Frame walls are lightweight and fast-erected, very heat-consuming and low-cost, but they have a complex structure. The frame is the basis of the entire building, therefore, compliance with the technology of its construction is a fundamental indicator of the quality of the house. What is the cake of the wall of a frame house, is there a vapor barrier, what does the dew point mean and how to calculate it? How to avoid mistakes in the construction of such a structure and how such walls differ from brick ones - more on that later.
The technology of insulating frame walls must be observed at all stages of construction, starting with the construction of the base. Competent installation of the skeleton and its attachment to the bearing foundation is the key to effective wind and noise protection of the room.
The basic structure of a frame wall is a vertically installed beam and horizontal lintels. Moreover, the thicker the material, the worse it conducts heat. There may also be additional diagonal spacers or ties of individual structural elements. The quality of thermal insulation is determined by summing up the entire area of wood fibers in the section of the supporting structure. The quantity should not exceed 1/5 of the total surface area.
You can reduce the amount of lumber used to build a wall by developing your own frame structure, the device of which depends on the shape of the building and its use.
The wood of the walls of the frame house is used of high quality, with a low percentage of moisture (about 11-12). If the moisture content of the boards is increased by only a couple of percent, such thermal protection will become twice as cold. Especially popular for the thermal insulation of frame walls is a core board with a transverse direction of fibers. Depending on the type of wood and the conditions for observing the technology for installing the racks, their thermal conductivity can be reduced by up to 2 times.
Hard wood species have a higher density, due to which reduces the thermal conductivity of the material. When building energy-efficient houses, sometimes the frame is made using a different technology. It consists not only of beams and boards, but is additionally equipped with crossbeams that reduce cold bridges up to several times.
The outer walls of the structure should account for about 70% of the total the volume of the insulation. This should be taken into account when insulating a building.
Due to the structure of the frame, peculiar cells are created in it in order to lay insulation material there. On the inside and outside of the house, the material is covered with other layers of the "cake".
Structure " of the correct pie " of the frame wall type, in the direction from the inside of the building:
The material must be of high strength and quality so that it can withstand weather loads.
Tip: for the exterior design of the frame structure, do not use heavy slabs, such as stone, porcelain stoneware or clinker. The walls of the frame structure will not withstand such loads.
The advantages of skeletal walls include simplicity and speed of installation, heat capacity, compact design, budget and low weight.
To get a guaranteed result when erecting a frame-type structure, you must observe a number of rules. Considering the climatic and geological features of the region, as well as the operating conditions of the future structure, it is important to correctly determine the thickness of the outer walls and internal partitions. Otherwise, too thin supporting structures will make the house unsuitable for winter living, and too thick - to wasteful waste on extra materials.
When choosing a heater, give preference to materials with a high level of sound insulation, low thermal conductivity, good moisture resistance and low price.
To the frame structure lasted longer than the usual houses made of blocks or bricks, do not ignore the installation of waterproof membranes.When laying the insulation material, make sure that no cold bridges are formed. The difference between outside and inside temperatures, as well as the need to remove moisture from the inside of the building and from the walls, sets certain conditions for the selection of building materials and their characteristics, the order of alternation in the wall cake.
Internal walls perform their functions at a constant air temperature and a single microclimate. For these reasons, their arrangement looks much simpler than in the case of external frame walls.
Internal partitions do not need additional moisture protection, but they need sound insulation. The comfort of the residents will depend on the choice of a high-quality soundproof barrier.
Sound-absorbing materials used in the arrangement of internal frame partitions simultaneously perform the function of heat protection.
For these purposes, the following are most often used:
Consider what the walls of frame houses are made of. The material is chosen not only for aesthetic indicators, but also for its ability to withstand certain loads imposed on it.
The optimum material thickness is 150x200 or 200x200 mm.
Most often, when erecting frame walls, basalt or mineral wool, polystyrene or extruded polystyrene foam, sprayed insulation are used.
In some cases for construction walls of the frame structure, a galvanized or aluminum profile is used in combination with foam concrete or its foamed analogue. This approach allows you to build a more reliable structure in the shortest possible time.
Waterproof and vapor barrier membranes, as well as materials for wind protection, are films that differ from traditional polyethylene by their internal porous structure. The structure of such a film allows moisture to seep in only one direction, blocking all return paths. Foil material can be used to protect against moisture.
This film is vapor-tight and can withstand high temperatures. It is advisable to use it in places where heating and heating devices are installed.
As with any building, a frame house needs its own project with exact dimensions and taking into account all the nuances.
It is better to entrust this task to a professional. The specialist will agree with you all the wishes and technical issues, help you choose a competent layout, make an estimate for building materials and installation work.
To clearly establish the thickness of the frame walls, analyze all the materials used, the methods of their fastening and the climatic features of the region. Also, in the project, the master will take into account all contact connections, pipeline nodes and the laying of communications with the most convenient location.
Having a project during construction, you will clearly know where to place which element and how to attach it correctly. Everything will be taken into account to the smallest details.
A detailed drawing with a supporting element of a frame house in section will help you better understand the technology of its device, determine for yourself the sequence of installation of each layer "sandwich" and the placement of materials.Also, the scheme will help prevent mistakes when installing such important elements as load-bearing walls and interior walls.
Today, many projects of frame structures type with diagrams are made in special programs for a PC, where it is enough to enter some data and the system itself will make a detailed drawing.
The program requires the following parameters:
The scheme of the future wall includes the following:
The last point includes the sequence of layers of the "sandwich" and the parameters of the materials used (type, thickness, method of fastening, etc.).
The disadvantage of a drawing developed on a computer is that the electronic brain will not make an estimate for the work and will not analyze the characteristics of the soil and climate to draw up the correct project.
No matter how original the exterior of a frame house and the design of rooms inside, the sandwich of the inner and outer walls remains practically unchanged.
Once again, remember the structure of the supporting structures:
The structure of the internal partition looks much simpler. In addition to the frame and heat and sound insulation, there is sheet cladding and internal decorative trim on the walls.
The structure of the framing wall may differ slightly depending on the material used. Let's consider the most common options.
This option ideally meets the need for good sound insulation. Its device consists in the following sequence of works. From the outside, wood-shaving material is stuffed onto the frame with foliage, and a hydro-barrier with a windproof function is attached to the top with a stapler.
Membrane joints are glued with aluminum tape. Further, counter-lattice and decorative trim are stuffed. From the inside, mineral wool is laid into the cells of the frame, a vapor barrier film is attached in the same way as from the outside. Sheet material is stuffed with subsequent finishing or decorative panels are mounted.
Mineral wool is very hygroscopic, therefore such a cake is very important to seal the cotton layer as much as possible.
Basalt wool is better than mineral wool in that the material is resistant to mold and mildew, is not afraid of moisture and vibrations.
Sandwich materials used for frame walls in this case are no different from the previous technology.
OSB ( oriented strand boards)
OSB sheets are used to make the erected structure more rigid and stable. Installed as a base for further finishing, as well as an additional sound insulator and insulation.
The arrangement of the cake in this case is no different from the previous options.
The only thing is that the insulation itself can be chosen differently, for example, polyurethane foam or foam.
What is Finnish technology and how does it differ from other methods of frame construction? There are two main technologies in the construction of frame houses - Canadian and Finnish (Scandinavian). The main difference between them is that the first option implies the preparation of structural elements directly at the installation site, and in the second case, most of the structural elements are manufactured in the factory and arrive at the construction site already ready-made.
The order of work when assembling the walls in Scandinavian method:
The nodes of the walls of a frame house are the places where they are fastened to each other and to the base.
The corners of the wall frame must be reinforced with additional posts.
The uprights of the supporting frame are nailed to the beams with three 9 cm long nails. If the vertical structure is erected directly on the strapping of beams or lintels, the third nail is driven directly into it. When installing interior partitions, the frame racks are nailed with one fastening element.
For example, the Americans came up with a method using double racks mounted above and below the openings. Above the opening, a header from the board is attached, under the opening horizontal boards, which subsequently hold the weight of the installed structure. Finnish technology provides a crossbar instead of a header.
Jibs cut into the lower and upper strapping of the beams. They are used without fail if you do not plan to use OSB sheets or plywood for sheathing the frame. Jibs can be wooden or metal.
An angle is made according to the 2 + 1 scheme, where the third stand is nailed to one of the extreme and forms a full angle. The racks are connected with five 90 mm nails.
For comparison, consider the structure of a brick wall. With modern requirements for heat protection, hygroscopicity, thermal conductivity, fire resistance, sound insulation, etc., the construction of walls of a brick house from only bricks and mortar is not possible.
In order to meet all the necessary indicators of the regions of our country, the thickness of a brick wall in a modern building must be at least 3 m.Such a construction scheme provides for the use of excess space and the use of a large amount of materials, so the cake of a brick wall that meets all standards today does not consist of only one "dough".
The new generation brick wall consists of several layers. Variations may vary depending on specific requirements and conditions.
Three options for the brick wall cake
|Cake # 1||Cake # 2||Pie # 3|
| facing brick (1.2 cm); |
external plaster (1 cm);
steel mesh up to 0.5 cm in diameter for good adhesion;
Styrofoam sheets (maximum 1.2 cm);
red solid brick, 25 cm;
lime mortar or plaster (3 cm).
| clinker tiles (1. |
exterior plaster (1.5 cm);
steel mesh for adhesion (0.5 cm);
expanded polystyrene (8 cm);
red solid brick (up to 40 cm);
inner layer of plaster (2.5 cm).
| cm layer of decorative exterior plaster;
2 cm layer of lime mortar;
foam plastic with a maximum layer of 8 cm;
ceramic hollow brick (50 cm);
cm layer of internal plaster.
The following video will clearly show the process of insulating a brick wall:
When constructing the walls of a frame house, many novice builders make seemingly simple mistakes that , in the end, can lead to fatal consequences.
Incorrectly installed vapor barrier membrane ..
. The film for removing moisture from the insulation has a porous structure, and moisture can penetrate through the membrane only in one direction. So, if the film is installed on the wrong side, the liquid, instead of coming out, will accumulate between the membranes, wet the insulation and lead to damage to the structure.
Ignoring the use of moisture-proof films leads to wetting of the insulation and rotting of the supporting structures of the frame structure.
Lack of waterproofing layer between the lower strapping and the concrete base will lead to early wetting and rotting of the structure, since the concrete quickly gives up all the saturated moisture, so it is better to be insured.Two layers of roofing material are often used as a waterproofing agent.
Wrong choice of lumber. If you purchase a timber with a moisture level of only a couple of percent higher than the permissible level, this will lead to deformation of the frame and destruction of the structure.
Using the wrong hardware.
A common mistake is to fasten the supporting frame with self-tapping screws intended for interior decoration of the house. The hardened steel from which they are made is a rather brittle material that cannot withstand heavy loads. The supporting structure is fastened only with nails.
If you do not provided ventilation during the planning and construction of the house, its absence, in addition to the poor health of the residents, will lead to a high level of humidity in the room, fogging of the windows.
Frame buildings require a detailed project and strict adherence to technology.
Deviation from the accepted norms during construction can lead to a lot of inconvenience, both during work and during the operation of the building. The cake of the wall of a frame house is a complex structure in which the correct selection of materials and a clear sequence of their laying are important in compliance with all the rules. Successful construction!
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
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Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020