Aging the wood part, sanding, removing the varnish coating, removing rust, rubbing the putty, processing the plastic and you can polish the stone using modern grinding machines. But how to choose a grinder for the country and at home?
Grinding as a process for many causes not the most pleasant impressions, even with a simple mention. What can I say - this is a monotonous, painstaking, laborious, and slightly harmful operation, but it cannot be avoided. Modern requirements for finishing works have increased so much that no one doubts that the planes should be perfectly smooth.
Manufacturers of topcoats try to make sure that only one layer is needed, which will smooth out all the shortcomings of the base.
Even sheets with a decorative coating need to be joined together, which entails putting putty on, and, as inevitable, sanding. Builders and finishers of our country are slowly but surely beginning to master all the newly introduced standards and techniques for achieving them.
Fortunately, progress is not lagging behind: such a useful and inexpensive tool as a sander helps to cope with such a task. The hated sandpaper for grouting, or the timber clamped in the hands, remains in the past. Equipment manufacturers pamper us with a variety of tools that are designed for many types of repair work, and sometimes it is difficult to choose the tool that is right for you.
So how to choose a sander? Dealing with this issue is not difficult, the main thing is to understand what this or that tool is needed for, and to understand what exactly you want to get at the end.
There are 3 main types of grinding machines:
They all have their own specialization and their own cascade of possibilities, which are aimed at both fast roughing and to the delicate finish. For those who, because of work, are associated with this area of work, have several types of this tool in their arsenal.
For example, belt sanders are heavy artillery to remove large layers of coverage from huge areas.
Vibratory machines are aimed at finishing, and eccentric machines are aimed at a result that is equal to polishing, but compared to surface grinders, it has a slightly different operating principle and design features.
A little earlier, we had the imprudence to call this type of device artillery, but in fact it is a real "tank".
The working element of this abrasive device is an abrasive belt, which is glued together in the form of an endless segment moving along two rollers and resembling a caterpillar on a tank.Such equipment is much stronger and more powerful than analogs, has a reliable and simple design (V-belt transmission and bevel gear), a small center of gravity, and a high speed of the belt.
With a belt sander, you can easily remove a layer of material several mm, make an edge on the workpiece, remove the old varnish or rust.
Everything is subject to her - wood, polymers, metal, building minerals.
You can correct the planed timber, remove paint from the floor covering, level the putty wall. But it is worthwhile to understand that high performance is not the best quality of processing, so you cannot do without scratches and sinks. For the final sanding, you will have to use an orbital or vibration sander.
It's no secret that the performance of an electrically driven tool is directly affected by the motor power - the higher the power, the more we can squeeze out of the device.
In the case of a tape device, you can choose between models with a 500 to 1200 watt motor.
Chinese instruments often have overestimated power readings, and if they really have the declared watts, they are often not balanced with other characteristics of the device. As a rule, record power is advertised only by those manufacturers whose devices have other remarkable features.
Another important characteristic for this type of machine is speed. It should also be considered when assessing the capabilities of the equipment.
A high speed car will do much more than anything, but it cannot be pinned down unless the high speed has high power in its reinforcement. This is due to the fact that the higher the speed, the lower the force.
Manufacturers who are responsible for the creation and release of new models try to correctly balance these indicators, making them changeable, which possible thanks to smart electronics. The belt speed can be from 160 to 540 m / min.
In this case, a natural question arises - why create fast, but low-power tools? After all, a high-performance machine is more difficult to operate - it is difficult to hold it, it is larger and more expensive.
And even with a strong pressure, it is easy to spoil the entire workpiece. Let's look at it from the other side. When used correctly, this agile sander can handle large surfaces in a short time.
If you are not sure about the load on your belt sander, choose a model that is slightly slower, which you can press on, which will make it more versatile. Even more options are available for models with a preset speed mode.
You can choose a machine with step or smooth adjustment for yourself.
It's time to talk about a smart system that helps to work with tape devices.Such machines do not have a rich filling in comparison with other types of this tool. Usually everything is limited by adjusting the belt speed. The switch for this function is in the form of a scaled wheel or slider.
There are models that provide overheating protection.
But it is much more interesting to work with devices that have interesting functions. If you choose a belt sander with a number of additional features, you can get a stand or clamps in the kit, which are needed to permanently mount the machine. The grinding frame acts as a stop to help prevent damage to the workpiece. A miter or rip fence is suitable for creating a precise bevel or perfectly flat surface.
Some units have a thin, advanced roller with a small diameter to minimize dead space in corners. Automatic centering of the tape allows you not to peel off the tape at the most crucial moment. The additional handle is also convenient to use, the tilt of which can be changed, and the handle itself can be removed, which will increase the functionality of the machine in hard-to-reach places.
Size of the working surface
Particular attention should be paid to the size of the surface, ie the sole, as well as the width and length of the tape. 10cm soles are used for professional power devices, due to which they are more productive and stable.
For hobbies, 7.5 cm devices are suitable. Long and wide soles in belt sanders have a special design, which consists of an elastic plate and a backing, which makes the contact between the abrasive and the part more reliable.
Do not forget that there are also ribbons - these are electric files that do not have high power and not very versatile, but they are very valuable due to their compactness (for example, the tape width is 0.9 cm).
All belt machines have a dust extraction system, but this does not always work as efficiently as it should. For this reason, the dust is fought either by connecting a vacuum cleaner through a branch pipe, or it is collected in a bag that is built into the filter. In very cheap models, the impeller does not cope with its function - for this reason, the channels are quickly forgotten, and many harmful small particles remain in the air.
Let's take into account the quality of processing. Vibratory sanders are much better in this regard, but they are still intermediate between orbital and belt units.
Surface grinders can be used to grind surfaces made of any materials - wood, plastic, metal, stone. Due to their relatively large working surface, these devices are suitable for large work areas.
The secret of demand for such machines lies in their moderate pricing policy, the availability of additional elements, as well as the absence of unused ("dead") zones (the flat sole handles corners perfectly).
The main working element is a plate that performs forward-reverse movements with a small amplitude. The motor in such a tool is located vertically, which makes it possible to translate the rotational movements of the shaft into translational vibrations of the platform.
Basically, the power of such CMM ranges from 0.16 to 0.3 kW, and they are also lightweight, maneuverable and compact. This level of strength is usually more than enough. But such a unity of thought for all manufacturers would be strange - for this reason, you can find models of vibratory grinders with a power of 0.
6 kW. Although they are larger and heavier, they can run for a long time without overheating at low speed.
Another important indicator is the amplitude of movement of the sole. It is different in different devices, but still has a small value. Typically, the platform moves by 1-3 mm, and in models with greater mobility, the numbers increase to 5-7 mm.
The larger the amplitude, the faster the surface is sanded, this makes the processing rougher.
A small nuance - the frequency of the sole stroke. At high speeds, the machine quickly removes thick layers of coating, and at lower speeds, it allows you to achieve smoothness. Some of the manufacturers are introducing regulation of platform movement frequencies and sometimes exceed the 20,000 strokes / min mark. , which makes it possible to process a variety of materials according to their characteristics.
When thinking about which vibratory sander to choose, try to pay attention to the platform.
In fact, everything is simple with dimensions, since there are only two options: "standard" and miniature models, the area of the slab in which is 10 cm 2 . Baby cars are ideal for tight, tight spaces.
The shape of the sole determines the quality. In budget devices, the platform is made of high-strength plastic or steel, and more expensive analogs are cast platforms made of alloys with magnesium and aluminum.
A high-quality sole has precise balancing, which can be easily identified by a low vibration at idle. Do not forget about the lining, ideally it will be made of a porous polymer, since it "holds the plane" better than rubber.
A separate subspecies is considered a machine with a deltoid platform, in the common people they are called an iron. Due to their small size and excellent cross-country ability, such models are widely used for processing complex and small surfaces, for example, furniture, staircase elements, car body, carpentry.
Sometimes such platforms are made swivel (to continue work with an unused piece of emery) or removable (to install another type of platform for other surfaces, and rub them, polish, structure).
The abrasive is attached to the pads in different ways. Most often, Velcro is used for this, since specialized equipment is very expensive. Spring-loaded clamps are more difficult to use, but you can use inexpensive sandpaper, which you will cut yourself (the main thing is to make holes for the dust extraction).
Fighting fine dust particles is still an unfinished battle for many manufacturers. For this reason, developers try to think over the protection of all mechanisms and spend months creating the perfect design.
In the same case, the motor is sealed, the switches and bearings are protected, an impermeable housing is made, and a duct system with dust extraction is created.
To prevent dust from getting into the air, it is sent to a dust collector or filter, and the device is also equipped with a branch pipe for connecting a construction vacuum cleaner, which is the most effective method.
This type of machine is the last link in the chain of quality processing and is designed to create a perfectly smooth surface.
Polishing and delicacy during grinding are their true elements, although the performance of such devices is somewhat lower than the above models. They handle all types of material, which is why such machines are most often found in auto-makers and joiners.
There is no equal for this type of grinder, as they do not have any problems with the surfaces of any coating. The only thing that this car can fail in is in shallow depressions and corners - such a "plate" simply will not go there.
As in other types of grinders, in orbital devices there is a counterweight and an eccentric, with the help of which a round plate not only performs movement around its axis, but also in an "orbit" with a small amplitude. Even the movement along the axis is usually inertial, and in some models it is forced. Such a sophisticated movement algorithm allows obtaining high quality surfaces without waves, indentations and scratches.
The engines of such machines vary in power from 0.2 kW to 0.9 kW. Those that are more powerful have an order of magnitude higher productivity, and will pull the sole 15 cm in diameter.
Orbital sanders have differences even in the speed of forward motion.
When it comes to rotation, the indicator can be from 4,000 to 14,000 rpm with the regulation function, and up to 12,000 rpm without it. If we talk about fluctuations, the numbers will be less than half.
Important: the higher the speed, the rougher the processing, but the faster the execution time.
The eccentric swing of the orbital device is not the same - from 0.2 to 0.
7 cm.This is the amplitude of the oscillation. The smaller the amplitude, the slower the cymbal moves, the lower the speed, but the better the quality. In some models, the operator can set the amplitude itself, thereby affecting the productivity and fineness of the work.
Compared to the two previous types of machines in orbital analogs, everything is fine with electronics.
An automatic frequency control system is often built into such an instrument so that it does not drop under load. This is the merit of constant electronics.
Some models have an electrodynamic brake, which immediately stops the sander after the "start" is switched off, thereby preventing damage and reducing the likelihood of injury.
For professional machines, a starting current limiter is sometimes provided, which accelerates the tool smoothly, does not make a starting jerk, and protects the network from overload.
Pleasant options include a detachable network cable, as well as a removable / adjustable handle, dust extraction, locking the start button.
Pay attention to the sanding sole. If you need a delicate type of processing, do not give preference to large plates, as they have a larger dead zone and an amplitude of 0.5-0.7 cm.
The metal plate is stable, durable and good heat dissipation.
The elastic plate is ideal for curved surfaces. All models have Velcro for abrasives.
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