The material cannot be considered new on the domestic construction market; it can be purchased from both domestic and foreign manufacturers.
Facade clinker tiles
Facade clinker tiles have the highest physical performance among all types of building materials. The main advantages are:
There are only two reasons for the need to carry out repair work - violation of the cladding technology or mechanical damage;
Facade decoration with clinker tiles
The clinker does not react to the effects of various chemical compounds, including aggressive ones. In urban environments, tiles are not destroyed by smog;
Clinker tiles on the facade of a private house
But there are disadvantages . The first is the high cost. The price of clinker tiles, depending on the brand, may be several times higher than the cost of ceramic tiles. The second drawback is fragility. According to its physical characteristics, clinker resembles glass, the same fragility.
It is difficult to cut, the cut site is often chipped. In addition, the material cracks as a result of sharp impacts.
Tiles are fragile and require careful installation
Excellent performance is obtained due to a special production technology, unlike other building materials made of clay, clinker is fired at very high temperatures (not less than + 1300 ° C). Under these conditions, clay and brick melt and turn into a glassy mass. The mineral dyes used give color, and special molds change the structure of the front surfaces.
During production, the technology should be strictly observed, otherwise the tile is deformed, the linear dimensions are violated, and the quality is significantly reduced.Production can only be carried out by reputable companies that have not only the most modern mechanisms and equipment, but also responsible highly qualified specialists of various specialties.
Clinker tile production technology: equipment
Features of clinker tile production
Colors of domestic tiles production
Variety of clinker facade tiles
Clinker tiles ( corner element)
Before buying a tile, you should decide on its characteristics. What to look for?
|Options||Tips for choosing|
|Cost|| The price of clinker tiles can reach 4000 rubles / m2. and more.
Do not buy too cheap material, it is better to focus on the middle range. Buy the most expensive products for elite buildings. Unfortunately, the price does not always correspond to the quality, in the building materials market you can find goods with high cost, but also unsatisfactory quality.
|Manufacturer|| The best option is imported manufacturers. Unfortunately, domestic companies still do not always meet the quality requirements.
Buy goods only from brands tested by time and numerous consumers.
|The texture of the front surface||The more complex the texture, the better the facade looks. But it should be borne in mind that clinker tiles with such a texture require highly skilled craftsmen and additional costs for maintaining the facade of the building.|
|Color|| Universal advice - the color should be in harmony with the general appearance of the building. This applies not only to design, but also to the architectural features of the building.
Little personal experience - seek advice from experienced architects or designers.
Choose glue and grout at the same time as the tiles. The glue must be frost-resistant and withstand at least 50 freeze / thaw cycles. Clinker tiles are a very expensive material; you should not allow unpleasant situations due to poor-quality glue, which subsequently cause the need for repairs.
Dry building mixtures, grout and Quick-mix glue
Special grouting for clinker tiles
As for grouting.
All of them must necessarily compensate for the thermal expansion of the tile. The clinker is very fragile; with increasing loads, it can crack. There are no universal recommendations for color; grout in each case should emphasize the beauty of the finish.
Grout Kiilto Saumalaasti
Grout for clinker tiles
Construction grout Ceresit Super
Exact adherence to existing technologies guarantees the quality and long-term operation of the finish. Do not try to speed up work by skipping individual operations, such actions will have bad consequences.
Step 1. Surface preparation. They must be flat, dry and clean. It should be leveled carefully, do not allow large differences in height. The fact is that the glue under the tiles must be applied with a comb spatula, this is the only way to ensure reliable adhesion.
And the comb trowel works only on flat surfaces. The best option for laying tiles on plastered surfaces.
Step 2. Determining the number of tiles.
The algorithm of work depends on the type of tile.
If the set includes special corner elements, then their number is calculated separately. Next, determine the area of the wall and give a small margin. For ordinary ceramic tiles, the stock is made within 10%, the clinker stock is reduced due to the high cost. You will have to work very carefully, to minimize the amount of waste of expensive material.
Preparation of materials and tools. For work you need special glue and grout. From tools a spatula, tape measure, level, rope with blue (chopping thread), electric mixer. We have already mentioned above that all materials must be of high quality, in terms of performance they correspond to the weight and size of the clinker tiles and the climatic zone of residence.
Layout. A very important point, the consumption of tiles, the speed and quality of the facing work depends on the thoroughness of the marking. How to markup?
Hit the line above the windows.
To measure horizontality, it is better to use a water or laser level, an ordinary building one on a long wall can make significant mistakes.
Step 5. Along the edge of the bottom line of the first row of tiles, fasten the installation strip, it will keep the material from slipping until the glue firmly sets.
The rail can be fixed to the wall with special fixtures or ordinary dowels. The holes from the fixing points are then sealed.
Mount the rail
Mount the rail at level
Step 6. Prepare the adhesive solution. Be sure to first pour water into the container, and only then pour dry glue.
Read the instructions carefully, pour only the required amount of water. We have already discussed this topic above.
Practical advice. At first, inexperienced craftsmen may think that the solution is very thick. Do not pour water immediately! Keep stirring it, after a few minutes it will become thinner.
After the first stirring, leave the solution for 4-6 minutes to infuse. During this time, the remaining dry lumps of powder will absorb water and break easily with repeated stirring.
Step 7. Laying begins at the corners of the bottommost row. Prepare the workplace, remove debris and items that interfere with work.
If in the future you need scaffolding, but you need to check their completeness and prepare for installation. When installing the scaffolding, the safety regulations must be observed.
Apply glue to the wall and press down firmly.
To avoid gaps, slide the comb-type spatula with glue along one spot at least twice in perpendicular directions, gradually decreasing the angle its tilt.
The clinker tiles are pressed into the adhesive layer
The amount of adhesive applied should be appropriate for your productivity. First, process small areas, over time, experience will appear, work will go faster.
There are two ways of laying clinker tiles: one row along the entire length of the facade wall or three to four rows in small areas. The first method reduces the likelihood of errors, but increases the time. If you work slowly, you will only have to apply the glue across the width of one tile, which is very inconvenient and time-consuming.
In addition, there is a possibility that the glue will already harden before laying the second row, it will have to be removed with a flat spatula, and this is material loss.Another problem is that it is difficult to apply glue with a spatula at the edge of the tile, this technology takes much more time. And the last thing - during such an application, a solution will surely get on the surface, it will have to be removed - even more time is lost. But we cannot give final advice on how to install the tiles, it all depends on your practical skills. How much time there is in stock is written on the glue package, and how much during this period you can glue the tiles - only from you.
Step 8. To improve adhesion, be sure to coat the back of the tiles with glue. The thickness of the glue is within a millimeter. The fact is that clinker almost does not absorb moisture, and this significantly reduces the adhesion coefficient. Spreading the back side minimizes the negative effect of low water absorption.
The corners are worked with the double spreading method
Installation of clinker tiles on glue
Step 9. Use crosses between the tiles. The recommended width of the crosses is 10-14 mm, which is much more than when laying ordinary tiles.
Continue laying the tiles over the entire surface of the facade wall, periodically remove the crosses from the lower rows and use them for the upper ones.
Fully tiled surface
Clinker facade tiles
Proceed with them only after the experience of laying tiles on even facade walls has appeared.
Mark the tiles
Step 1. Lay the tiles on the windowsill. The rows should match exactly with those laid on the wall. The surface of the window sills must be flat and sloped to drain water.
Protect the finished horizontal parts of the window sills from dirt. You can simply glue a newspaper or a piece of plastic wrap with construction tape.
Step 3. Try on the tiles to the side surfaces of the windowsill. As a rule, they have different widths at the top and bottom, this discrepancy should be eliminated only at the expense of the top and bottom tiles.
They will have to be cut at an angle.
Step 4. Using a level, draw a horizontal line on the side windowsills, take the dimensions of the remaining triangles. The extreme tiles are cut along them.
The aesthetics of the facade is greatly influenced by the alignment of joint lines over the entire surface , pay due attention to this factor. After you have laid the first two corner tiles on opposite vertical slopes of the window opening, check their position with a level. They should lie on one strictly horizontal line.
Installation of clinker tiles
Step 6. Stick all tiles on the slopes in turn, check their position periodically.
Step 7. After completing work on the vertical slopes, proceed to tiling on the upper horizontal. Marking and sizing of corner tiles is performed according to the same algorithm as for side vertical tiles. The styling technology requires special attention. Check the condition of the glue, it must firmly hold the tile until it hardens completely.
The best option is to cut clinker tiles with a professional machine with a diamond blade and water cooling. This way you can get a perfectly flat cut surface and almost completely eliminate the risk of cracking or chips. But such equipment is quite expensive, it is profitable only for professional craftsmen to purchase it, for whom laying tiles is the main income, and not a pastime. If you do not have a machine, then you will have to cut the tiles with a cylindrical grinder and a diamond disc.
Diamond cut-off wheel
Diamond blades are of two types: for cutting concrete and ceramics. Disks are not interchangeable, use them for other purposes is prohibited. What are the differences between the disks? For cutting concrete, the plane of the discs has through slots to remove a large amount of dust; discs for tiles do not have such holes. They have only small indentations in the places where the diamond chips are applied. Slotted discs hit the tiles hard, causing chipping.
Always keep these differences in mind.
Angle grinders (grinders)
How to cut clinker tile grinder?
Cutting tiles with a grinder
Keep in mind that it is very difficult to cut a strip less than one centimeter wide from clinker tiles. For this you need to have experience with electric tools and clinker. If the technology requires gluing such pieces, then be prepared for a large number of rejects.
In order to grind the joints between the tiles, you should prepare materials and tools
Has its own characteristics. After slight hardening of the glue, remove from the seams and clean the surfaces from glue residues with a special thin spatula.
Begin grouting no earlier than three days after installation, otherwise the tile may erode and will have to be re-glued. Prepare the grout solution taking into account the manufacturer's recommendations, which brand to choose we told above. It should be semi-dry in consistency.
Place some mortar on a trowel or any level surface, using a long, narrow tool to cover the width of the joints.
Trowel or trowel for joining or grouting clinker tiles
Lean the trowel against the wall, pick up small portions of thick mortar with the tool and seal thoroughly seams.
Level their surfaces at the same time.
Practical advice. It is much faster to first seal several rows of vertical joints, and then horizontal ones. Remove the height difference between them at the same time.
Colored mortar for grouting (fugue) for clinker tiles
Construction grout Ceresit Super
Joining with a trowel
Vertical seams are easier to embroider with a smaller trowel
In the picture, grout
Various optical elements can be worked out when troweling the joints.
This semi-dry grouting method significantly reduces contamination of the face of the clinker tile. Final cleaning is done with an ordinary brush.
Overcasting with a brush gives it
the appropriate structure
Type of finished seam
It is not recommended to use unfilled seams, as they collect moisture and dirt
If you have sufficient skills, then you will not have to use a wet sponge, the work will be done neatly and beautifully. If not, then the problem areas will have to be wiped. But remember that the surface of the clinker tile is easy to get dirty but difficult to clean.
After drying, the spots will appear again, the procedure will have to be repeated several times.
By the surface grouting method, the joints are closed with a jointing or plastering batten
After drying, the remaining grout is removed from the tile with a sponge, movements at 45 degrees towards the tile
Using a plaster strip with a sponge, rinse off the excess grout diagonally
Clinker the tile absorbs no more than 4% moisture. Such properties put forward special requirements for the consistency of the glue - it should not be liquid. Ceramic tiles absorb a lot of moisture, liquid glue is not a problem for them. At the same time, the glue should not be very thick.
Why? Firstly, its adhesion to both bearing surfaces and tiles is significantly reduced. Secondly, the mixture quickly hardens, the laying process becomes much more complicated.
The consistency of the glue is extremely important
Any glue on the tile surface must be removed immediately. Pay particular attention to clinker with an uneven face. Don't wait for the glue to dry.
The fact is that high-quality glue is then difficult to clean, it adheres very firmly to the texture. Use a clean, damp sponge or cloth for cleaning.
The production technology allows a slight difference in color shades in one batch of clinker tiles. To exclude the appearance on the facade of large areas with different colors, periodically take tiles from several packages. The facade will look beautiful, and some difference in shades will serve as an additional decoration.
When buying, pay attention to the batch number, it is indicated on the package. If you need to purchase additional tiles in a few months, then there is a high probability that this batch will no longer be available.
It is not recommended to install clinker tiles in very hot and windy weather. If it is not possible to wait for suitable conditions, then you can slightly spray the surface of the clinker tile from the back side with water. This will improve the adhesion, and the fixing reliability will increase.
Combination of clinker tiles and facade decor
Facade clinker tiles
Facade decoration with plaster and clinker tiles
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