Decorating the facade with decorative stone is a long-known and widely used technique for decorating the outer walls of a house. The variety of textures of the facing material allows you to transform the building beyond recognition. Thanks to the decoration with decorative stone, you can make the old building stylish and modern and artificially age the new building.
Decorative stone for outdoor decoration
Decorative home decoration
There are only two main types of decorative stone:
Natural stone for outdoor decoration
Natural stone for plinth finishes
Each of these finishing materials has its own merits.
Natural stone has a solid, presentable appearance and has a special energy that gives the building a peculiar aura of reliability and prosperity. But finishing the facade with this material is an expensive pleasure. Therefore, many homeowners choose an equally spectacular, but inexpensive artificial stone.
Artificial stone, facade decoration
The following types of natural stone are most popular:
The strongest and most durable are granite and marble.
They are also the most expensive. Therefore, they are rarely used for full-fledged facade cladding over the entire area of the walls. Most often, granite and marble are used to decorate entrance lobbies, window openings and individual building elements.
Marble and granite
Travertine is widely used to decorate buildings in the antique style. This stone has a porous structure, so its surface is covered with a special mastic, which prevents cracking and significantly increases the service life of the finishing material.
Some types of travertine outwardly resemble the bark of an old tree, dotted with winding cracks.
Travertine stone, tiles
Shell and sandstone are malleable and affordable. These natural stones, along with dolomite and limestone, are most often used for cladding the facades of old and new buildings. This finish is able to withstand the harshest conditions, strong and durable.
Natural shell rock
Artificial decorative stone is an excellent alternative to natural.
It has an equally long service life, capable of imitating all the features of natural stone. In addition, artificial has several advantages:
Natural stone for facade cladding is sold in the form of hewn slabs polished on both sides, or stones processed only on one back side. In the second case, the unique natural texture of the surface is preserved, and at the same time it becomes possible to easily glue the stone to the facade.
The main difficulty in choosing a natural finishing material lies in the uniqueness of the color of each product.
There are no monochromatic natural stones. Each has several contiguous shades of the base color. When facing large areas, you need to purchase several lots, the color of the stones in which may differ significantly. This will significantly complicate the work of facing the facade.
The combination of natural stone and brick
Experts advise to proceed as follows: select several stones as a sample and check how different the color range of products in different batches.
To do this, the stones must be placed next to each other. If you evaluate the difference in color from a distance, there is a high probability of error.
The design of the house combines cladding made of artificial and natural stone
Each color has been proven to have an impact on the psyche and create certain visual effects. For example, blue and green marble is used to emphasize the official and business atmosphere of office buildings.
Finishing the facade with marble
Brown, yellow, beige, pink are considered "warm" shades.
Stones with this color will give the building a residential and cozy look, provide the flavor of friendliness and hospitality. No wonder that shell rock and limestone are so popular in the decoration of houses. In the color range of these stones "warm" tones are predominantly present.
There is one more argument in favor of choosing a finishing material of lighter colors: such stones heat up less under the sun's rays. Therefore, during the summer heat, it will be cooler inside the premises than when decorating the outer walls with dark-colored material.
Facade cladding with torn limestone
Facade cladding with limestone
The primary task that will need to be solved is to prepare the facade for finishing with natural stone. This material is heavy, so the supporting base must be strong. To fix the stones, use special adhesive mixtures based on cement and water-soluble polymers.
If the house was built a long time ago, reinforcement of the wall surface will be required. This process includes several stages.
The method of preliminary plastering is most often used to strengthen the facade.
It includes several stages.
Step 1. First coat - spraying with slurry. A mixture is prepared from 1 part of cement and 3 parts of sifted sand, water is added until the consistency of liquid sour cream is obtained. Apply the solution by spraying with a paint or whitewash brush.
Leave until complete set.
Step 2. Attach the metal plaster mesh to the wall. To do this, first drill holes for dowels. For 1 m 2 area, 10-16 dowels and the corresponding number of holes are required.
The mesh is attached with an overlap of 5-7 cm.
Fixed reinforcing mesh
Scheme of fixing mesh
Step 3. Prepare a solution from 4- x parts of sand and 1 part of cement. Throw this mixture over the plaster mesh. The consistency of the solution should resemble soft butter.
For mixing, quarry, pre-sieved sand is used.
Applying mortar over mesh
Applying cement-sand mortar
In order to fill all mesh cells, apply the first layer of mortar with a trowel or spatula from top to bottom. Then a new portion of the solution is collected and applied with movements from side to side: from left to right and from right to left. The layer thickness must be at least 10 mm.
After 20-25 minutes, until the solution has hardened, give the plastered surface a relief appearance. To complete this task, you will need a special trowel with a serrated metal blade. It is held at a slight slope to the wall and carried over a slightly hardened layer of cement-sand mortar.
Use a notched trowel to create a ribbed surface of the mass
Rectangular grooves will remain in the plaster. They will provide high-quality adhesion of the facing stone to the wall surface.
In this way, walls in need of reinforcement are prepared, not only for sticking natural, but also artificial stone.
Natural stones do not have the correct geometric shape. Therefore, their preliminary adjustment and revision will be required.
Step 1. The first stage is the selection of stones.
To do this, take a polyethylene sheet and spread it on a flat surface (it is possible on the ground). The stones are laid out so that the distance between them is at least 8 mm. Some facade decorators leave finger-width gaps. For the top and bottom rows, select stones of the same height. In this case, the cladding will look more harmonious.
Place the stones on a flat surface, number if necessary
Layout example stone to the floor, adjustment to size
Step 2. Refinement of stones.
Corner pieces are required for the facade. In order to make them, a grinder with a diamond disc is used. A stone of suitable thickness is selected and a cut is cut in it in the form of a right angle.
If necessary, knock down protrusions and other excess fragments with a hammer and chisel.
Align the back of the stones in the same way. The one that will be adjacent to the wall of the house. If the protruding part of the stone is too large, make preliminary cuts with a grinder. Then they hit this place with a hammer from top to bottom.
The split should be relatively flat.
For fixing stones, cement-based adhesive mixtures are used. The most popular are the following:
Maxiplix T-16 professional dust-free glue for marble, granite, porcelain stoneware and natural stone
To improve the adhesion of adhesive mixtures with plaster perform priming of walls with special priming solutions.
Applying a primer
It is necessary to select compounds intended for external work.
Primers of this type are distinguished by higher moisture and frost resistance, resistant to temperature extremes. These are the primers "Osnovit", "Betonokontakt", "Facade Grunt", etc.
Water acrylic facade primer
The primer is applied on the walls with a spray gun, roller or paint brush. The adhesive mixture is prepared for use in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Stones are glued as follows:
5 cm thick, apply a solution (glue mixture) to the back of the stone, use a trowel or spatula;
Applying glue to the stone
Gluing the stone
If during the gluing process the glue mixture gets into the gaps between the stones, remove the excess solution. Do not allow glue to get on the face of the stone. If this happens, remove the stains with a damp cloth before drying. When facing the corners of a house, the same distance is left between the stones as when decorating the walls.
Glue Basin Maxiplix
The gaps between the stones can be filled with the same adhesive or special grouting mixtures. For filling the gaps, special bags for grouting are used. These are cone-shaped products from which the grout is squeezed into the gap. The tip of the bag is cut so that the width of the hole matches the width of the gap between the stones. To squeeze out the mixture, the top of the bag is twisted or squeezed.
Thus, the grout moves to the corner cut, from which it enters the gap.
Putting grout into the cone
Grouting with grout
Then the grout is left to harden for 50-60 minutes. Readiness is determined by pressing a finger. If there are no dents on the seam, it is ready for leveling. Excess grout is removed using any suitable tool or device.
You can use flat sticks of wood or plastic, the width of which matches the width of the gap.
Sewing vertical seams
The seams are made in two ways:
After completing this stage of work, the seams are cleaned with a brush with stiff bristles.
Sweep the excess with a brush
If the natural stone has a relatively loose structure, the lined walls are treated with any of the water repellents. This will significantly extend the life of the finishing layer.
Hydrophobizator GKZH 11
Using decorative artificial stone, you can transform a house so that it becomes outwardly distinguishable from a solid mansion. To do this, you need to choose and stick the finishing material correctly.
Any artificial stone for external work is made of cement, sand, various fillers and dyes. Thanks to the use of special forms and technologies of vibrocasting and vibrocompression, products are obtained that accurately repeat the color and relief of natural stones. Moreover, artificial ones are just as strong, beautiful and durable.
Making decorative stone, pouring into a mold
Decorative stones made on the basis of gypsum or acrylic resins are not suitable for facing facades ... They (stones) are suitable for decorating walls and decorative elements in the interior of the house. Therefore, when making an independent decorative stone for a facade, only those technologies that involve the use of cement and polymers are considered.
The manufacturing process of such products consists of several stages.
With the help of vibration casting technology, stones with correct geometric shapes are obtained. This greatly facilitates the process of laying them on the walls of the house. When choosing artificial stones, it is important to pay attention to the following points:
In the photo, an artificial stone is taken out of the mold
Decorative stone "Clinker brick"
Decorative clinker stone is made in the form of facing bricks or tiles imitating brickwork.
All these products are moisture-resistant, frost-resistant, capable of withstanding significant temperature changes. Among the advantages of these products are UV resistance, due to which the color of bricks or tiles does not change when exposed to the sun's rays.
Clinker imitating the texture of the brick surface
All manufacturers of artificial stone produce collections of products, including stones with different surface relief and made in different colors. So, the same stone, imitating, for example, natural sandstone, will have a different name, depending on the name of the collection.
Clinker tiles for fired brick
Artificial granite and marble is made from a cement-sand mixture with the addition of pigments and polyester resins.
This composition has its own name: polymer concrete. Production is carried out in accordance with TU 4940-001-00284581-2002.
Artificial decorative stones are highly durable and outwardly indistinguishable from their natural counterparts. Artificial granite and marble have a solid weight, therefore all manufacturers strive to make slabs as thin as possible, but not to the detriment of the technical characteristics of their products.
Characteristics of artificial marble
|Material||Density (kg / m3)||Strength compressive strength (MPa)||Flexural strength (MPa)||Impact strength (J)||Water absorption (%)|
|Artificial marble||1500-2200||70 or more||14 or more|| 0. |
Such kind of artificial granite as porcelain stoneware is especially popular. It is made from a mixture of several types of clay, colorants and mineral additives.The surface of the slabs can be glossy, matte, embossed.
Porcelain stoneware for the facade
Facade of a house made of porcelain stoneware
All products have the correct geometric shape and are easy to install. But experts draw the attention of the consumer to the fact that porcelain stoneware is rather difficult to process due to its relatively low impact resistance.
In this regard, trimming the slabs can cause the formation of chips and cracks.
Slabs made of artificial marble and granite are suitable for cladding walls, plinths, entrance groups, architectural elements of a building, window and doorways. These artificial stones can be used to pave paths and make a blind area around the house. Mosaics are laid out of multi-colored fragments of marble on the walls of the house, spectacular panels and paintings are created.
The use of marble and granite in facing guarantees an excellent aesthetic effect, protection of walls from dampness, high-quality thermal insulation.
These artificial stones are suitable for cladding buildings built in any architectural style. Marble and granite give the building a solemn and austere look, bring an accent of solidity and well-being.
Marble facade cladding
Granite base / plinth trim
Manufacturing technology of molded artificial marble and granite is almost no different from the technology of production of paving slabs. The main difference lies in the components used to prepare the molding mixture and their percentage.
Agglomerates (or quartz agglomerates) are artificial decorative stones, for the manufacture of which a mixture of quartz sand, dyes, binder and crumbs from natural stones (mainly from marble and crushed stone).
Agglomerates in their technical characteristics are closest to natural stone. The reason is the small amount of polymers that make up the quartz agglomerates and the significant content of natural components.
Artificial stones of this type are made by vibrocompression. Depending on the fraction of stone chips and other raw materials, the surface of the products can have a very different texture. Agglomerates can mimic the appearance of any natural stone.
A distinctive feature of these products is their low abrasion resistance and high strength provided by the quartz included in the composition.
Beige quartz agglomerate
The durability of the facade cladding directly depends on the condition of the house walls. If they are plastered, the tapping method is used to check their strength. With a weak impact, a high-quality surface should produce a sufficiently high and sonorous sound. If the plaster has peeled off, the sound will be muffled.
Such places must be cleaned and re-plastering.
One rule to remember: natural and artificial stone should not be placed on wet plaster. The moisture content of the wall should not exceed 5%. There is another point to be aware of: a wall that is too dry will draw moisture from the glue mixture and the glue hardening process will be disrupted. Therefore, it is not recommended to lay stone on walls heated by the sun.
It is advisable to carry out facing work in warm, but not hot weather.
There are two options for laying decorative stone: with jointing and without joining. If it is decided to use the first method, a galvanized or plastic mesh is taken to strengthen the wall. If the stone needs to be laid on a new concrete wall, it is pre-treated with a sandblaster. This is necessary in order to remove the specific "wax" film, which is typical for new buildings made of concrete.
When performing masonry work, you need to be extremely careful and accurate. If the glue or grout mixture gets on the face of the decorative stone, these stains will be difficult to remove. Especially if the surface has a deep relief. When sawing artificial decorative stone, it is necessary to take precautions: wear safety glasses and work gloves.
Facade decoration with artificial stone
Because artificial stones have the correct geometric shape; no preliminary layout is required.
The basic rule that must be followed when laying without seams is the dressing. It consists in shifting each next row by 1/4 or 1/2 stone. In this case, there will be no through longitudinal and transverse seams, which not only spoil the appearance of the masonry, but also significantly weaken it.
For gluing artificial decorative stone, use the same adhesive mixtures as for natural. The laying of these facing materials is not much different from the laying of tiles.
The seamless method is faster and easier, since the stages of filling and joining the gaps are excluded.
Step 1. Prepare the wall according to the recommendations above.
Step 2. Priming the wall.
Step 3. Start laying from the bottom of the wall. In order for the rows to be even, draw a horizontal line with a pencil or marker.
Step 4. Prepare the masonry mixture, observing all recommendations from the manufacturer's instructions.
The amount of the mixture is kneaded at a time so that it can be used before the solution begins to harden.
Step 5. Moisten the back of the artificial stone with a brush, sponge or spray.
With a notched trowel, apply the masonry mixture to the back side of the corner decorative element. Distribute it over the surface with a uniform layer 3-5 mm thick.
If the wall is uneven, the layer thickness is increased to 1 cm.
Step 6. Glue the corner stone so that its bottom edge rests on the horizontal line drawn on the wall.
Gluing the corner piece
Step 7. Press the stone to the wall, slightly swinging it from side to side.
Thus, a certain amount of masonry mixture should be squeezed out. It will fill the space between this and the next stone.
Step 8. Moisten the back of the second stone and apply glue to it.
Apply the stone to the wall so that it adheres closely to the already glued corner piece.
Press the stones tightly
Step 10. Press the stone and swing it slightly.
Step 11. Remove excess squeezed out mixture with a damp sponge.
Finishing the wall with artificial stone without seams
If instead of small stones, massive decorative plates are used, additional fastening with dowels is required. To do this, before applying the adhesive mixture, holes are drilled in the corners of the slab. Then they apply this product to the wall and make marks with a marker through the holes in the slab. In these places, holes are drilled for dowels. Then the slab is glued in the same way as stones.
Then the dowels are screwed in for additional fixation.
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