DIY construction of the basement + video
The basement is partially or fully deepened below ground level is the floor of the building. In the basement, as a rule, a garage or utility room is made, but certain projects foresee the arrangement of a sauna, bathhouse or even a gym with a full-fledged swimming pool in this ground floor. For houses that are built on a small plot of land or on a slope, the basement floor is really irreplaceable - it significantly increases the usable area of buildings without the need to expand the building area.
This basement is performed after the foundation is erected or simultaneously with it. The main requirements for the dimensions of the basement are its width, which provides a sufficient degree of strength for building walls in the house on top of it, as well as the height of the internal space.
According to the norms, the ceiling height of the ground floor must be no less than 250 cm. The deepening of the ground floor is limited by the level of groundwater - with a high bedding of the upper water, as well as in wet places, its underground part is usually small. In the area with deeply located groundwater type, the basement is deepened almost completely, and this will reduce heating costs. So, you should consider the features of the construction of the basement floor.
The basement is a continuation of the base, and therefore it can be made of the same material as the foundation itself, or using material wall surfaces.
Usually, monolithic concrete, bricks or ready-made blocks are used to build the ground floor. The thickness of the basement walls is determined by a special calculation.
The role of the floor on the basement floor is played by a concrete slab, and it is produced by pouring or even laying ready-made reinforced concrete slabs. The overlaps of the ground floor can be made of slabs, as well as concrete, and even wooden. With a huge above-ground height of the basement, windows and doors can be made in it, and it is important to place them on the east, south or even west side.
The location of the window frames on the north wall of the basement can lead to the accumulation of excess snow and may even push through the window frames. Basement walls require mandatory waterproofing, and the deepened part of the basement is recommended to be processed with waterproofing materials both outside and inside in order to increase reliability. It is permissible to waterproof the above-ground part only from the outside.
A basement made of monolithic concrete has many advantages - a high degree of strength, excellent protection against moisture, high construction speed. In the basement, which is made using monolithic technology, you can arrange any type of premises, from a garage to an incredible pool.
The ratio of the aboveground and underground parts of the ground floor may be different. With high-quality waterproofing, this plinth can be installed even on damp ground, and at the same time the slab on the basement must have a rigid type of adhesion to the walls of the foundation.
The construction technology is as follows:
When choosing soil with an excavator, it is necessary to avoid uneven deepening of the pit, and therefore the last half meter of soil is usually removed manually. Backfilling of very deep areas is prohibited, and it can lead to deformation of the floor and slab.
The filling is carried out in stages from a layer of crushed stone or gravel with a fraction size of 5 cm and a sand layer. The thickness of each layer should be from 0. 1 meter, and all layers need to be tamped, and it is important to spill the sand several times with water to compact it to the maximum.
On hardened concrete, a roll-type waterproofing layer is required. In the role of material, you can use bedding roofing felt or even its modern counterparts for horizontal work. Lay such a material for waterproofing in at least two layers, gluing it onto a bitumen-type mastic or by means of a flow method.
The formwork is required to be made of boards or fixed boards, combining them by means of self-tapping screws and bars. A prerequisite for making a solid and high-quality base is its reinforcement. For the foundation slab, corrugated reinforcement is needed in both the transverse and longitudinal directions. The diameter of the reinforcing bar should be from 10 cm, and more accurately the value can be determined through calculations. The reinforcement is laid on specialized guides and knitted with wire.
In the locations of the walls, in order to provide a rigid connection with the slab, vertical reinforcement rods are installed.
After the concrete is poured, it is required to punch through it by means of a deep vibrator and a vibrating screed, and also level its surface and leave it to "ripen" for at least 1 month. In order to speed up the process and speed of construction, a couple of days after pouring, you can start building the formwork for the basement and foundation walls.
In the foundation, the height of which is from 2.5 to 3 meters, there must be at least a pair of strapping belts, which are located in its lower and upper part. When erected on very heaving ground with the possibility of horizontal movement of the ground, the reinforcement can be strengthened by means of additional belts.
Each new layer should be poured either before the beginning of the setting of the previous batch, or after holding for at least 3 days, and this helps to avoid the destruction of concrete, which did not have time to gain sufficient strength, under the weight of new batches of mortar. The set of hardness (design) continues for 1 month, and after that you can proceed with the future construction and laying of floors.
In the above-ground part, the slabs are additionally attached by means of foam dowels.
Consider the latest technology.
When building a basement floor with your own hands from materials such as bricks and blocks, its underground part, which plays the role of a foundation , can be performed using the strip-type foundation pouring technology or even from blocks. At the same time, the floor on the basement floor usually does not have a rigid connection with the walls and is poured separately, after the foundation has been erected. Since its waterproofing qualities are slightly lower, this basement is usually erected in areas where the depth of groundwater is greater than 1.5 meters.
The foundation is usually poured to ground level according to standard technology, and after that they wait for a set of the design hardness of concrete, and then lay out the above-ground part of the base of bricks or blocks.
The masonry is carried out on a cement mortar with dressing, and at the same time, every 2-4 layers must additionally be reinforced with a reinforcing mesh.
The technology of waterproofing, as well as insulation of the basement, will not differ much from that described above. A block base can be made using pile technology - concrete piles are driven into the bottom of the pit, which will serve as a support for floor slabs, and the space between them is laid with concrete blocks. This foundation has increased resistance to load, but requires the use of a huge amount of heavy equipment, and therefore it is rarely used in private construction.
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