construction features and recommendations + Photos and Videos

construction features and recommendations + Photos and Videos Making a staircase to the terrace with your own hands from wood is not as easy as you might think at first glance. Before you start building, you need to think over everything exactly and calculate. The stages of building a staircase are such that it is very easy to make a mistake without preliminary preparation.

It is impossible to make a reliable structure without knowledge of the basic principles of staircase construction. That is why the project is always worked out in detail first.

But, having read all the recommendations of specialists, any home craftsman with elementary woodworking skills will be able to cope with this task.

Basic information

Design features

These are the main features that distinguish this design:

  • construction features and recommendations + Photos and Videos Constant exposure to weather conditions (rain, wind, heat, hail, etc.)
  • It is better to purchase the same material as for the terrace. This will achieve a harmonious combination of all elements and reduce the cost of purchasing materials.
  • The parameter requirements are the same as for internal staircases between floors.

  • For safety reasons, it is recommended to mount a handrail to the stairs.

To achieve durability, reliability, convenient and safe use of a self-built structure, it is necessary to take into account all the above features.

Knowing what material will be used to make the stairs, you can proceed to the next step. It is imperative to draw a drawing and a diagram of the future design. It is very important to achieve all project compliance with the requirements and standards so that the operation of the stairs is safe and convenient.

When planning, carefully consider the location, the height of the stairs, taking into account the thickness of the tread, the number of steps, the presence / absence of railings. Be sure to measure several times to avoid errors.

The main parameters that are important when preparing the drawing

  • The steps in width should correspond to the step of an adult and is approximately 30 cm.If you do more, the step will go astray , decreasing will create discomfort when walking.
  • The height of the steps should not exceed 20 cm.

    Increasing or decreasing will also lead to discomfort.

  • The angle of inclination is not more than 45 °, but it depends, first of all, on the available free space for mounting the stairs.
  • Width, allowing convenient use, is 90 cm.

The most simple, affordable and popular version of the staircase to the terrace is wooden. From the tools you need a screwdriver, a level, an electric jigsaw, a circular saw and screwdrivers.

A wooden staircase for a terrace with your own hands can be made in two ways:

  1. On kosoura - steps are laid on the support beam ...
  2. On the string - the steps are fixed between the support beams in the grooves made.

The first option is considered more reliable for street construction, therefore it is often recommended.

For kosour and steps, one board 5 - 6 cm in thickness is used, for a riser a thin board will suffice.

Installation

Stages

Installation is not very difficult and contains the following steps :

  • Measurements are taken and a drawing is prepared.
  • The location for the ladder is being prepared.
  • A concrete base is made on the surface, on which the ladder will rest, in order to prevent moisture from affecting the wood. For this purpose, use a "pillow" of sand and gravel, filled with cement.

    The resulting base should be more than 10 cm thick.

  • For stairs that are 90 cm wide, use at least three stringers. a triangle with a right angle. The distance between the steps is marked on the board, and then, using the triangle, markings are applied. For marking, take into account the thickness of the floor of the terrace and the concrete base.

  • For woodwork, use a hand-held circular saw or jigsaw.

Important! When working with a circular saw, it is not recommended to make cuts to the end, in order to complete the cut, it is better to use a hand saw.

  • After preparing the stringers steps and risers are cut out.If there is a desire to create a more elegant structure, you need to think over the exit of the step above the riser and kosoura.
  • The installation of a ladder begins with fixing the kosour to the terrace and concrete base.

    only then finally fix the structure.

  • After the installation of the stairs, steps and risers are installed, and the railing is made. The latter serve not only for safety, but also as an effective addition to the overall appearance of the entire terrace.

How does the construction of the stairs to the terrace begin?

construction features and recommendations + Photos and Videos Not a single private house is complete without the construction of stairs: they can be both on the street (to an open terrace or veranda, to the basement) and indoors (between floors, to the attic or attic).

Important! Even at the project stage, you should decide on additional extensions and structures in order to avoid double work.

Master the method of making stairs from the simplest! Sometimes you need small flights of stairs or beautifully designed interfloor transitions. It is possible that you may need a staircase from the veranda to the attic or another functional model. Structurally, all the stairs are very similar to each other, but if you do not have much experience, then it is better to start with the steps to the porch or make the stairs to the veranda.

Any staircase must be reliable, have a wide passage for lifting large-sized equipment and furniture, and have a beautiful aesthetic appearance. A staircase built by your own hands will be more valuable than a custom-made one.

Its complete appearance will impress both relatives and friends, and friends and neighbors.

What is the difference between external and internal staircases?

When choosing the optimal design, it is worth keeping in mind that a covered terrace or veranda belongs to outdoor premises. Without full glazing, the veranda is considered an open unheated space. Moreover, its manufacture will require materials that can withstand sudden temperature changes and adverse weather conditions.

If the veranda is glazed, then the staircase can be glazed both completely and partially, it can have uprights under the visor and other additional structural elements.

An outdoor staircase usually has handrails or railings. They not only have a beautiful aesthetic appearance, but, more importantly, they prevent people from falling down the steps, and help infirm people climb into the house. If you make gaps between the restrictive bumpers or balusters, then they should be such that a small child cannot climb between them and fall out of the outer stairs.

A two-flight staircase with an angled turn, mounted along two sides of a rectangular structure with handrails, looks very beautiful. And despite the fact that its implementation will require a considerable consumption of wood, it will be beautiful and reliable.

For greater splendor, planters and flower pots can be hung on the stairs, which will delight you throughout the summer.

Tip! Do not make a narrow outdoor staircase, it is better to leave space in stock in order to decorate it with flowers, and it will turn into the best decorative place in your home!

If the project is clearly worked out, then it certainly will assume a common staircase and veranda frame in order to reduce costs and increase the reliability and strength of the entire structure. It is ideal if the base of the veranda and the stairs are a single monolith, or at least constructively and aesthetically look like a single whole. If you are forced to build a frame of stairs later, then it is worth developing a project that will take into account all the features of this structure. There are no particularly stringent requirements for solidity to the installation of internal stairs, but one must not forget about the combination with the general interior of the house.

If you wish, you can buy a ready-made wooden staircase, if you are satisfied with its price and there is no free time for independent production.

Important! When developing a project, keep in mind that the angle of inclination of the staircase for the terrace must be comfortable and safe. It is necessary to build a boundary railing on the sides. A small foundation or support should be built at the base, buried in the ground.

The base of the external staircase leading to the terrace can be made on the basis of bricks or foam concrete blocks.

Since this is an open space, it is important to think ahead about treating the wood to prevent it from rotting. For this purpose, waterproofing is carried out or moisture-resistant wood is used.

If you decide to make a staircase to the terrace yourself, then the easiest way is to build it out of wood, especially if you have a special tool and basic skills. The step-by-step process of making an external staircase looks like this:

  • construction features and recommendations + Photos and Videos the base is prepared;
  • the number of steps and the interval between them are calculated;
  • the location of the upper step is outlined and the method of fastening is determined;
  • the stairs are mounted;
  • is supplemented with such elements as railings or handrails;
  • final stage.

Usually it is not required to mount a complex staircase on a low veranda, especially if the appropriate skills are lacking.

Often, a small flight of stairs with a small number of steps and railings is sufficient.

What you need to know about stairs?

A staircase is an inclined structure with steps at equal intervals between each other. It can be straight (single-march), screw, rotary (multi-march), with separate landings, complex semicircular shape

When making a staircase with your own hands, it is easy to make a mistake without having accurate calculations, therefore it is so important to make a detailed project with instructions on the exact dimensions ...

Before starting construction, review the finished drawings.

You also need to know the terms that are used to designate the components of the staircase:

  • construction features and recommendations + Photos and Videos stringers;
  • support;
  • handrails and railings;
  • risers;
  • tread (steps);
  • bowstring and others.

The frame of any classic staircase consists of two stringers, on which steps and risers are fixed. They are made of solid wood, so that the staircase can withstand the load of people going up and down for ten years.

It is also important to remember about furniture, equipment, which will also climb stairs and create additional load in addition to humans.

Do not make the steps too wide, they will increase the length of the ladder and, accordingly, the consumption of materials for it. Narrow steps are unsafe, and if the ascent to the terrace does not cause severe discomfort, then when descending, when the toe hangs down, it will be very uncomfortable. Basic calculations should be made in relation to the height of the stairs, the width of the steps, the length of the march, the height of the risers.

How to make basic calculations?

The width of the step is determined by the average human foot, when calculating the height of the step, the length of the step in movement on an inclined surface is taken into account, and the height of the riser is not must exceed the tread width. Tall and narrow steps make climbing difficult.

It is unsafe to climb and descend a steep staircase without railings, and it is difficult for two people to be in a narrow opening at the same time, especially when you need to bring wide and massive loads into the house.

Taking into account the above parameters, standard dimensions of stairs in the entrances of houses of the same type were developed. Therefore, it makes no sense to invent something new in this regard.You just need to check all the standards in relation to yourself, and if your foot and the foot of loved ones are of the average size, then you just take ready-made schemes and work according to them.

The height of the staircase on the terrace depends on the level of the terrace itself and the location of the support for the first tread.

In the drawing, the staircase is a straight triangle, where the largest segment is the span length, and the vertical side is the distance from the terrace floor to the ground. All basic calculations for measuring the number of steps and their width are tied to these values.

Important! Do not confuse the width of the step and the width of the staircase (step length)! The latter should be at least 80cm for comfortable use with a ladder.

The most convenient angle of inclination of the stairs is in the range from 30 ° to 45 °. If the angle is less, it will increase the length of the ladder and the consumption of materials for it.

With a stair tilt of 30 °, the optimal tread height is within 14 - 20 cm. Dividing the height indicator from the terrace floor to the ground by the step height indicator, we obtain the required number of steps. The design of a staircase with a turn involves 2-3 flights of stairs, as well as a landing.

Features of making kosour

Making kosour is one of the main stages of work on the stairs for the terrace. It is very important to mark the support beams correctly so that they are exactly the same, otherwise the flight of stairs will be skewed.

For them, you should choose a solid and seasoned array of standard moisture.

We mark the future steps in place so that the last tread is at the level of the terrace or instead of it and is of the required length. The markings are applied to a well-finished workpiece so that zigzag grooves can be conveniently cut with a grinder or other universal tool. The final adjustment can be done with a hand saw and a chisel.

The stringers are then anchored in the space provided for the ladder, while the platform or lower supports should already be in place.

Before proceeding with the manufacture of treads, it is necessary to verify all vertical and horizontal parameters using a plumb line and level, and after adjustment, proceed to the next stage of the staircase construction.

Where treads and risers are to be joined, experts recommend removing corners by a few millimeters for a comfortable fit. The pre-cut steps and risers are fixed with self-tapping screws, a screwdriver and / or a screwdriver, starting from the bottom step.

As soon as the main part of the stairs is assembled, you need to start arranging it on the sides - to make a railing for comfortable use. Side rails are made for safe movement to and from the open terrace.

The craftsman also decides whether there will be chiseled balusters or other restrictive elements. Decorative fragments or wood carvings will complete the look of the new staircase.

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