Classical architecture is a rare phenomenon in our time, but some of the most interesting elements have survived and are successfully used - including in the construction of houses. And if a couple of centuries ago, decorative elements for the facade were hewn out of stone and were an integral part of the wall, today they are overhead details that are installed in the right places and give the building a finished and elegant look. It is only important to correctly choose the proportions and correctly place the products on the facade.
Talk about front elements, without taking into account the material used in the construction of the walls, it would be wrong, because it is he who, by and large, is the basis of the style. And if this is a log cabin, the texture of which it was decided to leave in plain sight, it will not in any way become like a classic mansion, no matter what decorative elements are used to refine its facade.
Wooden buildings have their own architecture and styles, most often reflecting the life of the people from the hinterland of a particular country, and united by the common name of country (rural ). But there is also a wonderful style of the Russian estate (tower) - it is replete with details that have their own name.
For example, in a traditional Russian house, the ridge element of the roof (ochlupen) was always decorated, connecting the slopes at the top, and which was assigned the leading role. Its production assumed the manifestation of the creative abilities of the owners and introduced an element of competition between them.
Among Europeans, on a skate at home, most often one could see the figure or head of an animal, including a mythological one.
But most often it was a horse, which is why this part got the name "horse". However, everything here depended on the specific ethnicity of the people.
The artistic forms of most of the elements of a wooden dwelling (platbands, porches, gables, balconies) have changed over time, giving the opportunity to get more variety, to give the home a visual identity. Craftsmen who know how to work with wood have always been held in high esteem, their work was highly valued and they passed on their traditions and skills from generation to generation.
Today, handicraft is rare, and you can only see it at exhibitions.
There is nothing to be done, nowadays, people are often replaced by technology - including when it comes to woodcarving. These wonderful lace cornices and trims, which we see in the presented photos, were made not by hand, but on CNC milling machines.
Speaking of the decorative elements used to decorate the facades, one cannot fail to mention such an interesting option as half-timbered houses. Initially, it was a kind of the building's supporting frame, when filling in which the edges of beams, struts and racks remained in sight.
This style appeared in the 14th century in Germany and spread throughout many European countries.
Such houses were not only incredibly durable, but also acquired an unusual appearance. The facade, with lines drawing it into geometric shapes, became a visiting card, and gave impetus to the emergence of the half-timbered style.
In elite Russian settlements, you can increasingly see houses stylized as French Provence, English classics , luxurious baroque or trendy hi-tech. But ordinary homeowners are especially fond of the German style, which is characterized by a combination of restraint and comfort. Read more about German-style houses in a special article.
In this style, houses are not built from us, except that some borrow elements for the design of the roof and sub-eaves of the walls. It looks very nice, and this design option can be used not only for a house built of wood, but also lined with it. In brick buildings, such decorative elements will be just as irresistible.
The construction technology led to the emergence of the architectural style of the same name, which is still used today. Moreover, not only on the facades, but also in the interiors.
For this, ordinary slats and bars are used, you just need to come up with a beautiful composition.
Note! Most often, the outer walls of frame houses are decorated in this style. After all, they are sheathed outside with wood-polymer boards (OSB), which are then putty and painted. And with the help of a decorative bar, you can also additionally protect the joints between the sheets from moisture and the formation of cold air bridges.
By the way, so that you don't have to worry about the safety of the jointing itself, you can make it not from ordinary, but from composite wood.
It is suitable for decorating buildings in loft, high-tech, minimalism, modern styles.
In some In regions, natural stone is a local inexpensive material from which blocks for the construction of walls are cut, and facade tiles are made.In this case, architectural elements made of the same stone with a similar texture, and not concrete, and even more so foam, will look most harmonious in the exterior of the building.
For these purposes, various rocks of dolomite, shell rock, limestone are used, which are easy to process, have a uniform surface and are not too heavy. On the stone facade, the decor made of the same species looks like a whole.
The disadvantages of volcanic rocks are their porosity, and, accordingly, a high coefficient water absorption. Over time, it gets dirty, it can be covered with moss, and therefore requires regular maintenance. The use of hydrophoretic impregnations helps to prevent such negative phenomena, with which the stone has to be processed every five years. But what can you do, for the sake of beauty you always have to sacrifice something - including putting up with the high costs of installation.
The naturalness of materials in the case of facades is not a priority, since they are not as durable as we would like - not to mention the high cost, sometimes two to three times higher than the price of analogues.
In most cases, they are used in the design of facades, especially since modern technologies make it possible to produce lightweight and sufficiently strong elements quickly and at minimal cost.
What materials are used in this case, we will tell you a little later, but for now we will consider what these details are in appearance, and what is their purpose.
Table 1. Facade elements.
|Element and its appearance||Comment|
| What is cornice, we think everyone knows.
Nevertheless, let us clarify that this is a horizontally installed figured element that visually separates the planes of the walls of the floors from each other, or from the basement or pediment. Can, as in the photo, crown the perimeter of the gable wall.
| The upper part of the building can be used as a simple cornice, and the entablature, which is a combination of three architectural elements. In this case, a frieze is mounted below the cornice, and then an architrave. It turns out a very beautiful composition that has come down to us from ancient architecture.
|This is not only a decorative, but also a structural element of the building carrying certain loads. The column consists of three parts (base, body (trunk) and capitals), each of which itself can serve as a decoration for the facade.It does not apply to hinged decor; such architectural elements must be provided for in the project and erected during the construction of the facility.|
| If you really want to arrange according to all the canons of classical architecture the most ordinary, unremarkable building, it is better to pay attention to such a detail as a pilaster. Its task is precisely to create the appearance of a column where it is not.
Platband and slope
|Platbands are vertical elements of the frame of openings, which help to visually highlight them and make them more expressive and accurate. They are often used in tandem with slopes covering surfaces adjacent directly to the frame. From above, the platbands can be combined with a cornice or a sandrick.|
| A decorative window sill is a molded product protruding beyond the wall plane , which, as in our example, can combine two windows at once. Very often this element is combined with brackets.
The window sill part of the wall can be supplemented with other decor options in the form of frames made of moldings, panels, patterns, etc.
| The dormer is usually provided in the pediment or gable part of the building in order to have at least some natural light in the attic and the ability to ventilate it. Very often, such a window is located on the main facade, and also needs a beautiful frame.
Since the dimensions of these windows are non-standard, and their shape can be round, oval, or generally triangular, the elements for their framing are made only to order. Such windows adorn the facade very much; in the absence of them, you can mount a false window, which is also a kind of decor.
|A pattern is called various types of ornaments that make up there is a certain plot on the facade. A single pattern can be mounted only in a certain place: on the pediment, under the windows or between them. As for the molded patterns, they usually encircle the walls along the perimeter in the sub-eaves or between floors.|
| Sandrik performs the same function as the cornice, but above the opening, it looks much more interesting. If the cornice is just a profiled horizontal strip, then the sandrik is a voluminous element and looks like a mini-roof or an arch above the door.
It gives the opening a certain solemnity and romance. This is an element of ancient architecture, but it is still very popular today.
|This element has many names. Modillon may be pronounced modion, but modern manufacturers call it a bracket or console. The detail in this case is purely decorative, but visually creates the impression that it supports the roof, windowsill or balcony.|
|Another decorative element that has several names: bossage, brama, bossage. Here it is most often called rust. It is something like a tile with a beautiful bevel around the perimeter, which is used to decorate the corners of a building, walls, and an entrance group.|
Portico with a tympanum
| A portico is not called a separate decorative an element, but a structural part of the building, which is something like a gallery or porch under the roof, the front part of which rests on columns (tympanum). This element can be the most noticeable on the facade, and therefore should be beautifully decorated.
For this purpose, beautiful rosettes, piece patterns are used, or panels are made in this place.
Overhead arches and arched profile
| Arch - the most ancient and very beautiful architectural element. For lining openings that have a spherical shape, a flexible polyurethane profile is used, which can be easily shaped into the desired shape.
When using in the production of more rigid materials such as duropolymer (high density polystyrene foam), the arch is divided into segments with a given radius, which are interconnected during installation. The keystone can crown it.
Note! The façade can also be fitted with overhead foam arches supported from below by brackets. Their curved part is also finished with an arched profile.
| The term "lock stone "came to us from brick architecture. This is how it calls an odd brick in the center of an arch or arcuate lintel, on which the radial masonry rests on both sides. To be able to round off the row, the castle was given a truncated shape.
It looks very interesting, so this idea began to be used as a facade decor. A decorative lock is installed in the center of the cornice or arch, which stands out for its volume, shape and surface relief.
| A fillet is a small rectangular frame framing image, pattern or other decorative element. The panel is either recessed or voluminous, and in any case creates a beautiful relief on the surface. It can even be an empty frame with no inner filling.
|Molding is a molded element made in the form of a profiled strip , with which you can visually highlight any part of the building: corners, columns, chimneys, window sill or piers, make the same panels mentioned above or a false window.|
|We all know that a baluster is called a classic curly detail of filling a parapet or stair railing.A false baluster is an overlay element, similar to a baluster cut along the length. On the facade, they are used to decorate panoramic windows or window-sill areas, thus creating the appearance of a balcony railing.|
As you can see, there are a lot of varieties of decor.
But this does not mean that you need to use everything at once in the design of the facade. So that the house does not look like a Christmas tree hung with toys, you need to correctly make a combination of elements, taking into account the proportions of the building, the number and shape of openings and the presence of protruding walls.
In general, as in the case of the interior, here you need to show a certain artistic taste or entrust the solution of the issue to professionals.
Materials of natural origin, which we talked about at the beginning of the article, are mainly used when the house itself is built, or at least revetted, from them. In other cases, the best choice is products made of polymers or composites based on them.
Today they make beautiful snow-white decor, replacing plaster moldings.
Let's consider the options in more detail.
Facade decor made of foam
This general name unites a group of new types of concrete, which were created in order to eliminate the disadvantages of traditional concrete. In them, the cement or lime binder is completely or partially replaced by polyester resins. At the same time, the first thing that we manage to get rid of is the nondescript gray color of the cement, which the architects highly appreciated.
Polymer-based concretes began to be used to create original architectural products, due to which the new name "architectural concrete" was stuck to the material.
We will not go into details of its manufacture, as there are several technologies.
But what is the result in relation to the facade decor, you see in the photo. This is a hollow product (maximum wall thickness 12 mm) with mounting brackets installed on it, the front side of which simulates a part of a real column or baluster.
By adding marble chips, sandstone, dolomite to the composition, you can get a fairly strong, durable and beautiful artificial stone , which manufacturers refer to as "arch-stone". It is difficult to distinguish it from natural stone by its appearance.
It lacks the latter's disadvantages associated with the porous structure and hygroscopicity.
By the same principle, decor is made of glass fiber reinforced concrete. The only difference is that in this concrete the binder is not replaced by polymer, but instead of the reinforcing filler, which is usually crushed stone, glass fiber is added. It also replaces metal reinforcement, therefore, not only hollow imitations are made from such mixtures, but also some types of supporting structures.
Glass-filled concrete is more durable than polymer-based concrete and is much cheaper.
Therefore, not only piece decor is made of it, but also complete facade cladding: tiles, decorative panels and panels, bas-reliefs and much more.
Relatively new the material that is used today in the production of facade decor is glass composite. It also uses fiberglass, but here it is not added to traditional cement concrete, but to polyester resin.
High strength plastic is obtained, which is used in various fields - for example, window and door profiles are produced. The material is very strong and durable, withstands long-term loads and is not afraid of low temperatures.
And most importantly, it has a very low weight, which is very important for overhead elements.
If such large details as pilasters, parts of columns or balustrades are better made of modified concrete, then arched profiles, cornices, rosettes or ornaments are often offered in a polymer version. These are various types of foams that differ only in density, as well as polyurethane.
The latter, even without painting, has a complete resemblance to gypsum, therefore the name "polyurethane stucco molding ". This decor option is most convenient for decorating walls or openings with a spherical surface, as it is very plastic and bends well.
Its only drawback is its high price. One two-meter molding with a width of 7 mm costs about 900 rubles. And the larger the element, the more expensive it is, and the cost of some molded products (cornices, for example, exceeds 5000 rubles). Therefore, the preferences of private customers are most often given to cheaper foam.
Parts made of expanded polystyrene, the low weight of which allows them to be made bulky, are coated with a protective layer in production, polished so that the granular structure is not visible.
It costs, in comparison with other types of decor, mere pennies (even cheaper without cover).
The simplest decor can be cut out of foam plastic plates yourself.The downside is the fact that the products shrink over time, and cracks appear where they join each other, which periodically have to be repaired. However, everyone understands that cheap and high-quality - the concepts are not always compatible.
However, some homeowners are not embarrassed by such trifles as cracks, and they figure out how to give the facade a more interesting appearance on their own.
For example, you can create protrusions on a wall using regular foam strips.
Table 2. Installation of foam decor.
Step 1 - cutting strips
|Measure one strip and use it as a template for cutting the rest.|
Step 2 - kneading the glue
| Mixing the glue for installing the insulation - it is sold dry, in 25 kg paper bags.
Step 3 - Applying the adhesive
|Apply the adhesive with a notched trowel the back of the stripes.|
Step 4 - planting the foam on the glue
|By preliminary marking, make gluing.|
Step 5 - drilling for mechanical fastening
| Let the glue take hold, and you can fix the foam mechanically. First drill a hole .. |
Step 6 - fixing with a dowel
|… then install a disc dowel in it.|
Step 7 - sealing the attachment points
|When all strips are installed , seal the attachment points with glue.|
Step 8 - the first layer of plaster
| Use the same glue to plaster .. |
. First apply the first layer ...
Step 9 - mesh reinforcement
|… and recessed the fiberglass strips into it.
Step 10 - the second layer of plaster
|Finish the plastering process with the second layer and let the layer dry. You just have to finish the entire wall. The protruding decor can be highlighted in a different color, or, having decorated it in the same way as the entire wall, be content with only an interesting relief.|
Using the factory decor is much easier, since it does not need to be plastered. Considering that its front surface has already been brought to the required quality, after installation you will only have to paint it.
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