correctly and step by step - Review + Video

correctly and step by step - Review + Video The foundation is the basis of every residential building. The operational characteristics of the building, its stability, strength and safety depend on its strength and reliability. After all, it is he who takes on the main load from the entire structure, which is why its competent construction is so important.

The strip foundation is affordable and quite popular: the choice often falls on it when building baths, houses and private garages. It is much more economical than its pile counterpart, at the same time it is much more functional.

Strip foundations are the best suited for the construction of dwellings with an actively used basement.

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Preparatory work

Preparation of the project for the device of the future foundation

correctly and step by step - Review + Video First of all: the design and construction organization will have to order a geodetic survey to determine the type of soil, how much it is able to freeze in winter, the presence and depth of groundwater at plot. Also, this company will perform the necessary calculations and draw up a project for the device of the future foundation.

If the planned building is small, you can do all the necessary measures yourself. For the construction of a cottage or other large-scale structure, it is advisable to turn to professionals.

Preparation of materials

Usually high-quality concrete of two hundred grade is used for such works. The mixture can be made independently, or you can order ready-made. The process is quite laborious, which explains the heterogeneity of the base, filled with separate portions.

The composition of concrete for the manufacture of strip base includes:

  • cement, gravel and coarse sand in a standard ratio;
  • clean sand (river ) for arranging a pillow;
  • 2-cm planed board for the manufacture of formwork;
  • wire for reinforcement and steel rod 8-12 mm in diameter.

correctly and step by step - Review + Video

From markup to fill

Site marking

correctly and step by step - Review + Video One of the important steps is marking the site for the foundation.

First, the site is freed from foreign objects and small debris. Further, all the soil from the site is cut to about 15 cm depth to further limit the processes of decay in the basement of the building.

How to markup?

  1. Find the location of the first corner of the building axis. With the help of a plumb line, pegs are installed: they can serve as suitable pieces of reinforcement.
  2. Find the following angles , the second and third with the help of twine and pegs.

    Pegs are installed there too.

  3. Pull the cord in the direction of the fourth from the previous ones, make the correct angle along the square, and put a peg.
  4. Check the diagonals of the resulting rectangle repeating the outer perimeter of the building. They should be even if the corners are correct.
  5. Similarly, outline the internal foundation , as well as its parts for individual components: a porch, supports for columns, a terrace, load-bearing walls.

  6. Install slats or planks made of wood to level the markings in the horizontal plane, pull the rope through them.

Earthworks

  1. correctly and step by step - Review + Video It is necessary to prepare a trench with a given depth , calculated in advance (or specified in the project).
    Start digging from the lowest angle so that the hole is not smaller than the intended one. Its walls must be strictly vertical. The bottom is leveled.

  2. A layer of sand with a thickness of at least 15 cm is placed in the excavated pit.
    This pillow will play an important role in redistributing the load on the base. This is especially true for soils capable of swelling. Sand is poured in layers, each of which is soaked in water and compacted well.

Temporary supports should be made to prevent soil shattering!

Formwork

correctly and step by step - Review + Video Use a rope to mark the contour for the formwork.

Install supports at the corners. This requires bars with a thickness of 5 centimeters.

The formwork is made from edged boards, which are connected using corners with self-tapping screws or wooden blocks.

Corners and bars are located outside the formwork, the caps of the screws remain inside.

To avoid deformation of the structure when pouring the cement mass, props are placed outside.

The formwork must rise above the ground to such a height that the resulting foundation is at least 30 cm. The level to which the concrete is poured is marked inside the foundation.

Rebar

  1. correctly and step by step - Review + Video Requires 8-12 mm metal bar , which are cut into pieces of the desired length.
    They are placed along and across the base, and if it is thicker than 40 cm, then also vertically.
  2. The reinforcement is firmly tied together with metal wire, and securely fixed to the walls of the formwork.

Welding violates the corrosion resistance of the material in the places of its impact, therefore it is not recommended to use it!

The process of pouring the strip foundation under the house

correctly and step by step - Review + Video If concrete is ordered, then pouring is carried out at one time, at once. Layer-by-layer filling is done if the mass is prepared on its own.

Step-by-step pouring of the strip foundation

  1. First, the concrete is prepared.
    The sand is sieved, mixed with cement and water, and evenly stirred. Crushed stone is poured with the prepared composition, the amount of which is equal to the amount of sand.

    Mix well so that all the crushed stone is evenly moistened.

  2. Concrete mixture is poured into the self-made formwork.
    For high-quality filling and elimination of the formation of bubbles, concrete is pierced with an iron bar and compacted with a timber bar.It is more convenient to use a special construction mixer or a perforator with a nozzle for this.
  3. Fill the formwork with concrete mixture to the marked level.


    To accelerate the settling of concrete, tap the formwork from the outside.

  4. Smooth the surface of concrete with a trowel or rule.
  5. The concrete mirror is sprinkled with sifted dry cement powder.
    Do this evenly through a sieve. This procedure will provide quick setting of the concrete surface, prevent cracking or erosion.

  6. The concrete is wrapped with a covering material or ordinary burlap.
    Leave it like this for about a month to ripen. If the weather is hot and dry, then the upper cement layer is periodically wetted to avoid drying out.

Completion of work and useful tips

Only after the final maturation of the concrete monolith can you proceed to further construction and start building walls.

When the formwork is removed, it is necessary to perform a high-quality waterproofing of the base.

This will improve the moisture-insulating and heat-preserving functions of the strip foundation, as well as increase its service life.

Helpful hints

  • It is better to make sure in advance that the ordered machine will fill the concrete mix from any angle.
  • It is advisable to take care of making an additional tray: the composition will be fed into it.
  • The mortar must be checked before pouring - sometimes it hardens a little during transportation.
  • In the rain, provide a secure cover, otherwise the top layer of cement can be washed away with jets of water.

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