An interesting and stable trend has recently appeared in suburban construction. Instead of traditional brick buildings, people with great pleasure prefer to erect light, warm and durable buildings using frame technology.
This method has become an excellent alternative to the previously popular massive and heavy capital buildings. Among other things, this method is much cheaper, it takes several times less time. The structures obtained in this way have excellent performance characteristics.
Even those who have experience in construction using frame technology cannot always qualify some types of buildings. And they exist, have their own design differences and design features. Often, a correctly made choice of a specific type of frame for a future home really helps to save money, effort and time.
The classification of types of frame structures is carried out according to the difference in the principle of assembly of their parts and elements.
There are four main types of such structures:
There are other methods used for construction, but they are either a combination of the above, or their special variations.
Let's talk about each of the four in order:
This structure of the building frame may be of interest to those who want to save not only building material, but also the time required for construction.
It can be used in cases where the height of the floors of the building is commensurate with the standard lumber, measuring 6 and 4.5 meters.
For example, for the construction of an attic structure with a ground floor height of 2.
5 m, an attic height of 1.8 m at the lowest points, and a floor width of 20 cm, the ideal option would be to use a beam of 4.5 meters.
With this construction of the frame, it is important that the floor beams are securely fastened.
After all, they are not only sexual lags, but they also fasten the entire structure into one whole, compensating for possible torsion forces that appear in the wall racks (elongated).
When purchasing a material, special attention should be paid to its quality, or only durable glued timber should be used, and all levels and distances should be strictly controlled. To erect a frame of this type, at least three people are required.
In another way it is called American, Canadian, platform or pallet. The first two names are derived from the original place of application of the method, the latter are due to the essence of the workflow.
The method is based on the installation of walls on a pallet (or on a platform).
Its role in this process is played by a prefabricated floor or floor slab. It doesn't really matter how and from what material it is formed.
But it is on it that large parts of the wall frame are mounted, debugged, leveled, fastened and connected with a strapping board, on which the floor platform is then installed.
This method is attractive because, if necessary, even one person is able to handle all the necessary work. This is especially important for those who do not have assistants, and who dared to build a structure completely on their own.
The finished frame is filled with any type of insulation, the main thing is to comply with all the requirements for its use.
Wooden material, siding, ventilated facades, etc. can play the role of exterior decoration. From the inside, before finishing, it is advisable to finish with plasterboard. It is an excellent base for any coating, plus it is a non-flammable, environmentally friendly material.
In addition, it is a good protection against the potential harmful effects of the elements that make up the cake walls.
This type is currently the most technologically advanced in frame housing construction. It cannot be said that it is so innovative for us. According to exactly such a project, the still not quite forgotten Finnish houses were assembled, rescuing poor builders of the Soviet period. The difference is that then, many years ago, they were sure to be lined, at least half a brick.
This was enough for a fairly comfortable stay.
This fact today has a negative impact on the introduction of such technologies in the homeland.
After all, many of our citizens associate a modern lightweight, durable and reliable frame-panel house with that old building that does not fully meet the important requirements of the present day. And completely in vain.
Let's compare the SIP-panel used in the construction of the panel frame with other, more familiar materials.
With a thickness of 14 cm, it has much better heat-retaining characteristics than a one and a half meter brick wall made of solid fired brick, or a wall of aerated concrete a meter thick. In terms of strength, it is also quite reliable.
What is a SIP-panel? This is a kind of sandwich that consists of expanded polystyrene (or polyurethane foam) glued between a pair of OSB sheets. They are connected to each other according to the thorn-groove system, through the beam, by means of self-tapping screws and mounting foam.
Installation of a house from vulture panels may well be carried out by only two people.
From time to time it is possible to attract additional labor, as a replacement for lifting mechanisms, in an amount from two to four people. One square of factory-made wall will cost significantly more than assembled on a frame with your own hands. A noticeable rise in cost can be compensated by the reduced construction time.
If the inter-wall spans are not too large, then SIP panels are quite acceptable to be used as floors. They can also be part of the floor platform, if the foundation is chosen correctly.
A variation of this method of frame structure is also a panel house, in which rigid sheet material (plywood, OSB, DSP) replaces slopes and slopes from the inside and outside.
It is also called half-timbered. This is perhaps the oldest way to build a frame house. It is based on the use of massive thick beams (with a section of 100x100 or even 200x200), powerful plank beams and jibs. In the original version, they should cut into each other according to the well-known spike-groove system.
But at present, the nodes of the house are more often fastened to each other by means of metal plates.
The fact that this is the most solid and costly way of frame structure is noticeable even to an ignorant man far from construction.
The classic version provides for the use of clay-straw blocks to fill the inter-girder space. This material is not very suitable for the middle band. The minimum timber thickness for the central and southern regions of the country is 20 cm: this corresponds to 15 cm of basalt or mineral wool.
For the northern regions, this structure will have to be strengthened in order to obtain a warm and efficient house in terms of energy saving. Therefore, we often only use an imitation of a real half-timbered house, with a completely different frame, but with a final exterior finish for it.
Anyone who decides to use this method in the original will need at least three assistants. It is definitely not possible to cope with heavy and bulky beams alone.
Woodworking will require a larger and more productive tool.
All calculations must be done carefully and checked carefully.
Rather sensitive losses are to be expected on scrap material alone.
One of the varieties of this type is the construction of a frame on plows. Some of the large vertical beams are deeply dug into the ground, below the level of its freezing, and this structure plays the role of the foundation of the structure. It is best to use larch for this, which has the ability to harden under the influence of moisture.
Properly processed, seasoned oak is also very suitable for such a foundation - it can stand for a hundred years. At the same time, it is advisable to do the bottom of the house with filling with familiar materials, with high-quality waterproofing of the transition. It is also permissible to use any hydrophobic insulation, for example, expanded polystyrene.
What are special cases?
For example, when lightweight steel structures are used as a frame material - bent galvanized steel profile.
With this method, the actual frame construction scheme can be both continuous and pallet.
Additional connections of parts of the frame increase the overall strength of the entire structure. In large spans, corrugated beams (BLUE-beams) or spatial trusses are often used.
What disadvantages does a frame of this type have?
Today, a variety of materials are actively combined in frame housing construction and similar projects. The purpose of their use is the possibility of acquiring new, improved operational qualities by the structure.
A significant way to significantly improve the heat-saving qualities of the walls of a structure is the installation of a special, double frame.
The peculiarity of the construction of such a double frame is that the racks of one of them are shifted relative to the racks of the other.
In such circumstances, wood, which is colder than any insulation, is not a cold bridge. But the amount of work using this method is actually doubled.
The peculiarities of the construction of a frame house are so good that such technology makes it possible to harmoniously combine both different methods of construction, as well as completely different materials and modern plastic windows.
For example, as insulation you can use polyurethane foam, ecowool, mineral wool, or straw and sawdust. Everything is based on the owner's budget, and at his discretion.
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