Foundation building blocks, or simply FBS, are now the most common type of reinforced concrete products. It is easier and cheaper to lay ready-made blocks in the foundation of a house than to fill it with solid concrete and wait until it hardens. The FBS block is used for the construction of basement walls and basements.
The task of FBS blocks is to withstand enormous loads, while supporting the weight of the entire building. When choosing foundation blocks, one should take into account their fire resistance, water tightness and frost resistance capabilities.
According to GOST 13579-78, the foundation blocks are divided into three types - FBS, FBV and FBP . They are made of silicate, expanded clay concrete or heavy concrete.
FBS - solid concrete products, the most durable in comparison with other types. It is this type that is used to build the foundation of a house, basements or technical subfields. They are made in the form of a parallelepiped, the metal is used only for special hinges designed for mounting blocks.
Blocks of the type FBV are the least common and should be ordered in advance from the manufacturer. They differ from FBS blocks by the presence of a longitudinal cutout provided for communications.
Grade FBP - hollow foundation block. They have one standard length of 2.4 m, but they may differ in height and width.
Lightweight blocks are manufactured leaving vertical or horizontal voids.
FBP blocks are not recommended for use in wet, viscous soil.
According to the technology, the FBS blocks are compacted using vibration, standard flasks must ensure the same dimensions of all products and a smooth surface ...
If the technology is violated, it will be impossible to lay all the blocks evenly, gaps and bevels will appear, which will significantly reduce the quality of the foundation for hydro and thermal insulation.
In addition to GOST, there are several more markings. For reference, here is a short list of structures for zero cycle elements:
Now let's try to figure out which concrete is most often used. Strip foundations are, first of all, building structures that work primarily in compression (with the exception of foundation cushions).
Therefore, there is practically no need to use high grades and classes of concrete.Let's turn to GOST 13579-78: the maximum compressive strength class will be B15 or concrete marked M-200. We consider the minimum class for expanded clay concrete products or heavy concrete to be B3.5 or M-50 marking. And the minimum class for products made of silicate concrete is B12.
5 or M-150 grade.
In most cases, the weighted cement concrete V7.5 is chosen for the foundation for blocks of types FBV and FBS. For weaker FBPs, a much stronger material such as B12.5 is needed.
To know what size of foundation blocks you need for construction, you need to draw a diagram in advance, a drawing, where the location of all blocks will be detailed.
Consider the marking of foundation blocks. Subsequent numbers after the first letters indicate the length, width and height of the block. Please note that the parameters are usually overstated by 20 mm.
For example, FBS -24-3-6, length - 2380mm, width - 300mm, height - 580 (20mm).
Depending on the grade of concrete, the weight of the block may vary.
Blocks of heavy concrete with reinforcement, called foundation cushions, abbreviated FL. They are used in the construction of strip foundations for residential high-rise buildings. Due to the high load endured by the FL blocks, high requirements for dimensional accuracy and material quality are imposed on them during manufacture. Reinforced concrete foundation blocks are capable of withstanding seismic activity of 9 points, have high resistance to temperature fluctuations and corrosion.
The size of the FL foundation blocks is determined by GOST 13580-85.
The type of foundation blocks is selected depending on the following parameters:
Usually 4-5 FBS blocks are calculated for the length of one wall. For wet and clayey soils, large-sized FBS foundation blocks are selected, and for dry ones, where the filling is performed at a depth of 60-70 cm, medium FBS are used.
For the construction of small houses, summer cottages, saunas, cottages, foundation blocks of 40x20x20 mm are used.
They can be laid by hand, without the use of special equipment. Due to its convenient dimensions, the 20x20x40 foundation block is used not only when laying the foundation, but also when erecting the walls of the building.
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