How to lay blocks with your own hands + step-by-step instructions
So, after it was flooded foundation, a rather crucial stage begins, namely the laying of blocks, which is not as difficult to do with your own hands as it might seem. Today we propose to consider this very topic, and we will talk about low-cement blocks.
Before you start, it is worth preparing all the necessary tools. First and foremost, you may need tools such as buckets, shovels, and a hammer. Next, arm yourself with special devices, namely a mason's pick, a trowel or trowel, a plumb line and a building level.
To break down walls, you may need a strong thread called "chalka" and a tape measure.
It is best to buy a thread on a handle, from Stauer, because it fits perfectly in the hand and is bright yellow, which is perfectly visible even at dusk.
From electrical tools, you may need a hammer drill, grinder (to cut off reinforcement or corners to create lintels). To mix the mortar, it would be nice to have a concrete mixer on hand, as well as a barrel of water (it can be made of metal / plastic). To create jumpers from the corners, you need a welded machine.
If you plan to stack two or more floors, then it is better to carry pallets with overlapping blocks not by hand, but to use a cargo trolley, which you can not buy, but rent at a tool rental point.
Low-cement blocks, cement mortar, water and sand are required directly for laying. The lintels that will be located above the door and windows require metal - reinforcement, corner or channel. As a rule, a lintel of reinforcement is used above the doors, the diameter of which is from 1 to 1.4 cm in several rods, and for windows it is better to use corners.
For garage doors, the best option would be to make a lintel from channels - a lot will depend on the weight of the door and the width of the opening. Lighthouses may require a timber lath, as well as a dowel; use planks and pallets for the scaffolding, and all this can be fastened with nails. If there is a construction goat, then it is even better. If you live in seismic regions, then you need a masonry mesh, or reinforcement A240 0.6 cm.
But it will be much easier to find a mesh and use it, and it is better not to use fiberglass reinforcement as wall reinforcement. if you plan to cover the entire house with facing bricks, then a notch will be required for the outlets, which will be embedded in the seam. Here you can use fiberglass reinforcement.
Any work begins when cleaning is required bases from debris and dust. If we are talking about the first floor, then you should clean up on the foundation, and if you are laying the second and higher floor, then we will start with the floor.
It is enough to start sweeping with a broom in the places of the walls. As previously done when laying out the foundation, now it is required to correctly break the corners of the building so that they turn out straight everywhere, because this will be the last moment when it will be possible to fix everything, since otherwise errors in geometry will crawl out onto the floor and roof. The best option for solving the problem would be to call a surveyor, who will beat right angles with an accuracy of 0.3 cm, but this will cost several thousand rubles, and usually such a master is called only to break down a building or on too long houses.
Small houses can be broken up without assistance.
This will require a roll of rope and a construction tape, preferably made of metal. The technology is quite simple - put the blocks dry and measure the diagonals of the resulting rectangle. The accuracy will be in the range of 0. 3-0. 5 cm.
It should be noted that the metal tape does not stretch, but the thread or cloth tape will stretch, and decently. If you do not plan to do cladding, then you can release a block or brick beyond the vertical border of the basement up to approximately 1/3 of the brick / block. BUT try not to overuse this, especially if the buildings are higher than 1 floor. When the main corners of the building are exposed, it will be possible to simultaneously expose additional corners, if any. At the same time, it will be possible to expose the partitions, especially if there are no columns, to put them at the same time as the outer walls.
Before starting the laying of the first row, it is imperative to check all the marks of the vertical type base on the foundation, because the first row is the most important stage. If you do not level the base with mortar or there are large drops, then there is a high probability that the walls will crack. The check is carried out with an ordinary spirit level or a laser level, which was set during marking. If the deviations from the horizontal are up to a maximum of 2 cm, then the irregularities can be leveled with a solution. If it is more, then it is better to fill in the belt with reinforcement and make sure that the horizontal level of the concrete is normal.
The first row should be laid on roofing material, cut the roll in half and laid directly on the foundation. This is done in order to cut off capillary moisture from the blind area and the ground.
In seismic areas where the standard rating is higher than 6, such waterproofing is prohibited! With a side-type seismic wave, the building can be moved from the foundation and completely collapse. For this reason, waterproofing is made from a solution, if roofing material cannot be laid. So, before you start laying, check the base again for debris and moisten the base.
The mortar is placed on the first corner stone and the second on the opposite corner with the holes down, and you also need to carefully monitor the height of the masonry. Be sure to check the side faces and ends of the blocks by level so that everything is only vertical.
When all the blocks will stand exactly horizontally and vertically, then you should stretch a cord between them and align them along it. Now, in the same way, make a perpendicular wall - this technology is called "lead corners". While you start the second and third corners, on the first floor the solution will have time to lose mobility, and the block will lie tightly.
Once this has happened, you can start laying the first row further. When it comes to a seismic region, laying "in the wasteland" is prohibited. We are talking about works when only horizontal rows are put on the solution, and the vertical ones are not filled with a solution. Thus, bricklayers often try to save time, and after that the plasterers will have to tinker a lot and close up the cracks.
For this reason, on the next block, on the side of the end, apply two portions of mortar on the sides, where the block will be laid on the foundation / slab and carefully place the block, almost touching the thread.
With a light tap of a pick or a trowel, the block should be knocked to the first block and then aligned along the thread so that the block touches it slightly. When everything is over, then check the side face for verticality. We do the rest of the wall in the same way.
The second and all other rows will hardly differ from the masonry of the first row, but the main difference will be that the corners, in addition to the level, will need to be checked with a plumb line. The more rows, the greater the accuracy of the plumb lines, because the level has rather large errors.
Plumb lines are usually bought in stores in the form of metal weights, to which you should attach a rope yourself.
For marking at the load, a conical hat should be made so that you know exactly the point where it will look. For masonry and plastering, it is best to use not purchased plumb lines, but Armenian ones. It was invented by builders in order to accurately and quickly do work, and also not to be distracted by anyone.
Yes, for laying aerated concrete and not only blocks with your own hands, you will need an Armenian plumb line, which in shape is a whirligig, and not a thin nylon thread is inserted into it, but a thick rope.
At the second end of the rope there should be a pipe, where the rope is threaded in the middle. Inside the hole, the rope will pass with effort, and behind the pipe it will be tied in a knot. It will be the same size as the plumb line.
For measurement, you can easily measure the required length of the rope, and attach the end of the tube to the block, and release the plumb line down. A light touch will indicate verticality, and other deviations can be easily noticed and corrected in time.
It is unlikely that you will be able to buy such a plumb line, but you can make it yourself. In addition, it will not be superfluous to lay a net for "resistance from vandals", because in most crime reports, you can often see cases of theft from shops in a tree without signals, where the shop got into due to breaking the wall.
As a rule, the outer walls are placed in the block, and the inner walls are half. The ligation of the partitions should be at least 30% of the block apart. It is unlikely that you will be able to come up with something new here.
The outer walls can be tied in different ways.
In a block wall above the aperture of windows and doors, it is necessary to install lintels, and in the load-bearing outer walls, a wall embedment depth of 0.2 meters is allowed , and with an opening width of more than 1.5 meters, no less than 0.25 meters is allowed, for other cases, an indicator of 0.
35 meters will be optimal. You can pour all the concrete, but it is inconvenient and time consuming. For implementation, you will need to install the formwork, reinforce with a spatial frame and pour. In this case, the laying will be suspended. If you do everything yourself, then you can use this method - although it is the most laborious, but also the cheapest, and still nothing will stick out of the wall.
The ready-made lintels are heavy and put them several pieces per row to choose for the wall thickness. This method is much faster, but it will be difficult for 1-2 people to do it while standing on the woods. During the construction of a private, reinforcement and a corner are most often used as a lintel. Reinforcement 1-1 can be used in partitions. 2 cm, 4 pieces each, which will be embedded in the masonry, and pull up the board from below, and then spread it with a rack, and apply mortar through the rods.
When the cement becomes less mobile, blocks can be placed. But for the outer walls, which are much thicker than the partitions, corners are used. To do this, cut it to size, and weld reinforcement through the strip in several places. Next, prime with metal to prevent rust and install on the block. Apply mortar to the shelves and place the blocks with the holes facing up.
This will be the most costly method, but it will be very reliable and fast.
An ordinary concrete mixer, which is capable of producing in artisanal / factory conditions, includes about 10 buckets of materials. One mixer will require half a bag of M500 cement, 8 buckets of sand and about 1.5-2 buckets of mortar. The result is an excellent 1 to 5 solution with excellent strength.
You can take any sand, but it is better to wash it, because it has practically no shrinkage. In order for the solution not to sit down, you need to add liquid soap to it. If it is good, then 0.8 liters will be enough for all the above proportions, but sometimes soap is of such quality that you have to pour up to 2.5 liters - it is better not to use it.
The mixing technology is as follows:
- Lay 2 bricks and place reinforcing bar on them between them. On top of it, put a bag of cement in front of it and align it in the middle. Cut the bag on one side with a trowel, and then lift the bag using the reinforcement bar. The cement should be carefully halved, trimmed and used in one half.
- Pour into mixer 1.
5 buckets of water.
- Then carefully add cement and start the device.
- After 1 minute of operation, start to pour in a little sand.
- When done, add water or sand to adjust the fluidity of the solution.
Please note that it should not be liquid and not dry - it should not roll on the trowel, but also not clump.
( 5 marks, average 1.2 from 5 )
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