A fairly new building material, widespread use, has increased strength indicators. Clinker bricks were "accidentally" produced in brick factories before. If the firing technology was violated, the temperature rose in the furnace, the sand turned into glass. The brick lost its shape, became heavy and waterproof. The marriage was used during the repair of dirt roads.
Modern technology has made it possible to accurately withstand the annealing temperature, the material does not lose its shape, but acquires new properties. The annealing temperature reaches + 1300 ° С. The temperature in the furnace during the annealing of classic bricks is within + 800 ° C.
Clinker facing bricks
The color of clinker bricks depends on natural impurities in clay and sand or is created by adding mineral dyes during forming wet blanks. Due to the heterogeneity of the composition of the starting material, even on one pallet, the shade of the bricks is slightly different.
When facing buildings with clinker bricks, it is imperative to mix bricks from at least three pallets. If this is not done, then large areas with various spots may appear on the plane of the wall.
Facade decoration with clinker bricks
Knowledge not only positive, but also negative properties of clinker bricks will make it possible to make an optimal decision on its use. Technical parameters, requirements for physical characteristics, resistance to aggressive chemical compounds and linear dimensions are prescribed in the provisions of GOST 530-2012.
GOST 530- 2012.
CERAMIC BRICK AND STONE. File for download
For the manufacture of clinker, "lean clay" is used, the main difference of which is the increased percentage of quartz sand. Basalt volcanic rocks can be added to improve properties. Volcanic basalt is a natural glass. As we have already mentioned, the color is determined by natural constituents or mineral additives.
The second production technology significantly increases the cost of products, but makes them attractive, makes it possible to create a wide range of uniform color solutions.
Table of physical characteristics of several types of clinker materials
|Indicator name|| |
Facade clinker bricks
Ordinary clinker bricks
Sidewalk clinker bricks
|Thermal conductivity, W / m2 * ° С||1.17||1.16||1 , 15|
|Density kg / m3||2000||1900||2000|
|Number of freeze / thaw cycles||200||100||300|
|Maximum moisture absorption%||6||4||≤ 6|
|Vapor permeability, mg / (m * h * Pa)||0.07||0.
|Resistance to acids,%||95||95||95|
Technical characteristics of clinker bricks
Clinker bricks ich
Positive qualities of clinker
Due to this characteristic, clinker bricks can be used as a material for laying a basement, for external structures without the need for protection from atmospheric precipitation. Ordinary brick can absorb up to 25% moisture based on dry weight. A large amount of moisture destroys the structure of the brick during freezing.
The cladding does not require maintenance, it is not washed or painted, the surfaces are not plastered.
Clinker facades are much easier and cheaper to maintain in their original form.
Clinker brick is distinguished by high decorativeness and performance characteristics
Unfortunately, the material also has significant drawbacks.
Not all old buildings can be clad with such material without preliminary preparation; often it is necessary to carry out a complex of complex construction measures to strengthen the foundations.And this is very expensive and time-consuming, significantly increases the estimated cost of facing work.
Special mixtures are used for masonry
According to this indicator, it is 1.5-2.5 times inferior to ordinary red brick. The same applies to sound permeability.
Clinker bricks are difficult to cut and almost impossible to break off evenly with a bricklayer's hammer.
And if we compare high quality clinker bricks with the addition of mineral dyes, the difference is even greater.
Clinker bricks for the facade are quite expensive
Objective data on the physical and operational parameters of clinker bricks, a description of not only it advantages, but also disadvantages will serve as initial data during the choice of material for cladding buildings for various purposes. In addition, developers will be able to compare the price with the benefits received.
Standard dimensions of a single brick (1 NF) 250 * 120 * 65 mm, one and a half (2NF) 250 * 120 * 88 mm, double (2.1 NF) 250 * 120 * 140 mm.
But there are manufacturers who establish their own technical specifications (TU) for products, in this regard, not all building materials have standard dimensions.
Table of dimensions of clinker bricks
The European standard (0.7 NF) has dimensions 250 * 85 * 65 mm. Incomplete types "quarter", "half", "three quarters" are produced. The clinker modular block (1.
3 NF) has dimensions of 288 * 138 * 65 mm. When calculating the required amount of materials, keep this information in mind. Dimensional deviations cannot exceed ± 4 mm in length, ± 3 mm in width and ± 2 mm in thickness. The non-parallelism of planes and edges may not exceed ± 3 mm. The newer the equipment and the more responsible the staff at the manufacturer, the more accurate the output dimensions.
Do not try to purchase products from a low-cost segment, in the end, savings will turn into losses.
Typical shapes and sizes of clinker bricks
We have already mentioned that for clinker bricks the requirements for a cement-sand mortar differ from the standard ones; only an experienced bricklayer can prepare the mass. Only he knows how to reduce the amount of water, taking into account the weather and the place of masonry. Otherwise, the thickness of the seams and the degree of adhesion will be violated, and this has an extremely negative effect on the appearance and stability indicators of the lined wall.
Cladding of buildings can be done both during the erection of the walls and after its completion.
In addition, additional insulation of the facade is possible during cladding.
Facing the house
We will tell you step-by-step instructions for all types of work, consider each technology separately. Let's talk about possible mistakes of inexperienced bricklayers.
The use of facing bricks
The method is most often used during the renovation of old buildings with satisfactory heat saving performance. General advice for all types of cladding - the mortar should have a slightly higher viscosity than for masonry with ordinary red bricks, add more cement to it, use only river sand without the inclusion of clay.
For facing work, you will need a mason's spirit level, a mason's hammer-pickaxe, tape measure, metal square bars with a side of 6- 10 mm, trowel, special tools for internal and external jointing.
Intrinsically safe bricklayer's hammer (brick pickaxe)
You can purchase plastic or metal tools from the hardware store to equalize the thickness of the seams. How to work with them, what are their advantages and disadvantages, we will describe below.
And the last. The requirements for the quality of masonry during cladding are much higher than when laying walls.
Accordingly, these works can be performed only by those masters who have considerable practical experience as a bricklayer.
Step 1. Checking the condition of the foundation and load-bearing walls. A very important point, take this procedure with great responsibility, it is very difficult to correct the errors found during cladding, and in some cases it is impossible, you will have to disassemble the finished cladding. How to check and what to look for?
If this is not the case, then you will have to use other building materials for cladding. If the surface of the tape has lost its strength, but the exfoliated areas need to be removed, cleaned and poured with a layer of new concrete.For clinker bricks, it is not necessary to make a hydro-barrier, but practitioners still recommend laying roofing material. Check the horizontalness of the tape, it is impossible to align the rows of cladding by changing the thickness of the mortar layer - the attractiveness of the wall's appearance is lost.
Checking the horizontal foundation
Deviations from verticality must be taken into account when determining the gap between the load-bearing wall and the cladding. If the ledge creates obstacles, you will have to cut it down. The depressions do not affect the quality of the cladding.
Checking the verticality of the wall
Step 2. Lay the first row of facing bricks without mortar.
Start at one corner and work your way to the opposite. If the last brick protrudes too much in the corner, or vice versa, its length is not enough to overlap, then try to move the entire row to the left or right. It is not possible to find the optimal position - you have to cut the brick. Measure the length with a tape measure, make the cut as even as possible. You need to have as many cut bricks as there are rows of cladding.
You can prepare several pieces at once, or you can measure and cut each separately as needed. We will describe below how to cover door and window openings. The laying of the first row is a very important point, you need to dwell on it separately.
Laying out the first brick row dry
Laying the first brick on the mortar
The width of each seam will change by tenths of a millimeter.
If the mismatch is greater, then you will have to cut the brick to size.
Practical advice.In order to make the problem area less noticeable, during laying, use not one very short brick, but several with a difference in length of no more than a centimeter.
We'll have to cut a few bricks, which complicates the cladding process a little. But the problem is solved at a professional level and becomes invisible.
And one more remark. You will know the exact width of the seam only after the complete layout of the tape around the perimeter. Begin trying on with eight millimeters, and later, after laying out and moving the bricks, you will find out the exact width of the seam. Based on these data, select the size of the metal bars for cladding.
Prepare a cement-sand mortar. We have already mentioned that clinker does not absorb water, make the mortar a little thicker. If the cladding is laid from a brick of non-standard width, then every 4-5 rows you need to stop work for a day or two for the solution to harden. This does not mean that construction work stops altogether, just move on to finishing the next wall and so on around the perimeter of the house.
How to prepare the solution
Be sure to sift the sand for the mortar or buy clean in warehouses. Small stones will create problems during masonry, you will have to remove the laid brick and remove the stone. Otherwise, the seam will be uneven, and this must absolutely not be allowed.
Prepare all the tools, they should be at hand. Do not make a lot of mortar, cladding is done much slower than laying walls.
During this time, the solution will be able to solidify or stratify into fractions. Both the first and the second require additional efforts to restore its properties. You need to start facing from the corners of the structure.
A very important and crucial moment. In the corners, the entire cladding will then be equal, any error can be critical.
Step 1. Lay a layer of mortar about 1 cm thick on the foundation tape, if the unevenness of the tape is alarming, then the thickness of the mortar can be increased up to two centimeters. In the future, due to this, it is possible to maintain the horizontal position of the first lower row of cladding without problems.
Laying out the mortar for the first row
Step 2. The height of the corner should be done by about 4-5 bricks.
To do this, the first row should be 4 bricks long, all subsequent ones are half a brick shorter. Lay the first row of the corner, constantly control its position horizontally and vertically with a level. To level the position, lightly tap the surface of the bricks with a hammer or trowel handle. The thickness of the seam at the junction of the ends of the bricks can be controlled with homemade or purchased devices. We will tell you what it is and how to work with them along the way.
Step 3. Carefully continue to pull the corner up, check its position on all planes again. Watch the thickness of the seams with special tools.
Putting the corners
Using the same algorithm, put the second corner of the wall. If the facing technology requires, then all the corners of the building can be made at once.
How many there will be depends on the architectural features of the structure. Next, you can start cladding the wall surfaces.
Lay out the bottom row of the wall between the corners
Practical advice. If you do not have enough experience, then be sure to use various devices to control the thickness of the seam. You can make your own fixtures or buy them from a factory-made store.
House cladding process
Cladding brick laying
Squares, hexagons or wire rod of the appropriate sizes are used to create a seam of the same thickness. For a horizontal seam, twigs about 50 cm long are needed, the vertical seam is controlled by bars about 15 cm long. The main condition for all bars is that they should be as even as possible. The thickness is selected taking into account the required dimensions of the joint; during veneering, it is recommended about eight millimeters. Before starting the cladding, pull the rope between the corners to the level of the front surface, make sure that it does not sag.
It controls the position of the bricks. For each new row, you need to lift the rope at the corners. When the height of the cladding is equal to the height of the corners, proceed with laying new corners and the same height. We will tell you when and how to embroider seams further. How to use the fixtures?
Start laying the horizontal seam, prepare a container with mass, a trowel and a bar.
Step 2. Put the long bar on a row of bricks, it should lie on about three bricks at the same time. The outer edge of the bar should be in line with the edge of the bricks.
With a bar we control the thickness of the seam
Use a trowel to put the mass on bricks slightly thicker than bar thickness.
Step 4. Level the layer of mass. While doing this, keep the trowel at an angle. One side should slide over the bar, and the other should level the mass.
The thickness of the mass on the opposite side may be slightly greater than the height of the bar, but in no case less. The fact is that you can level the horizontal by lightly tapping the hammer on the rising part of the brick. If it lies below the horizontal level, then you will have to remove it and re-apply the solution.
Step 5. Lean the short bar against the end of the brick, align its position in the corner.
Step 6. Apply sand-cement mortar, level it. Level also with a margin of thickness on the opposite side of the brick.
Step 7. Put the brick back and correct its position.
Use a skein or trowel for this.
Step 8. When the length of the horizontal bar is not enough, take it out and put it in a new place.If the bar is smooth and even, then you can not completely remove it, but stretch it along the seam. With minimal skill, this technology significantly speeds up the laying - you don't have to grind the seams or this work will be much easier.
How to lay a brick under the jointing with a bar
Practical advice. Start cladding the house from the opposite wall. If there are minor mistakes, no one will pay attention to them. And further. During the work, you will be able to gain practical experience in masonry, and this is very important.
You can be sure that you will lay each row much faster, it will turn out smoother and more beautiful.
We recommend using a plastic bricklayer's kit. It consists of two accessories: for a horizontal seam and for a vertical seam. The set allows you to make mortar of uniform thickness on bricks, increases the speed of facing and has a positive effect on quality. Additionally, the position of the bricks in each row is controlled, they are automatically aligned along one line.
Disadvantages - it is impossible to adjust the seam thickness depending on the layout of the first row. Another drawback is that the short length of the device for the horizontal seam complicates the work somewhat.
Tool for laying facing bricks
Important. Buy fixtures for the size of the clinker brick.
How to use the plastic fixtures?
Place the fixture on the bricks, pour in the mortar and trowel it over, remove excess.
Frame for spreading mortar and forming seams
Step 2. Move the plastic frame to the free space and repeat the operation. Continue laying the mass on three to four bricks. As the template moves, the back side will evenly remove excess mortar and level the surface.
Step 3. Put the first brick in place and lightly tap on the surface to press it down a little until the mass is squeezed out. If you have experience, then there is no need to check the position with the level. Do such checks after several rows, problems were found - fix them in several steps.
Attach the smaller fixture to the end of the laid brick, lay in the mass and level it. Lay the next brick, move it a little to the already lying one before squeezing out the mass.
Bricklaying with a factory device
Experienced craftsmen do not use such devices, and such a measure will help beginners get their hands on. We have already mentioned that the specific width of the solution can only be determined after laying the first row. Depending on how it lies, the thickness of the seam changes, and the device has fixed parameters, this is a drawback.
Brick cladding.Overlapping the opening
For lintels, you can use metal corners or rods. If the corner has dimensions of 100 * 100 mm, then you can put one, if the shelves are smaller, then take two, one on each side of the brick. The number of rods depends on the diameter, but in any case there cannot be less than two. The diameter of the bars cannot exceed the thickness of the seam.
The metal should be cleaned of rust and covered with a high-quality primer, after finishing the facing, the surface will be painted in the desired color. The length of the lintel stop on each side of the opening is at least 15 cm. Do not use too thick lintels for two reasons. Firstly, the elements must hold the weight only until the solution hardens, then the load on them is minimal. Secondly, too thick lintels are then difficult to make invisible, and this spoils the appearance of the building.
Opening reinforcement scheme
An important point, labor intensity depends on the timing is correct. You can find tips to do the jointing 3-4 days after the end of the work. Do not take into account such recommendations, they are given by those who have never done anything with their own hands. After 3-4 days, the cement mortar will completely harden, you will have to scratch the surface with great effort to level the seam. When exactly to start joining depends on the speed of the laying.
The more practical experience you have, the more bricks you can lay. Focuses on the state of the solution. As soon as it begins to resemble soft plasticine, proceed to align the seams.
Forms of jointing
Types and methods of jointing
The jointing can be:
The convex part of the mortar should lie in the same plane with the bricks;
Tool for joining brickwork
Joining tools can be purchased in stores or made from any materials at hand both metal and plastic or wood.
Practical advice. The width of any type of jointing should be slightly less than the thickness of the joint. The fact is that it will never be possible to achieve ideal thickness parameters over the entire area of the house, there will be sections a few millimeters wider or narrower. The fixture must follow all lines without jamming.
The most difficult way to join is using special colored decorative mixtures. Let us consider it in detail.
Step 1. Using a lacing and a metal brush, clean the joints from the mortar to a depth of about 8-10 millimeters, remove dust and mortar residues with a hard bristle brush.
Brickwork before joining
Preparing the masonry
Preparing the brickwork
E If the joints are completely dry, it is recommended to moisten them with water. Use spray guns or watering hoses for this.
Important. If dirty streaks appear on the front surface of the cladding, immediately wash them off or wipe them with a clean cloth.
Prepare a special mortar for joining, it is sold in hardware stores. There is no way to purchase - make it yourself. To do this, mix dry sand with cement in a 3: 1 ratio and add a mineral dye of the desired color. Mix everything thoroughly. Prepare a dry solution immediately for the whole house and with a margin.
Then, as necessary, dilute it with water in portions and use it for joining.
Mixing the mortar
Step 4. Take the desired jointing and gradually fill the gap between the rows of bricks with it. Level and remove excess at the same time. If the mortar gets on the front of the brick, then remove it with a slightly damp cloth or foam rubber.
The mortar is pressed in with sufficient force, otherwise the new jointing will fall off and fall out of the seams.
Grouting with mortar
Use a wire or stiff brush to clean the wall made of artificial bristles
Removing excess mortar
The work is long and not interesting, but the result always justifies the effort.
Facing the facade with clinker bricks with simultaneous insulation
Today, a number of legislative acts have been adopted on the compliance of buildings for various purposes with energy efficiency standards. It is almost impossible to do this without the use of modern technologies and heat-insulating materials. For example, for the middle zone of the Russian Federation, the thickness of the brick wall should be at least 120 cm, and the thickness of the wooden frame should be within 50 cm.
Only such walls meet the heat conservation standards.
No one will build houses with such thick walls, the way out is the use of effective insulation. The most commonly used mineral wool (pressed or rolled) and foam. Along with the wall cladding, it is recommended to make insulation.
Facade cladding scheme
Decide on the type and dimensions of the insulation. We will consider an example of using pressed mineral wool with a thickness of 6 cm and a height of 60 cm.
Step 2. Using the above method, bring the height of the cladding to the level of 8 rows, in height it will be about 60 cm. The specific values depend on the thickness of the joint and the dimensions of the clinker facing brick.
Step 3. Buy thermal insulation material.When purchasing, pay attention to the density and the possibility of shrinkage. The fact is that the sheets will lie vertically on top of each other; under the influence of gravity, they should not deform and sag.
Lower the thermal insulation plate into the gap between the load-bearing wall and the cladding, the distance between the cladding and the insulation should be approximately two centimeters. Natural ventilation of the space will take place through them.
Fixing the insulation
Ventilation in the air space between the insulation and the cladding is provided by air vents, they can be made with special gratings inserted into the cladding or by not filling some vertical joints with a cement-sand mass. The second option looks better on the outside, but is less effective. Which ventilation method to choose depends only on the preferences of the builder and the material for making the load-bearing walls.
If you have chosen a seam arrangement of the vents, then they should be staggered every three meters in height and every meter in width.
Step 5. Use flexible ties to provide a gap between the insulation and the cladding. They consist of a fiberglass rod and wide spacer washers. They are laid on the brickwork and the insulation is pressed against the load-bearing wall.
Use at least three ties for each mat.
Then repeat the work until the entire cladding of the building is completed.
There are two opinions among professionals about strengthening the rows of cladding. Some argue that the masonry in the corners is reliably connected and no additional work is needed to increase its stability. Others, on the contrary, insist on fixing without fail.
We believe that fixation never hurts, and there are many benefits. In addition, time does not play an important role in the lining process. Make a fixation and live peacefully in the house.
Methods of fastening facing bricks
Fastening a wall of facing bricks to the load-bearing base through insulation
The cladding is fastened in several ways.
With construction fittings.
Use rebar with a diameter within 5 mm, thicker is not necessary, difficult to work with. With a drill with a victorious soldering, make holes in the wall up to 10 cm deep, drill at an angle to the plane of about 45 °. This position excludes pulling out of the reinforcement during loading. The advantages of using construction reinforcement: high reliability, the ability to adjust the length of the bar depending on the characteristics of the bearing wall and cladding. Disadvantages: each bar has to be aligned along the plane of the facing bricks, it should not protrude beyond the seams.
The photo shows how you can attach the cladding using masonry mesh and plastic umbrellas
Fixing the masonry with reinforcement
With the help of perforated profiles. These profiles are sold in stores and are used during the installation of suspended ceilings or wall cladding with plasterboard. Advantages - the plates are bent without any problems at the desired angle, which makes it possible to install clamps on the entire wall even before the building is clad with clinker bricks, and then precisely adjust their position. Disadvantages - the cost is slightly higher than that of construction fittings.
Facing the wall of the house with bricks
Arrangement of jumpers on console anchors above the window opening
It is recommended to strengthen the wall after 5-7 rows, specific distances should take into account the characteristics of the load-bearing wall and cladding.
If there are many window openings, then metal clips must be installed between each of them. This is especially true when the window frames are fixed to the cladding.
Brick does not hold. There are three reasons. The first is too liquid solution.
The second is too thick solution. Third, the brick was laid very unevenly the first time, to align the position you have to tap several times from different sides. During shifts, the solution peels off from the brick plane, dries up a little, the adhesion weakens sharply. Remove the old solution and apply a new one.
Non-professionals try to adjust the position of the bricks to the nearest tenth of a millimeter.
This is not necessary, we have already mentioned that frequent movements reduce the traction force. For any masonry, a deviation of ± 1 mm from the tensioned rope is acceptable. It is completely invisible to the eye.
Stains remain on the surface after finishing the cladding. This is a consequence of untimely cleaning of the cladding from the entrained solution.
Clean it with a damp cloth as soon as you find it, don't leave it for later. Do not allow the solution to completely harden.
Take the brick with only one hand, always hold the trowel with the other. We put the brick in place - immediately fix it with the trowel handle. The faster you do this operation, the stronger the masonry.
If mortar settles quickly, add cement and stir. If it hardens quickly, there is little sand. Monitor the consistency at all times. Do not leave the solution on your lunch break. It is not a problem to dilute it with water, the problem is that the cement will lose its original properties.
And this should not be allowed when facing walls with clinker bricks. He already has a reduced coefficient of adhesion with the solution in comparison with red brick.
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