Among the numerous companies for the installation of plastic windows and doors, it is very difficult to find those that would immediately deal with the slopes. For the time spent on finishing the slopes for one opening, company employees can install 4-5 windows and get much more money. And some types of slopes cannot be made within one day, the technology takes time for the material to solidify and dry, this further discourages them from engaging in such services. In addition, the very need to install slopes changes the algorithm of action of the "installers" of plastic windows. They must remove old windows very carefully, so as not to create large destruction of the existing finish, carefully think over the specific place of installation of the frame, taking into account the thickness and material of the walls.
No slopes - no problem, here is the method of installing plastic windows by company employees.
Slopes on the windows outside
Another trouble for window installers - if you make slopes yourself, then you need to control the distance between the frame and window opening. In this way, the further installation of decorative elements of the window opening can be facilitated. And an ordinary installation requires from them only drilling four holes for dowels in the vertical walls of the opening, fixing the frame under the level and foaming the cracks. After that, the craftsmen receive their money, and the owner is forced to hire another team of builders to finish the windows or do it on their own.
External slopes for windows
Important. If the windows are installed by the employees of the company, then be sure to demand that they thoroughly clean the surfaces of the window opening from dust and dirt, and moisten them abundantly with water before foaming.
In most cases, such work is not done, the strength of fixing the structure is significantly reduced. In the future, under the influence of wind loads or during opening / closing, the cocoon of the frame loosens a little, cracks appear near the slopes and frames you made. It is useless to eliminate them; to eliminate the marriage, you will have to strengthen the frame fasteners.
In terms of labor intensity, these works are no different from the installation of plastic windows. In essence, you will have to redo the work for which the money has already been paid.
Only inexperienced developers might think that there is no difference between the inner and outer slopes. It exists, and it is quite substantial. Understanding the features of the arrangement of external slopes will make it possible to avoid mistakes, improve their appearance and increase the operating time.
Just a few degrees "delay" the sun in the room for 30-40 minutes, which is a lot.
Finishing of window slopes outside
Although they look great and are easy to work with, plastic is much inferior to the first two options in terms of performance. There are no plastics that retain their original physical characteristics for the entire period of operation. None of the most modern innovative additives can fully protect the material from the negative effects of sunlight, including ultraviolet rays. Over time, the color changes and intermolecular bonds weaken - the plastic becomes brittle, microcracks form on the surface.
Decorating the outer slopes with plastic
If this factor does not play a role in the room, then working on the street requires a more attentive approach.
Slopes from the outside should look aesthetically pleasing
As you can see, the installation of external slopes is not such a simple matter, work very carefully and attentively.
Platbands and accessories for windows and doors
So, the plastic window is installed, the polyurethane foam has frozen. The factory-made plastic film on the frames and sashes is not removed. If it is not there, then you will have to take measures to protect surfaces from contamination and mechanical damage.
Windows without slopes
The work is not easy, it is often necessary to dismantle the window. But it is better to waste time once than to regret for many years afterwards.
The decision depends not only on the planned design look, but also on the features of the spatial position of the frame. If there is a large gap between the frame and the wall, then a set of special construction measures will have to be taken to reduce it. For example, it is not recommended to make plaster thicker than 2 cm, you need to reduce the gap, etc.
We will consider several options for the manufacture of external slopes for plastic windows, we will start with the most practical and reliable - from cement-sand solution.
Before starting work, decide what kind of ebb tide will be: galvanized iron or standard plastic.
The algorithm of its installation depends on the material of manufacture. The frame of plastic windows has a special groove in the lower part, an ebb must be inserted into it. "Cash in" it and see at what angle it lies, at what distance from the walls. Make marks, they will come in handy when plastering the lower slope.
The photo shows the process of installing the ebb
Take the same dimensions on the sides and top of the opening, find out the required thickness of the plaster.
The larger it is, the more difficult it will be to make the slope. After taking measurements, analyzing the condition and developing a production scheme, you can start plastering the slopes.
Prepare a cement-sand mixture based on a part of cement, approximately 2.5-3 parts of sand, but no more. The solution must be greasy, otherwise it will begin to crumble with repeated freezing / thawing.
You will have to redo everything or use various methods of protecting surfaces. In addition, an increased amount of cement increases the coefficient of adhesion of the mortar to the walls, which is very important for slopes.
Step 1. Protect the surface of glass units from contamination. Use plastic wrap and tape for this.
Close all places where the mass might fall. Stick the adhesive tape firmly so that the film does not fall off during operation.
Protect the glass from the ingress of solution
Step 2. Cut off the foam that has protruded beyond the planes of the frame. If there are large gaps after foaming, close them up.
You can use mortar or various sealants. Cut off the foam with a sharp knife in continuous movements, do not allow breaks. The better the insulation, the less heat loss. But that's not all. If cold bridges form around the frame, then condensation appears on the slopes, which causes the growth of fungi and mold.
Microorganisms not only negatively affect building structures and materials, but can also cause various allergic reactions.
Slopes before finishing
Be sure to cut the polyurethane foam
Step 3 . Prepare your tools.You will need a grout, a trowel, a plumb line or level, dowels, a spray gun, or a brush to wet the surfaces with water.
Craftsmen often mention a malka for slopes.
We need to dwell on this topic in more detail. What is malka and what is it used for?
Malka is a tool with which you can level plaster at different angles. We have already said that the slopes need to be done at obtuse angles, due to this, the clearance of the window opening increases. You can buy a malka ready-made in a store, make it yourself, or replace it with an elementary device.
The standard bead consists of two metal strips connected by a hinge.
After selecting the desired angle, the strips in the hinge are clamped with a screw. It can also be done from wooden planks, but it takes a long time, for one-time work it makes no sense to waste so much time for several windows.
If you have an irresistible desire to align the angles of the slopes with a bevel, you can make it from one board. One end is cut at the desired angle, it will abut against the window frame. The second part of the stick slides along a guide board fixed to the wall.
But there is another way to maintain the desired slope angle, which is used by all professionals. We will explain below how they work. We assure you that this method allows you to achieve excellent quality and at the same time not waste time at all making a bean or a special device.
Malka for slopes
Step 4. We recommend starting plastering from the top of the slope.
The most difficult and time-consuming section, requires some skill and practical skills.
It is advisable to sprinkle the surface with cement-sand milk. This is the same solution, only very liquid. The milk will do two things: it will moisturize very dry bricks and will increase the adhesion of the plaster to the surface.
Wet the surfaces
Install the guide rail on the wall. To do this, you need to fix a thin board with absolutely flat sides on the wall above the window opening. The side edge of the board should be horizontal, fasten it with dowels, then the holes in the wall will be sealed without problems. Fasten it securely, it should not stagger and, moreover, fall off. One end of the rule will slide across the board.
Step 6. If you need to apply thick plaster, then this should be done in several steps. Sketch the first layer approximately 2-3 cm thick, let it dry a little. Then throw on the second layer and so on until there is about a centimeter left before the final leveling of the slope. Cover the mortar with the back of the trowel, only putting it on will ensure that all gaps on the surface are completely filled.
Important. Beginners often fail to throw in, it's not scary, learn, after a while experience will appear.But never try to spread the solution on the surface, nothing will come of this venture. You can only slightly grease the grooves obtained after throwing on. But this is not how professionals work.
They always throw on, and for different purposes they take a different amount of solution.
Step 7. You can level the weight with a small or ordinary bar. We have already talked about malka, now we will tell you how professionals work. They prepare an ordinary flat rail, the length should exceed the width of the slope by about 10 cm.
As for the width, there is a special requirement: it should not exceed the width of the gap from the sash to the end of the window frame. Further, the leveling of the mortar on the upper slope is done as follows:
After the excess mass is pulled together by the rail, grooves of various parameters will inevitably remain on the surface. Large ones must be repaired with a trowel. Take a little mass on a plywood stand, take small portions with the back of the trowel and fill in the holes. The mass must be glued with effort. Keep the plywood under the patch, any excess weight will fall onto it.
Step 9. Wait 40-50 minutes for the solution to solidify. Once it's a little stronger, start working with the float. Do not use too much force, work in a circular motion, constantly monitor the position of the working surface of the trowel (grout). If the solution has hardened strongly, moisten it with water.
Work carefully in the corners of the slopes. You can correct the corners with a trowel or a spatula, there is no difference. Use the tools that are more familiar and easier to work with.
Mixes for leveling walls and ceilings
Now you can go to vertical slopes ..
. Reinstall the ebb before finishing the side ones. The installation technology depends on the selected type. But for all cases, one condition must be observed - the protruding part of the ebb must fit tightly into a special seat on the frame of the plastic window. Take all measures to prevent water from glass units from entering the space between the frame and the ebb.
To guarantee, you can coat the seat with silicone.
Step 1. Install the ebb in place, on the side surfaces of the window opening, mark its position on the upper surface. Remember that the ebb must be installed at an angle for a reliable water drain.
Setting the ebb
How to set the ebb
Remove it, use a cement-sand mass to level the lower slope to the level of the marked lines. While working, use the same tools with which you worked on the upper slope. It is not necessary to achieve special cleanliness of the surface, it will close anyway.
Step 3. After the mass hardens, install an ebb over the window.
Cover it with a cloth or plastic film against possible dirt or damage.
Now you can start finishing the side surfaces of the slopes. The workflow algorithm is almost the same. First, the boards are installed on the sides, the position is leveled with a level or plumb line. Next, the solution is thrown, the alignment is always done from the bottom up, so less mass falls on the ebb.
It lingers on the surface of the rule and is thrown into a container.
Beacon and rail installation scheme
Beacon and rail installation scheme relative to slope
Plastering window slopes outside
Add plaster, where there is not enough and level again
After waiting for a while, remove the excess with a trowel
A little later, iron it vertically with a suitable size rule
On the second day, the guide boards can be removed. Remove the retaining nails or dowels, do not open the rail towards you, but carefully pull it away from the slopes, press it firmly against the wall. This will help prevent chipping of the fresh plaster.
There will certainly be small gaps under the board, fill them up with a trowel, smooth the surfaces with grout.
After the slopes are completely dry, the surfaces can be painted with facade water-based paint (white or colored) or decorative plaster can be made with the same material as on the facade walls.
Plaster of slopes
The option is not common, but has the right for life. The use of plastic slopes makes it possible to complete the production of slopes in one day. We do not recommend doing them for one reason - the service life of plastic slopes is about 15 years, do you really want to engage in construction work again after this time? Slopes are made of plastic panels for external work, the color and texture should be in harmony with the appearance of the facade walls of the building.
Finishing the slopes
A supporting frame must be made under the plastic slopes.
It can be made from rolled metal or wooden slats. There is no fundamental difference, lumber is reliably protected from the effects of atmospheric precipitation, the service life is the same as that of metal. We will consider making the simplest version of the frame - from wooden slats.
Installing plastic slopes
Step 1. Select the slats of the required length and thickness.
They should fit into the space between the wall and the window frame. If necessary, correct the wall surface or reduce the thickness of the battens in some places. The slats must be fixed along the perimeter of the slope: at the bottom and at the top and on both sides of the opening. If the plastic windows are large, then add several additional slats on all planes. Pre-fix them with liquid nails, fill the cracks with polyurethane foam.
After the foam hardens, the slats can be fixed to the wall with several dowels to increase stability. But it is not necessary to do this, the frame will hold on very tightly. The foam that comes out after hardening will be cut off.
Installation of wooden guides
We tighten the screws and sink the caps to a depth of the middle of the rail
Align the guides so that they are strictly parallel to the frame
Step 2. Install the guide boards on the walls above and on both sides of the opening.
How this is done is described above.
Step 3. Replace the ebb. Installation technology depends on the type of product.
Check the position of the timber frame. All battens should lie in the same plane, side, bottom and top slopes at an angle. Observe the verticality of the side slopes.
Step 5 . Take the exact measurements, prepare plastic panels and decorative corners.
Practical advice. It is better to start installing the panels from the fixing side. At this point, the panels have a beautiful rounding, nothing will have to be repaired. Cut a thin plastic strip to which the staples or studs are fixed, and press this edge against the frame.
Measure and cut each panel separately. You can cut it with an assembly knife, electric jigsaw or grinder. It is best to do this operation on a machine for cutting ceramic tiles - the angle is precisely adjusted, the cut is obtained with a perfectly even "factory" cut.
Step 7. Fix the plastic slopes with a stapler, small nails or self-tapping screws in the place provided by the manufacturer.
Press the panels firmly, do not leave gaps. If the window is large, then the slope is additionally glued to the wooden transverse battens with liquid nails.
Fixing the panel with a stapler
Step 8. Close the corners with decorative corners, fix them with liquid nails. Cut the corners at the joints at an angle of 45 °.
The corners should be cut down with a special hacksaw with a fine tooth
This version of making slopes is best used if the whole house is finished with plastic panels. Even during wall decoration work, provide for the possibility of making a frame for slopes.
Council of professionals.It is very difficult for novice craftsmen to cut the corners exactly at an angle of 45 °, there is always a gap at the junction points. Of course, it can be covered with a sealant or silicone, but the correction is noticeable, the appearance deteriorates.
We recommend trimming only one corner at a 45 ° angle and the other at a 90 ° angle. From the corner at 45 °, the lower area of the square is cut off, and the thin upper one overlaps the cut at 90 °. This technique completely eliminates the possibility of gaps formation, there are no joints, the elements overlap. At whatever angle you cut, the cut is always positioned on the bottom whole area.
Plastic profiles and sandwich panels are needed to make a slope.
PVC panel and profiles
Panel sizes are selected taking into account window parameters. In the process of installation, pieces are cut from the whole panel according to the dimensions of the vertical and horizontal slopes. You can cut with a grinder with a disc for metal, an electric jigsaw, an assembly knife or other tools. If burrs are formed during cutting, then they are removed with the edge of a knife or with a sandpaper.
First of all, we install the window sill
The plastic U-shaped profile is screwed around the perimeter of the window frame ... Check the horizontal and vertical position carefully. The ends of plastic slopes are installed in this profile.
Use small screws to fix it.
Cut off the U-shaped profile slightly larger than the width of the window. We screw small screws into it
Installation of the starting profile
From the side where the profile will be adjacent to the window, apply a layer of sealant and attach the profile to the window
Important. It must be remembered that violation of the integrity of the metal profile of the window frame with self-tapping screws negatively affects its performance.
First, fix the two extreme self-tapping screws, after checking the position of the element, screw in the fasteners every 15-20 cm.
Frame for plastic slopes
Step 2. Check the dimensions are correct. All is well - insert the slope into the profile. Use a piece of plastic to make work easier. Insert it into the gap between the panel and the profile and gradually move it along the panel, press on the end.
The element will fit into the seat along its entire length without much effort.
Insert panels into the profile
Cut out a slope from the plastic panel along the depth of the window and insert it into the U-shaped plastic profile previously attached to the window
On the other side, the slope is inserted into the F-profile, which is then attached with a stapler
Step 3. Stick a strip of masking tape on the other (free) end of the slope and leave loose pieces. With their help, it will then be fixed to the wall before foaming. The tape will prevent the slopes from bending under the influence of the expanding foam.
Step 4. Carefully seal the gap between the slope and the wall, set the elements in a horizontal position and fix its positions with free pieces of tape. Remember to wet the surfaces. Water not only improves adhesion but also accelerates foam hardening.
This is what the top slope looks like on window
Cut off excess foam. Install decorative corners or platbands depending on the material and technology for finishing the external walls.
Ready window with installed slopes
That's all, using the same algorithm you can finish all the remaining plastic windows, regardless of their sizes and method of opening / closing.
External wooden slopes
Such slopes are installed on houses made of rounded logs without additional external cladding or on houses made of ordinary timber, the external walls of which are finished with natural clapboard.
For the street, you can use two options for slopes: from natural lining or furniture board.
The furniture board is made of glued boards - the possibility of deformations under the influence of atmospheric precipitation is excluded. Wide boards will certainly warp and will not work. If they are firmly fixed on the frame, then there will be no warping, but very deep cracks form. In this regard, it is not recommended to use them as a material for the manufacture of slopes. As an example, we will consider a variant of a furniture board with a thickness of about 1 cm.
Step 1. Take measurements, cut off the slope blanks. Do everything with maximum precision, furniture panels are expensive. Use only serviceable and adjusted tools, observe safety precautions. Woodworking machines and tools belong to the category of the most dangerous mechanisms, the injuries from them are very serious.
Sketching slopes can be quite complex, all sides at different angles, etc. If you have little experience in sizing - make a template out of cardboard. Resize it several times until it looks good. Using a template, cut out the side and top slopes for each PVC window.
Sawing the slope
Set the low tide, remember to make the slope. To increase the strength under the drain, it is recommended to make a frame. For manufacturing, it is better to use slats 20 * 50 mm, be sure to soak them with an antiseptic.If not, dry the slats well in a warm room or under a fan and cover several times with ordinary vegetable oil, it perfectly protects against putrefactive processes.
Step 3 .
Try on the slope, install it end-to-end in the gap between the plastic window frame and the wall. Level up its position.
Step 4. Fasten the wooden slope in place. To do this, you need small self-tapping screws or studs and trimming strips about ten centimeters long.
Beam the slats to the slope and the frame, always at the top and bottom, the distance between the fixing points is not more than 20 cm. Strong fastening is a prerequisite for the next operation.
Step 5. Use a spray gun to moisten well the gap between the slope and the wall. Cover it with polyurethane foam.
If the width of the slope is large, then you will have to foam in two steps. In order to prevent the foam from bending the wooden slope, we made it securely fixed with slats.
The process of installing the upper slope
Step 6. After hardening, cut off the remaining foam, check the strength of the slopes ..
. Practice shows that there is no need to do any additional fastenings.
Step 7. Prepare the platbands. Wooden slopes must be trimmed with platbands.
Nail them to the slopes with studs or self-tapping screws, the attachment points can be putty.
Cases for windows
When choosing plastic materials for the slopes, be sure to pay attention to the resistance to UV rays. Never work with plastic for indoor use, it is absolutely unsuitable for street slopes.
Ply windows with wood-like texture on the frame surface can be problematic. The fact is that the flat surface of wooden or plastic slopes does not fit tightly, moisture gets into the cracks.
It is not recommended to cover them with glue, it will be noticeable, and it is impossible to remove the excess. Professionals advise before foaming to press the slope to the frame with foam wedges. Its elasticity is sufficient to exclude the appearance of cracks at the junction and not sufficient to cause a noticeable deformation of the slope.
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
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Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020