Deep penetration primer - application, composition

Deep penetration primer - application, composition Deep penetration primer for walls - consumption, characteristics. Surface priming is one of the stages in the process chain for finishing works.

It is often required, but not for all jobs. You should know in advance what composition is needed - when a deep penetration primer is required for walls, and when an adhesive filling is required.

This is extremely important because improper use can cause problems - swelling of tiles, plaster falling off, etc.

Types of primers and their purpose

In the description of most types of work, it is written that the base should be primed. For this stage, special formulations are used, which are called a primer (that is, a primer). What is a primer? It is a building mortar that helps prepare the surface for further finishing. In this case, the "next" can be any, both intermediate and finish. Take, for example, wall decoration, from bare masonry to painting or wallpapering.

First, prime the wall itself, and when the plaster dries out completely, you should apply a primer to it, then putty. The plastered surfaces are primed again, and then the wallpaper is painted or pasted. This number of primer layers is not necessary, but an option is possible. A primer is used for finishing the surface of the ceiling, floor, walls and facade, that is, everywhere. There are subspecies for indoor and outdoor work, which are used both there and there.

Types of primers

As can be seen from the example, the base on which the primer will be applied can be different. For example, concrete walls and foam blocks, concrete floors, plasterboard ceilings or plastered. They are completely different in characteristics, which means that different preparation is needed, which closes the problems of this or that material. There are priming compounds for all tasks. In general, according to the results of the action, it can distinguish four groups.

  1. Fillers. These are compounds that reduce the hygroscopicity of the base, as well as its absorbency. Apply to highly absorbent surfaces. They are needed for leveling out minor irregularities and filling joints in ceramic tiles, plank floors and parquet before filling. They are applied under the paint in order to reduce its consumption, and so that it lies flat.

    It is also used under plaster so that the walls do not draw moisture from the plaster compound and it has enough moisture in order to gain the required level of strength. Filling primers are needed for plastered walls under the tile adhesive to increase the life of the glue due to the fact that the liquid will be absorbed more slowly, as well as on plaster or putty before gluing the wallpaper, so that the surface becomes slower to absorb the adhesive, etc.

  2. Adhesive or film-forming.Such formulations are applied to poorly absorbent types of substrates in order to improve adhesion. After drying, a sticky film will remain on the surface, on which it will be much easier to apply the plaster composition.

    A film-forming primer will increase the adhesion (this will help the materials adhere better).

  3. Deep penetration (penetrating). This type of primer compound is used for those types of substrates that could not be dedusted. Gypsum plasters, chalk-type paints and other surfaces that leave a trail of dust on the hands. The task of this type of composition is to bind dust particles and ensure normal adhesion to another layer.

    Of all the bases, deep penetrating acrylic primers are much more numerous and fill approximately 4/5 of the market.

  4. Fortifying. This is a special type of primer used to bond loose substrates. This type of primer is also of deep penetration, but contains more adhesive components, due to which the particles will bind not only in a small surface layer, but also to a great depth. It is usually used for renovation work in old housing or for restoration / restoration of finishes.

There are also universal formulations, and they are the cheapest. The description usually contains a large list of properties, but in fact, universal formulations have the least amount of active components. This is also a primer, but much weaker. This type is used only if there is no great need for a primer, for example, under paint or wallpaper.

Problems that primers solve

Deep penetration primer - application, composition Primers must provide excellent adhesion of two layers, and this is their main purpose.

Most often, this requires adjusting the absorbency of the substrate. The fact is that all materials for finishing - putties, plaster, glue, paints - are developed for substrates with an average degree of absorbency, and there are not many of them. Usually it is necessary to adjust the absorbency, and sometimes it is necessary to reduce the absorbency, and sometimes create a sticky film on a very smooth or poorly absorbent surface. Primers deal with such problems. There are also compounds that reduce absorbency, while improving waterproofing and fighting high levels of moisture.

This is also included in the tasks of the composition, and for this they are also used.

Deep penetration primers are bound by particles that are on the surface. The compositions penetrate deep into loose materials to a depth of 0.5 to 0.7 cm and bind the particles together.

By the way, the "side" effect will be a decrease in hygroscopicity, as well as absorption. Often - this is not always, so you should carefully study the properties. Even on the surface, after the primer dries, an adhesive film may appear, because the non-absorbed composition, when dry, leaves sticky marks. This will improve the conditions for applying the next material.It turns out that some types of primer increase surface strength and adhesion.

Certain formulations also have antibacterial properties, while in others they only introduce special anti-mold or antifungal additives.

Sometimes a primer is used to "make friends" materials based on gypsum and cement. Without this, there will be no normal adhesion. For example, if concrete walls or walls made of cement-based blocks are going to be covered with gypsum plaster, Betonokontakt from the Knauf manufacturer will be a classic and proven solution. It can be applied to almost any type of mineral base underneath gypsum materials and provides excellent adhesion.

Types of bases for priming

So, we have come to the conclusion that when choosing a primer one should focus on the characteristics of the base. According to their ability to absorb, they are divided into the following groups:

  1. With a low ability to absorb, or not absorbent. This group includes concrete surfaces, cement-type plaster, refractory bricks, expanded polystyrene, sand concrete, gypsum tongue-and-groove slabs.
  2. Medium absorbency. This is a simple brick, and the base is perfect, so it does not need a primer, but only if the brick does not begin to crumble.

    And wood is a complex substrate and requires a primer.

  3. Highly absorbent. These are foam concrete and gas silicate blocks, any cellular pieces of concrete, silicate white bricks, lime and gypsum, cement plasters and plaster mixtures.

A deep penetration primer for walls is important, and the absorbency of the surface should also be determined. To do this, you need to apply drops of water to the surface and track the time during which it will be absorbed.

If it took more than 1/3 hour, the surface does not absorb, and if it took less than 3 minutes, then the surface strongly absorbs. Anything in between has average absorbency. In this case, you are lucky and you can do without compounds that regulate water absorption. Now it is clear how to choose a primer. For surfaces with a low absorbency, film-forming ones are suitable, and for those that use high penetration or fill-type primers.

Means with deep penetration are needed if the surface is dusty, but not crumbling and not loose.


Why deep penetration primer is required + principle of action

Indicator there will be a dusty surface to use the primer. It turns out that the dust cannot be completely removed. How can I check this? The surface will be dusty if a mark is left on the hands after touching the wall, even after a good damp cleaning. Only in this case it makes sense to use this type of primer.

In other cases, it will be cheaper to use fillers or film-forming agents.But for what types of surfaces do you need deep penetration soil? For chalky surfaces, gypsum plaster before painting or wallpapering. Should gypsum be primed under a gypsum-type putty?

No, they adhere perfectly anyway. All sheet materials should be processed in which gypsum will be the binder - gypsum board, gypsum plasterboard and tongue-and-groove plates. If the material is on a gypsum or lime binder, it will dust.

To avoid this, a deep penetration primer should be applied. You can treat asbestos with a primer, because although it is not on gypsum, it does not generate dust. And you should also process silicate blocks before applying the plaster layer. They also leave a layer on the hand.

Please note that the treatment surface should not be loose, and for this there is a special primer called reinforcing.

It will also belong to the means of deep penetration, but there are many adhesives in it (therefore, it is more expensive). If it can be used unnecessarily, the absorbency may be very low and this will lead to problems.

How does deep penetrating primer work

Deep penetration primer - application, composition How do primers work? They are made on the basis of the same polymers, but only modified so that the particles are very small. The difference can be gauged by comparing tennis and soccer balls. The particles in simple and penetrating soil differ approximately by this factor.

It is clear that smaller particles will penetrate deeply. The smallest particles of the polymer dissolve, and with the liquid fall through the capillaries to the very depths of the treated surface. After drying, the polymer particles will remain in the capillaries, create an additional crystal lattice there and reduce the porosity of the material (and its absorbency), forming additional bonds between the particles of the material. The result will be that after processing the surface will stop dusting.

Deep penetration primer - which is better

There are many different brands on the market, and if imported, as well as domestic.

Of the first, Cerisit and Knauf are often found - these are those firms that have been on the construction market for a very long time. There are practically no complaints about the quality of products. But there are many fakes and you should know all the distinctive features of similar products. There are also Russian manufacturers who have been on the market for a long time and monitor quality - Prospectors, Eunice, and also Volma. Tellingly, the difference in cost with imported ones is small - no more than 15%.

There are other brands, cheaper, which have a much larger difference - up to 30%, although their reputation is unstable.

Characteristics, cost and consumption of funds

As you can see, it will not work to say that there is no difference between cheap and expensive brands. Even according to the description of the surfaces on which the composition will be applied. Usually, cheaper products will be used for applying paints and varnishes, wallpapering and so on.For more critical areas like plaster, putty and complex bases - they prefer not to take risks and buy products from trusted companies, and this approach is quite justified.

Rules for applying

Rules for applying primers of any kind are similar. A deep penetration primer is still applied to a clean and dry base, and dry is when the residual moisture is not more than 5%. Clean is free from dirt and oil stains, as well as materials that flake off. So, after the initial treatment, soils are applied to warm substrates, and the minimum allowable temperature should be found in the description, but usually not less than +15 degrees.


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