When arranging ventilated facades, special attention is paid to the cladding materials. The durability of the coating, the protection of the building from negative factors and, of course, the external attractiveness of the facade depend on them. The most popular are composite panels, which have a lot of remarkable properties. Until recently, the scope of their application was limited to public and industrial buildings, but now such panels are beginning to be used for decoration of private houses.
Facade composite panels
Application of aluminum composite panels
Facade composite panels
The term "composite "refers to the combination of several dissimilar materials into one whole.
What it gives: the new material acquires improved characteristics, which in quality and quantity significantly exceed the properties of each of the constituent components. Any composite has a plastic base (matrix) and a filler that acts as a reinforcing layer.
The structure of composite panels Goldstar
The structure of composite panels is more complex, since it also includes metal plates (most often aluminum) and additional layers to protect and decorate the finishing material. Each manufacturer's panels may differ in the composition of the filler, the number of layers and the type of coating, but the general characteristics remain unchanged: low weight with high rigidity and strength, resistance to negative factors and durability.
Aluminum composite panels "Alyumatrix"
Externally, the panels are thin metal plates with an insulating layer, square or rectangular.
The front side of the panels is coated with special paints and varnishes in a wide range of colors with a glossy and matte effect. More expensive options have a laminated finish with imitation of textures of natural and artificial materials. A variety of colors and textures makes it possible to completely transform the facade of any building, regardless of its size, configuration, architectural style.
Structure of winbond composite panels
Standard composite panel has the following structure:
BILDEX aluminum composite panels
Aluminum composite panels production
Panels are available in widths from 1 m to 1.
5 m, standard lengths are 2.40, 3.20 and 4 m. True, many manufacturers do not indicate a fixed length, suggesting that buyers choose the material for specific building parameters.The panel thickness is 2-6 mm, and the weight does not exceed 8 kg per square meter, due to which the load on the supporting structures is minimal.
At the same time, due to its small thickness and structural features, such a finish does not retain heat well and is not used as a heat-insulating material.
Aluminum composite panels, sizes
Panels can withstand temperature fluctuations in the range of -58 ° С ... + 80 ° С, large wind loads, immune to microorganisms and corrosion.
In addition, they dampen vibrations and absorb sound effectively. For example, the sound insulation of concrete walls is doubled after facing the facade with composite panels. As for fire safety, here, too, the indicators are very good: panels belong to hardly flammable materials, which have low flammability and emit little smoke. In addition, more and more manufacturers are using flame retardant additives in the manufacture of the material, which further reduces the risk of cladding catching fire in a building fire.
Panels are divided into types according to two criteria - the composition of the filler and the type of outer coating.
|Type of filler||Basic properties|
|Mineral||Multicomponent composition, including polyethylene foam and a large number of fire retardants. It has a low flammability class - G1, does not emit corrosive smoke, does not spread when melted. In German-made products, a filler made on the basis of aluminum hydroxide is used, which is even less prone to fire. Panels with a mineral layer are intended for facade finishing|
|Polymer|| Made of cellular polypropylene and foamed polyethylene. Such a filler provides lightness to the facing material, which allows it to be used for facing thin partitions and structures with a weak bearing capacity. |
Panels with a polymer layer are mainly used indoors
|Aluminum||Very thin aluminum plates assembled into honeycombs or mesh are used as fillers. This ensures the greatest lightness of the cladding and the highest rigidity. Such panels can withstand huge wind loads, and therefore are ideal for finishing high-rise buildings|
It is worth noting that panels with aluminum filling are much worse at absorbing sounds and do not keep heat at all, and costs significantly exceed the cladding with mineral and polymer fillers. For this reason, it is impractical to use them to decorate a private house.
Colors of aluminum composite panels
Varieties of panel coating
|Coating type||Main characteristics|
|Polyester paints and varnishes|| The most inexpensive type of coating. |
Forms a durable and elastic film with a pleasant glossy sheen.Possesses good resistance to fading and moisture. Panels with such a coating are recommended to be used for interior decoration, since from the outside they lose their visual appeal after 5-6 years
|PVDF paints and varnishes||Coatings of this type have dirt-repellent properties , high resistance to mechanical damage and ultraviolet radiation. Their average service life is 20-25 years without losing their original appearance. Panels with this coating are excellent for outdoor cladding|
|Oxide films|| The coating resulting from the electrochemical treatment of aluminum. |
It creates reliable protection against corrosion, ultraviolet radiation, the negative effects of precipitation and mechanical damage, gives the surface a mirror effect. The average service life of such a coating is 15-20 years
|Laminating films||These synthetic coatings perform both protective and decorative functions. They create a skillful imitation of various textures: marble, granite, polished metal, various types of wood. Laminated panels are more expensive than others, but they also look the most impressive. The service life of these coatings is 15-20 years|
Since composite panels are not yet widely used as siding or corrugated board, not many companies are engaged in their production.
There are about 30 noteworthy manufacturers on the domestic market, whose products meet the required standards. Moreover, most of them are Russian and Chinese companies, as well as their joint ventures. But the leader is still the German-Swiss brand "Alukobond", whose composite panels appeared in Russia earlier than others.
Alucobond - aluminum composite panels
Composite panels of this brand are different combination of high strength and flexibility, which allows easy installation on curved surfaces. They are produced in widths from 1 to 1.
5 m, lengths from 3.20 to 8 m. The maximum weight of 1 m2 of cladding is 7.7 kg. The range of panel colors is very wide, there is a series of models with imitation of stone and wood in various shades.
The average service life of the material is about 50 years.
Composite panels "Goldstar"
The material is produced in Russia, has excellent quality, fully meets the accepted standards. In the manufacture of panels, polymer and mineral fillers are used, the coating is PVDF. The assortment is very wide, a large selection of shades according to the RAL scale. The manufacturer offers several spectacular series with imitation of various materials: "Vologda" - wood-like panels, "Mirror" - imitation of a mirror surface, polished metal, gold and silver; "Palermo" is an imitation of natural stone.
Panels of the "Chameleon" series, which change color from different angles of view, are in high demand.The thickness of the material of this brand is 3-4 mm, width - 1.22, 1.25 and 1.5 m, length 2.
44 and 4 m.
China-made composite panels are in no way inferior to domestic brands. The products are manufactured according to the best Western technologies and have all the necessary quality certificates. The interlayer is a polymer and mineral filler, the coating is PVDF. The thickness of the panels is 3 and 4 mm, the standard width is 1.
25 m, the maximum length is 5.70 m. The color palette of the panels includes 23 options, both with a glossy and matte effect.
Aluminum composite panels ALLUXE
Products of such brands as "WinBond", "Alcotek", "YARET" are also popular. "Dibond".
They need to be purchased only from official representatives, since there is a risk of buying a fake.
YARET composite panels of the "Alucobond" type
This type of cladding is very expensive, but the result is worth it. First, you get a reliable and durable construction that is not afraid of wind, precipitation or temperature changes. Secondly, this finish looks incredibly impressive and stylish, standing out favorably among plastered or siding houses. All work can be done independently, the main thing is to strictly adhere to the instructions.
Ventilated facades made of composite panels
Column cladding with composite panels
Composite panels are mounted on a metal frame subsystem. Therefore, in addition to the facing material, you will need to purchase mounting brackets and a galvanized profile, two-stage drills for aluminum, a drill, and a building level.
Short two-stage drills
Metal shears, a hand jigsaw or a circular saw are used to cut the panels, and the sheathing is attached to the subsystem using rivets or galvanized screws.
Additionally you will need:
Composite panel cladding is suitable for all types of walls - brick, aerated concrete, wood, and so on.
Before installing the frame under the cladding, the surface must be cleaned of dirt and repaired. The presence of through cracks, cracks, crumbling or mildewed areas is not allowed.Therefore, all detected defects must be eliminated, cracks and large recesses must be repaired with mortar, if necessary, the walls can be re-plastered.
Wall in need of repair
After the mortar has dried, it is imperative to prime the base, choosing the appropriate composition: an antiseptic soil is used for wood, and it is applied in 2-3 layers, for plastered walls - deep penetration reinforcing soil. Small irregularities do not need to be eliminated, since the hinged facade will completely cover them.
Primer antiseptic for wood
Concentrated soil strengthening
Deep penetration primer
Step 1. Mark the mounting holes for the brackets. The frame guides must be installed vertically, therefore, the markings are made vertically. Having departed from the corner 10-15 cm, determine the vertical level by the level, and on this line put a marker with a point with a step equal to the width of the panel. The distance between the lines is 50-60 cm.
Step 2. Using a puncher or drills (depending on the material of the walls) drill holes according to the markings, then clean them of dust and insert the dowels. After that, the brackets are assembled and alternately screwed to the wall.
Drill holes according to the markings
Blow holes, remove dust from them
Mounting brackets (installing dowels)
Dowels are driven in with a hammer, the bolts are tightened
Installing the extensions on brackets
Step 3. Take mineral wool slabs, apply them to the wall and mark the places for the slots for the brackets.
The slots are easy to make with a sharp assembly knife. Again, the insulation is applied to the wall, stringing it onto the protruding mounting plates. The rest of the plates are installed in the same way, tightly joining them together and always displacing the seams vertically.
Cut holes in the insulation
Install the insulation plates
Step 4. A waterproofing membrane is attached on top of the mineral wool, in which slots for the brackets are also made.
The membrane is fixed with horizontal stripes from bottom to top, with an overlap of at least 10 cm.
Step 5. To fix the insulation and the membrane, holes are drilled in the center of each plate and at 2-3 points in the corners, and insert disc dowels.
We fix the insulation
Fix the membrane
Step 6. Next, mount the U-shaped guide profile.
Special spacer slides are inserted into the profile cavity - small movable plates that serve as a hook for the panels.The profile is attached to the brackets, aligned vertically, drilled in the side of the hole and fixed with rivets - 2 pieces for each bracket. At the junction, the profiles are connected with a fastening rail, which is also fixed with rivets.
Attachment of hooks
At this point, the installation of the frame is considered complete. Make sure all elements are on the same plane and securely fastened.
The frame should not wobble and creak when pressed by hand.
Step 1. The first panel is applied to the guides at the bottom of the battens, aligned along the bottom edge and horizontally. Fix its upper corners to the guide profile with self-tapping screws.
Move the slide to the upper side bracket of the panel with a screwdriver and screw it to the profile with a self-tapping screw. Further, in the same way, the slide is strengthened at the lower bracket and on the other side of the panel.
Fixing the panel
Step 3. Expose the second panel. At the junction of the panels, the gaps should be the same in width and not exceed 12 mm.
Therefore, you will need a ruler when installing. The panel is leveled, the brackets are hooked onto the already fixed skids, and screwed in the corners with screws.
Panels after removing the film
The top panels are mounted in the same way, controlling the horizontal and width of the gaps. To decorate the corners, 2 methods are used: the panels are joined exactly at the corners of the facade, leaving a gap along the entire height, or curved panels are mounted, giving the traditional angular or semicircular shape. For bending, a simple bending machine is used, consisting of a table, a pressure plate, clamps and a metal pipe of the required diameter.
The pressure plate is made of hard metal and then covered with a protective felt pad to avoid damaging the panels when bending.
Facade cladding with aluminum composite panels
The material is easy to process, so problems with the opening does not occur if everything is done correctly. First, cut only in the direction indicated by the manufacturer. On the back of each panel, this direction is indicated by arrows. Secondly, before cutting, you need to make accurate measurements and mark the line with a marker or chalk, and the panel itself must be securely fixed on the table with clamps.
Aluminum is a soft low-melting metal, so it must be drilled carefully, at a low speed - from 500 to 800 rpm.If you need to immediately drill a large number of holes in aluminum panels, the drill should be periodically cooled with water.
Important condition: the drill must be very sharp, manual sharpening is not suitable here.
When bending the panels, it is necessary to maintain an ideal surface cleanliness, since aluminum shavings or accidentally trapped grains of sand under pressure can leave scratches on the face layer, which cannot be removed. This will not only reduce the attractiveness of the cladding, but also reduce its resistance to precipitation and ultraviolet radiation.
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