Dowel joining technology - how to do it yourself and other connection methods
Joining parts with dowels is much easier to do than classic sockets and tenons, and they are also several times stronger than lamellas.
The familiar to all dowels can always find a worthy application in any project when working with wood.
Connections such as dowels require only accurate marking and simple enough tools so that you can assemble a connection, the strength of which will be almost in no way inferior to all usual spikes, but at the same time do everything can be exactly 2 times faster.
In fact, dowels can be used in most joints such as end-to-end, edge-to-edge, miter, and edge-to-face joints. A lot of special drilling jigs have already been released, starting with the simplest ones, without the ability to adjust, and up to cunning ones, for example, like Dowelmax with many adjustments.
But trust experience, for less than $ 70 you can buy a jig with automatic centering, as well as the ability to change guide bushings that will cope with almost every task of making dowel joints. Moreover, you may need center point drills that match the bushing diameter, and a countersink that is slightly larger than the drill diameter.
Also on sale you can find round dowels of different diameters, but as practice has shown, the most popular are 6.8 and 10 mm, because they are suitable for most tasks. It is preferable to use dowels with longitudinal knurling in the form of narrow grooves, which will not impede the free release of excess glue and begin to swell from moisture, being tightly held in the holes.
They are produced with a length of 4 and 5 cm. In order to connect parts, the thickness of which is from 1.8 to 2 cm, dowels with a length of 4 cm are enough.
If simple dowels need to be reinforced with butt joints, then first details should be marked. To achieve neat tight and aligned joints, the joints should be numbered from 1 to 4 (this is the case when the rectangular assembly will be made of four parts),
before proceeding with marking of holes for dowels:
- On sale you will definitely be able to find a drilling jig for any budget, and the models Dowelmax, Roskier, Woodworker's Supply, Lee Vallue are shown.
- Next, using a sharp sharpened pencil, draw one thin line across the post joint and the crossbar. The holes made with the drilling jig will be located at the same distance from each other in two parts, which means that you will not need to put another mark.
- The drill guide bush helps you determine the correct drilling depth, which you can fix with a flag that can be made from masking tape.
So that a pair of dowels with a length of 1 cm, spaced from each other at a distance of 3.2 cm , was located in the middle of parts with a width of 8.
3 cm. You can add strength by using additional dowels, but you should not space less than 0.6 cm. But between the edge of the hole and another surface there should be no less than 0. 3 cm.
Set the drilling depth to half the length of the dowel, and then add another 0. 2 cm to leave room for excess adhesive at the bottom of the hole. This distance should be measured from the tip of the drill, and the length of the guide-type sleeve should be added to it, and then a piece of tape should be wrapped around the drill.
To connect on dowels, you need to make a hole in the end part, and for this you need to align the index fixture mark with a mark on the workpiece. After that, you should drill two holes in two ends on each crossbar, and stop when the flag made of scotch tape starts to touch the parts.
Note that only one alignment mark is required to accurately position this jig on the face of the part or on the edge. During the installation of the guide bushings in the middle of the housing, the distance between the centers of the holes will be 3.2 cm. And the narrow chamfer does not allow the edges of the hole to swell from moisture and create a gap at the junction.
and the moisture contained in the adhesive is a way to cause the wood to swell at the edges of the holes, and often this is the reason for the loose joining of parts. To avoid such a nuisance, chamfers should be made at the edges of the holes, and their width should be from 0. 15 to 0. 2 cm.
Next, you need to glue the dowels into the rack holes or even into the crossbars.
Apply adhesive to the open part of the dowels, as well as to the contacting surfaces, connect everything, and then carefully tap the connected parts with a mallet, and fix the assembly with clamps for about 1 hour. When creating an edge-to-edge connection, use similar drilling and marking methods. Place the holes no closer than 0.3 cm from the ends so that there are no cracks when assembling the connection.
To make such a connection, you first need to drill along the edge of the hole to insert the dowels, as it was described in the section above.
The holes must be deep enough so that the length of the overhang of the dowels that are inserted is 0.5-0. 6 cm less than the thickness of the adjacent legal.It is worth using special markers to transfer the marking of the centers of the holes from the edge from the first part to the other face.
Depending on the type and size, markers should be inserted into the holes made, or even first inserted into the dowels, and then put on the markers.
By the way, markers can be put on dowels or inserted into holes. On sale you can find universal, or rather the most common markers with diameters of 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 cm.
It is worth pressing the part on which there is a marking to a flat surface with a clamp. Next, we align the adjacent part and you need to tap on it with a mallet to mark the centers of the holes.
The clipped piece of board on the drill table will serve as a stop to align the drill over the points left by the point of the markers. To mark the second part, you can align the ends of the two joint parts, and then lightly tap the second part with a mallet so that the marker tip leaves a mark on the wood surface.
Next, a twist drill with a center point should be inserted into the chuck of the drilling machine, but even Forstner drills can be used to make counter holes, and their centers will be marked with markers.
You should adjust the drilling depth, which will be equal to the length of the protruding part of the dowels, and then add another 0. 2 cm to the value. Next, you should assemble the connection dry to check the correct manufacturing, and then carefully disassemble. Now you can glue the parts together and fix them with clamps.
Connecting parts with dowels is simple, and you can even make them yourself, but the grooves for air and excess glue composition can be cut with a hacksaw.
But you can save a lot of time with large dowels. Just like with beech lamellas, the pressed wood of these dowels, which are 1 cm long, begins to swell from the moisture contained in the adhesive composition, and the diameter becomes larger by 0.05 to 0.07 cm, and this helps to give the glued joint extra strength.
And for this you only need a couple of minutes of free time to make such a primitive device with your own hands.
It will be of great benefit and will help you achieve exceptional precision in your work. It is made from a rebated mounting block located on the back of the milling table and attached in the same T-slots along which the stop will move. Through holes were made in the bar with the MB flange nuts hammered into them.
For the convenience of performing work on the ends of the threaded rods, long nuts for connection and locknuts have been added, which will serve as handles and at the same time indicators by which it will be possible to determine the angle of rotation of the threaded rods. For a full revolution, the emphasis will be displaced by exactly 0.
Such a connection is also often used for joinery. In this way, you can assemble parts for window frames made of wood into a single whole, and also create a variety of cabinet furniture parts and plywood sheets. The essence of this method is that a thorn is created at the end of one of the connection parts, which will be inserted into the groin of the other part. To carry out the work, it will be convenient to use a special lamellar cutter, and in the absence of this, you can get by with simple hand tools.
You will need:
- Several chisels of different sizes.
- Hand nib saw with small teeth.
- Hand or power drill.
- Measuring tool, pencil and square.
- Abrasive abrasive paper.
First, you should mark out the blanks, and the parameters of the spikes and grooves will directly depend on the parameters of the wood parts and the configuration of the product, and this should also be taken into account. Let's consider a few general recommendations.
Note, that the thickness of the spike must be approximately 1/3 of the total thickness of the part, and the width should be as high as 70-80% of the width; the length must be equal to the thickness of the workpiece to be joined.
Please note that the parameters of the groove must necessarily meet these criteria, and in any case, you should make sure that the size of the tenon and the groove match. Parts should be connected easily, without pressure, but not fall out under their own weight.
Also, there should be no distortion, backlash and cracks. The first step is to cut the groove, and this sequence is caused by the fact that the spike will be much more convenient to fit into the groove than vice versa.
Use a saw to make cuts, remove excess wood with an electric drill, and the walls and bottom of the groove should be leveled with chisels. Then we make a thorn. To do this, clamp a block in a vice and remove excess wood with a hand saw.
The spike is brought to the desired size with chisels and sanding paper. In most cases, simple wood glue is enough for a secure fix, and nails or screws help to provide maximum strength.
Quite often in the carpentry, different options are used for joints in the half-wood (straight or simple lock). This type of timber construction assembly will be characterized by ease of construction and a high level of reliability.
The following varieties can be distinguished:
- Splicing into the floor of a tree.
- Cross connection type.
- On the mustache.
Both of the first methods will be applicable to join parts that intersect at an angle of 90 degrees, and the dovetail method is especially popular, in which the shape of the cut will be a trapezoid, and the side the sides will go at a different angle, and not at 90 degrees.
The groin of the lock should be slightly widened from the end, and provide a more reliable level of fixation.
It should be noted that a tenon joint can also be called a "dovetail" if the tenons are cut in the form of a trapezoid. But the second and third methods help to form a complete corner. The splicing method is used if you want to make the length of the workpiece longer.
I would like to say separately about the connection of a bar or a log when creating a frame for a house or other building.
This building technology has been used for many centuries, because correctly laid logs give the building a guarantee for a long service life.
Let's distinguish two main types of corner joints during the construction of a log house:
No residue - these laid logs will create an even corner, and the ends will not protrude beyond the limit of the structure, a separate variety is a warm corner. Cutting with the remainder means that an interlacing of the entering ends will be created in the corners, and the second method will be more costly in material, but then the building will retain heat better.
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