of the house. If a horizontal platform is planned, then its size is added to this value. For example, our site has a length of 1 m, which means that the removal of the foundation under the porch from the foundation of the house should be 180 cm (total lifting length) + 1 m (site length) = 280 cm.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Calculating the size and number of steps

We hope that a practical calculation example will facilitate your work during the construction of the foundation under the porch. Now you can start laying bricks. The standard dimensions of a single solid brick are 250 * 120 * 65 mm.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Dimensions of single, one and a half and double bricks

We have a step height of 170 mm, one will need two bricks, the exact height will have to be adjust the seam thickness. The thickness of the bottom seam can be increased to 3 cm, the seam between the bricks will be 1 cm, such parameters fully meet the requirements of the standards.

The length of the step is adjustable when tying the rows. To fill non-basic masonry, you can use various waste: broken concrete blocks, hollow bricks, etc. The main condition is to level the upper surface under the masonry steps.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Broken brick

Step 1. Waterproof the porch foundation from bricks.

It is better to use roofing material, if it is not there, a thick plastic film will do. If you have a horizontal platform, then it has its own characteristics of waterproofing, we will tell about them in the course of the article.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Base for the construction of the porch

Step 2. If one side of the porch is adjacent to the front wall - mark each step on it, this will facilitate the masonry process. If not, then each step will have to be measured during the laying process.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Step markings

Step 3. Put a layer of mortar on the waterproofing and make the opposite corner of the porch, constantly check the position of the bricks with a level, use a tape measure to control the height and length.

Step 4. When the opposite ends of the porch are ready, pull the thread between them and continue to make steps along the entire length.If the steps are not wide, then it is not necessary to use the rope, a flat rail is enough.

Step 5. Fill the backing masonry under the steps with various building materials. Simultaneously with the steps, lay the side surface of the porch, a parapet will be installed on it.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

In the photo, the first step and filling the free space with blocks

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Bricklaying over blocks

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Brick laying is carried out along a stretched cord

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Backfilling

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Place broken blocks or bricks as tightly as possible

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Laying steps

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Laying the top step at level

Step 6. all the steps, you should have a place for a horizontal platform.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

On the left side, the laying of steps, and inside the free space sand and concrete will be poured

Step 7. Fill the space under the pad with sand.

Important. Be sure to pour sand on the waterproofing, "tear" it off the ground. We have already written above why it is necessary to do this, do not forget about it.

If waterproofing is not done, then problems will arise during operation.

Step 8. Prepare materials for pouring concrete under the horizontal platform. Concrete thickness is within 5-10 cm. Be sure to use structural reinforcement of a periodic profile.

It should connect the slab to the front wall of the house and the steps. In this case, the sand plays the role of a permanent formwork, over time it will certainly give natural shrinkage. To prevent the stove from starting up with it, it should be securely fastened, focusing on the wall and steps.

This ends the laying. The last stage is the finishing of the structure with ceramic tiles, more on that later.

Prices for different types of facing solid bricks

Facing solid bricks

Semicircular porch made of brick

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Photo of a semicircular porch of a country house

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Calculation of a semicircular porch

More beautiful, but difficult option. The calculation of the height and length of the steps is no different from the above, the masonry technology itself changes. We recommend using a solid facing brick for such a porch, put it on the edge with a poke outward. In size, the bricks make it possible to make steps of normalized values, the work is greatly simplified and accelerated. Facing semicircular steps with ceramic tiles is much more difficult than rectangular ones.

Work can only be done by professional tilers who have not only great practical experience, but also a full set of special tools and devices.

Why is it better to put bricks on the edge? Due to this method, the circle is smoother, the degree of adhesion of individual bricks increases, the steps become more durable and beautiful.If in the future it is planned to decorate the porch with ceramic tiles, then the bricks can be put in the usual position, but be sure to poke outward.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Example of brick laying in a semicircle

You need to learn how to control the turning radius of each step. How is this done?

  1. Decide on the width of the area before exiting the building.

    It is recommended that its dimensions exceed the dimensions of the doors by at least half a meter, this will make it possible for two people to disperse without problems. This parameter is taken as the initial one, all others are calculated from it.

  2. Find the center of the semicircular steps. Standard position - it is located in the middle of the doorway, but you can move it to one side or the other at your discretion. Fix the vertical post in the center, you can use a piece of pipe or wire rod.

    Fix the element with dowels and clamps to the wall or foundation of the house. Check its position carefully. If the rack deviates from the vertical, then the width of the steps will be unequal around the circumference, and this is a direct marriage.

  3. After calculating the number, width and height of the steps, prepare a rope of the appropriate length. Tie one end of it to the rack, and fasten the chalk to the other.

    Draw a circle for the bottom step on the porch foundation.

Step 1. Start laying the first step. For a guarantee, you can first put bricks without mortar, this will help you approximately estimate the thickness of the joints.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

First stage laying

Important.

Always start laying in the middle and work in both directions. If the brick is not intact in the corners, then it will have to be cut, and in the corners the cut is less noticeable. The masonry technology is no different from the usual one.

Step 2. After the first rung is ready, mark the second.

To do this, reduce the length of the rope by the width of the step and again draw a circle with chalk over the bricks of the first step. Check the dimensions, everything is normal - put the second one. Do all the steps in the same way.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Second step

Practical advice. In order not to later clean the surface of the bricks from the drawn lines, during laying, cover it with bricks for several millimeters.

Fill the seams completely, strictly adhere to the masonry technology. The loads on the bricks are large, if the recommendations are not followed, they may loosen over time or fall out completely. Don't forget about dressing. Use any waste of building materials for backfilling.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Filling the site and decorative finishing

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Semicircular brick porch with decoration wild stone

Finishing

Special anti-slip high-strength ceramic tiles are most often used as the finishing.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Clinker tiles for porch steps

Ordinary steps are easy to tile, and round ones can cause problems.

Important.If the whole tile does not fit on the step, then the pieces must be laid only on the side of the riser. Be sure to lay whole tiles on the ledge. The fact is that the adhesion strength of a whole tile is much greater than that of a piece, and during the ascent, the maximum load occurs just at the beginning of the step.

And further. Be sure to make a slope, the water should go away. If it remains, then in winter your porch will turn into a skating rink. These are the general rules for facing all steps and stairs without exception.

Prices for different types of clinker tiles for steps

Clinker tiles for steps

How to tile an ordinary porch

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Dust is swept from the porch

Step 1.

Spread the tiles without solution on steps, observe the distance for the seams. If the latter needs to be cut, then decide how best to do it. If you need to trim a few centimeters, then do it on both sides of the step. This arrangement of the trimmed tiles makes the difference in width invisible. If a narrow piece is missing, then you need to put it against the wall.

Step 2. Start at the top step and continue finishing one at a time. Draw a line for the first row. Remember that the tile should overhang by about a centimeter. This dimension includes the thickness of the adhesive and the tile on the riser.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Primer Application

Step 3. Strike a line, use a dry paint chop line.

Step 4 . Start styling the first upper degree. Once you've finished the horizontal part, move on to the vertical (riser).

The adhesive must be on the entire surface of the tile, do your best to ensure maximum bond strength. Use crosses to line up seams.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Mixing tile adhesive

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Insulating tape

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Coating waterproofing layer

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Marking and leveling tiles without mortar

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Facing the steps of the porch

Step 5. The next day, trowel the seams.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Grouting

This is the simplest staircase on the porch, with more semicircular work.

How to clad a round brick porch

There are two ways: simplified and complex. Let's take a quick look at both.

A simple way

It looks a little worse, but on the other hand, beginners can also decorate it.

  1. Spread a full tile over all steps. The distance between the near corners of adjacent tiles is at least 3 cm, otherwise it is difficult to cut off the missing squares.

    On all steps, the tiles must lie in one line, this is very important.

  2. Draw around their locations with a pencil. Lay the tiles, one at each step, from top to bottom.
  3. Once you have two rows of each step ready, start measuring and cutting the blanks to fill in the gaps.You will have to measure each tile separately, but it is cut in straight lines, which greatly simplifies the work.

  4. Once you have finished two rows of the whole tile at all degrees, start finishing the risers. In the same way, resize each tile, cut it, and reinstall it.

Video - Tiling a semicircular porch

Difficult method

Available only for professionals , and even then they undertake such work without much desire: too much time is wasted. Even an increased rate is considered disadvantageous.

This method requires ideal parameters of the circumference of the steps; when problem areas are found, the bricks must be corrected, cut down or plastered.

Next, you need to make a template from cardboard. There are no calculations, everything will have to be done by an experienced method. The template should have the width of the whole tile, an arc is drawn on it, corresponding to the type of steps and taking into account the release. At what angle to cut the segments you need to recognize in practice, you will have to make several templates and constantly check them on the porch. How long it will take to make a template depends on experience and luck.

The template must be shifted along the arc of each step and mark the position.

Check the dimensional accuracy several times, you will have to cut all the tiles using one template. They can be prepared immediately or in turn. The second method is much slower, but allows you to notice and fix errors in a timely manner.

You can cut a tile in a semicircle in the following ways:

  • with a diamond wire with an ordinary hand or electric jigsaw.

    A proven and effective method. The disadvantage is very slow. If using a jigsaw, the string should be cooled frequently. Press down on the string with moderate pressure. Never worked with this tool - practice on pieces of tiles, select the cutting speed and pressing force;

  • with a grinder and a small diamond disc, while the tile must be clamped with wooden slats on both sides with clamps.

    The disc must be driven quickly and smoothly, the cutting depth is no more than 1/3 of the tile thickness. Further, on the reverse side, with a metal hammer, you need to tap on the cut point until the piece breaks off. The cut itself will have to be aligned again on the machine. The work done faster, but you need to have "stuffed" hand

    Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

    Conveniently trim tile grinder

  • special plasma torch type Multiplaz 3500. The device works from an ordinary socket, the high temperature of the flame allows cutting not only ceramic tiles, but also various metals.

    The cut is even, no additional processing is required. The surface next to the cut remains cold, the upper decorative coating of the ceramic tile is not damaged. The device is good for everyone, except for the price. Only the most highly skilled tilers have it.

Practical advice.

It is recommended to wet the ceramic tiles before cutting, thereafter there is less dust and less risk of premature cracking.Be sure to wear goggles and a respirator.

Well, that's all. If you follow the advice exactly, study and not be lazy, then a brick porch made with your own hands will be not only a source of pride for loved ones, but also a real decoration of the entrance group of the house.

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Porch cladding with tiles

Brick porch: step-by-step instructions for building and decorating

Staircase cladding on the street with ceramic granite tiles

Video - Bricklaying a porch

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