Design, construction and further operation of highways
In the current world, roads for cars are practically arteries , which unite all large towns and small settlements into one network. The importance of roads for cars in the development of industry, agriculture and trade can hardly be overestimated. Often, it is only thanks to the improvement of the transport interchange that it is possible to increase the turnover. People rush along the roads in cars, and truckers carry millions of all kinds of cargo. The highway loads are incredibly heavy.
For this reason, road design is a rather difficult task, which only true professionals can handle. In general, road design is a very difficult complex of survey work, which includes not just design calculations, but also economic ones.
First, a full study of the selected area is carried out. It turns out that the survey and design process for highways are fully interconnected, because the terrain must have the appropriate technogenic, geological and climatic conditions. The design development and the complex of construction works itself are determined, and also regulated by regulatory documents.
Also, the design norms of highways imply, in addition to laying the road, a complex of additional buildings, the planned development of communications, forest plantations, and so on. In addition, specialists must determine the technical characteristics, calculate the ideal number of building materials, attract the appropriate number of workers and special equipment, set deadlines for construction and stages, calculate the payback period for funds spent on construction. It is required to carry out all the work not only in a short time, but also to the maximum correctly - the assumption of a couple of small mistakes is enough for deadlines to be thwarted, and roads began to fail in a few months.
The complex of construction work includes digging a road trough, arranging a roadbed, and also installing paving stones and curbs, but the most important thing when choosing a coating - the functional purpose of the road, and as a consequence - the traffic flow density and the approximate speed of movement.
This is extremely noticeable in Russia, where the number of freezing and thawing cycles per year can reach tens. The road surface is also negatively affected by precipitation, snow drifts, groundwater and many other factors.This is the main reason why road design is such a complex job, which can only be entrusted to experienced and highly qualified engineers. For a project development, the implementation of which makes it possible to solve a transport issue in a certain region, a specialist must have a certain information volume. Only in this case can the required degree of safety and ease of use of the route for freight and passenger traffic be guaranteed.
When designing a highway, engineers always take into account that it not only combines administrative and federal points, but also must meet safety standards for passengers, drivers and pedestrians. To do this, it is important to take into account certain road design standards for cars, which provide the required level of safety and convenience. If during the design process errors were made in the calculation of the prospective use of roads, this will lead to problems. If it is not eliminated through repair work in a short time, the road will quickly deteriorate.
For this reason, when designing and building highways, it is required to calculate not only the loads that are at the moment, but also a long-term plan, which is designed for 20 years.
If you create a plan and do not take into account the perspective, it is considered to be of poor quality. Special attention must be paid to the technical classification of the highway, and the type of roadway, the number of lanes and many other parameters that are characteristic of all roads depend on this. For this reason, it is especially important to determine the road status. It is also important to calculate in advance the load from the flow of cars, which will only increase over the years.
Upon completion of the calculations, the result must be formalized in the form of a working draft.
It must contain estimate and technical documentation, as well as detailed drawings, which contain data on the used curbs, signs, sidewalks, road markings and other important road elements for cars. The working draft is still completed with an explanatory note, in which each of the solutions, which will be applied in the construction sector, is substantiated in detail. They also have recommendations for laying communications, engineering networks, local-type estimates and much more. Necessarily contains all the necessary data on landscape design and arrangement of conditions that guarantee safety for the natural environment. The work will not be over at this point.
The working project is trusted for verification by various specialists who not only check whether the project complies with all SNiPs and GOSTs, but subject it to expert reviews. At the same time, there may be experts from the state inspectorate, as well as the regional one, who is responsible for the new highway, on which calculations are being made.
When performing all types of work on the survey and design of highways, experts focus on conditions soil and climatic conditions in such a region, primarily the amount of precipitation in the cool season. Land surveys make it possible not only to clarify the bearing soil capacity (and therefore to resolve the issue of the need for soil compaction), but also to find out how deep the groundwater runs at different times of the year. If the degree of occurrence of the waters is very deep, they will not be able to have a tangible effect on the highway.
At a shallow depth of burial, there may be a “game” of the soil, in which its surface will change dramatically depending on the season.
In this case, it will be necessary to build roads for cars with the use of additional materials that ensure the reliability and strength of the foundation. When working at the site of future construction, engineers assess the landscape and select the best places for the construction of the bridge, as well as the laying of underground communications. Hydrological data combined with climatic regional features make it possible to choose the thickness of the pavement, which makes it possible, on the one hand, to reduce waste, and on the other hand, to guarantee the durability and reliability of the road, even with heavy traffic of heavy trucks. Roads are built in several stages, because several layers of materials are used to achieve the required qualities.
on the ground, equip a sand pillow. It not only perfectly removes excess moisture from the roads, but also transfers the load evenly to the ground.
After that comes the base layer, and most often these are stone materials. The low price combined with the availability, high strength and durability make the stone the ideal choice in this situation. Top layer of pavement and materials that are not only strong and can withstand various types of loads (bending, compression or tension), but also work well under conditions of constant temperature changes and high degrees of humidity.
After that there will be an intermediate layer, and after that there will be a road surface. Asphalt is used to lay these three layers. But at the same time, all layers in the process of building roads use different grades of asphalt. The most expensive was the top layer of the coating, and its distinctive feature is the use of expensive bituminous grades, fine gravel and special additives, due to which the finished asphalt is able to withstand high temperatures, its constant drops, as well as a high degree of humidity.
To provide perfect adhesion for different layers, thereby increasing the degree of road strength and durability, using special substances - geosyntics.
To check the finished structure, it will undergo short-term loads - as a rule, several heavy vehicles are passed through a certain section of the road. If no deformation marks remain on the track, then all the work was carried out with high quality, using ideal materials.
Building a road is an extremely difficult process. It should be understood that the road is a large engineering complex. For example, the design of a road bed on a plain under average conditions provides for the use of 3,000 cubic meters of sand, 5,000 cubic meters of gravel and up to 50,000 cubic meters of excavated soil for the arrangement of 1 km of the road.
Moreover, each ruble invested in roads increases the gross regional product by an average of 6 rubles.
First of all, they design an unpaved roadbed for a car. Competently laid bed of earth is a guarantee of a durable track, and also an ideal method for saving expensive building materials. after that, at the construction site, the future route and the surrounding area are cleaned - stumps, trees, large stones and shrubs are removed to ensure efficient and comfortable work of equipment and people.
A sheet of land is erected directly from the earth mined at the construction site.
In the most difficult cases, the soil is chosen artificially so that the canvas meets construction standards. To begin with, the road lane is cleared, and then the soil is loosened, which will significantly facilitate the work of the technique used for soil leveling. If the work is carried out in especially difficult conditions (frozen, swampy or even rocky soil), then blasting operations will be justified.
The next step will be the alignment of excavations, as well as embankments. For this, special road vehicles are also used.
If the need arises, specialists carry out the installation of a drainage system to drain water and exclude the possibility of waterlogging of the soil, which would lead to a speedy route destruction. Below is a video about construction. The finished grooves are filled with sand, which creates a sand cushion. The sand is manured by trucks and leveled - by hand or with a simple asphalt roller. Stones are laid on the sand, and when working on swampy soil, it is impregnated with Portland cement, which is why a large slab appears, which effectively takes the loads and transfers them to the ground.
Only when the stone is leveled, 3 layers of asphalt are laid on it, which we talked about above. The result is a high quality track that can last for many years, and can easily endure terrible climatic conditions and heavy loads.
Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |04, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |06, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |02, Nov 2020