More and more people want to live in houses made of natural materials.
The return to them is explained not only by fashion and their harmlessness: natural organics seem to be specially adjusted to the vital activity of their owners. Advantages and disadvantages and design features + Video
After its wear and tear, it is disposed of without polluting nature and not disturbing its balance either during operation or after.
Among the "emerging" from forgotten building materials, a worthy place was taken by wooden shingles, as well as other roofing , seemingly already forgotten due to labor-intensive installation and rather high cost.
Meanwhile, shingles can be used to cover the roof quite sparingly.
This is not as complicated technology as it might seem. However, a potential roofer will have to stock up not only with diligence and diligence, but also remember a number of forgotten rules.
It can be assumed that laying wooden tiles consists of in the careful fixation of individual elements. Anyone who prefers a more budgetary option will have to prepare the necessary material on their own.
But for considerable efforts the owners will be generously rewarded: they will not be disturbed by the noise of rain or cats galloping on the roof.
The way the wooden plates are laid will create a unique effect. Almost all types of roofing, suitable for the name shingle, are arranged according to the simple principle of a spruce cone.
When their constituent elements get wet, they swell, increase in size, and, as it were, merge with each other, creating an insurmountable moisture barrier.
When it gets dry outside, the wood dries up and shrinks, as it were, leaving free space for air circulation between its constituent elements.
Nothing prevents the air flow from circulating freely in the sub-roof space, as well as in the gaps of the roof itself.
In other words, this type of natural organic matter is able to independently carry out ventilation and waterproofing of the roof.
An additional bonus is that if the slopes of the slopes are not less than those specified in DIN 68119, such a roof does not require the laying of water and vapor-proof films and layers.
For finishing bath roof , you can make the material yourself, or purchase a factory-made one. Factory options, of course, cannot be called cheap, but they are quite impressive with exquisite carvings and complete readiness for installation. The individual components of shingle coatings may differ in their configuration, manufacturing technology and installation method.
Based on the listed characteristics, they can be subdivided into separate types.
It was the shingle that gave the name to all representatives of this category of materials.
What is it?
These are individual chipped or sawn plates that can have different longitudinal cuts: rectangular, swallow-tail or trapezoidal.
In the variant with a tail, tongue-and-groove boards are fixed to the crate and are fastened to each other in the "thorn- in-groove ".
If non-grooved material is used, that is, rectangular and trapezoidal parts in the cut, their connection to each other and fastening directly to the lathing is performed by means of nails or self-tapping screws.
Such fasteners pierce through a pair of plates (without a tongue), and enter the lath by two centimeters.
Important note! Sawed material is very significantly inferior to chipped material in technical and operational qualities. The fact is that when sawing, the natural structure of wood fiber is disturbed, and it no longer so valiantly resists various negative influences from the outside.
Chips and shingles are a simplified and lightweight variety of shingles. They differ from each other in thickness and size.
For roofing shingles, length indicators are from 40 to 100 cm, for chips they are less. And chips and shingles can be made independently: by splitting the chocks into separate boards of different formats. The log for such chocks must be dried, and it must have impressive dimensions, otherwise you will get a lot of unusable boards.
If they are made from damp wood, then when dry, individual elements may crack. If the soft core of the log, called sapwood, is used, then the planks from it will not last a long time.
There should be no defects, knots and crevices on individual parts of the roofing shingle. Alder or aspen are best suited for this, but soft conifers can be used.
The shingles spread on the roof surface in a checkerboard pattern, with overlaps vertically and horizontally, in two, four, three or five layers. In order for the boards to fit correctly, they are chamfered from the side cuts. This is done at a 45 degree angle on both sides.
Experienced craftsmen recommend chamfering for beauty from the transverse outer edge, and for better fit from the inside.
This is the name of a tile made of wood, which is not mounted in a strict checkerboard pattern, but with some offset, but always overlap. It turns out such a prototype of a flexible modern tile, which cannot be rigidly fixed to the crate - you must leave a small screw.
Individual tile elements are not mounted tightly, leaving free space for increasing in size when wet, so that the strips abutting against each other do not swell. When making a shindle, the carpenter takes into account the nature of the arrangement of the tree rings.
Otherwise, when moistened and then dried the wood will warp .
This is a special wooden roofing that has become truly legendary. Boyar chambers and wooden churches have long been adorned with such carved splendor in Russia. Each individual piece of ploughshare is a real piece of art. They are made by hand and always from aspen.
Moreover, the wood should be harvested in a certain period - when the maximum amount of juice . This happens in spring, at the very end. Each individual element is like a neat, edged paddle, and the material for it needs to be selected with great care. This is an expensive roof covering, made in specialized workshops for rare or valuable architectural forms.
Tes is simple coniferous boards that are spread on the roof along or across the cornice line .
The latter option is more practical, since it lasts longer. In the center of the boards installed across the board, a special chute is made for the outflow of water. The roof is made of a tessellation, in two layers, with or without a gap between them.
Fix with one nail. The boards of the lower layer are placed with the core down, the boards of the upper layer are first rounded, then laid with the core out.
If the direction of laying goes along the eaves line, first fix the sheathing board, which will be required as a stop for the very first row. Each subsequent row must have an overlap of at least 5 cm on the previous one.
Making chips or shingles on their own does not require special experience and high qualifications. Such work is quite within the power of even an inexperienced master. Although material with natural moisture is easier to process, this should not be done.
All logs must be stacked neatly to dry.
A whole log matures to readiness for about three years . This period can be shortened by cutting it into 40-cm chocks beforehand. Then after 6-9 months you can start making shreds. Hard, well-dried wood is difficult to chop.
But for the sake of high-quality and wear-resistant roofing material, it is worth working hard.
Of course, it is worth taking care in advance that the material prepared so carefully for laying is enough for the intended area of the wooden roof. It is advisable to calculate the required number of logs in advance. For such calculations, special tables have been developed that can be used.
With their help it is easy to calculate the number of planks required for stacking in a given number of rows with a known slope.
The material should be taken with a margin of at least five percent. What if unsuccessful attempts will ruin some of the material?
The home roofer also focuses on the steepness, size and area of the roof. But first of all, they find out how many plates are required per square meter of coverage.
A thick log, four meters long, prepared for shingles, is divided into ten chunks on average. Each of them will make three or four fifteen-centimeter boards.
Fine calibration is not necessary here. For one meter of the roof along the longitudinal line, approximately seven plates are laid. Further calculations are made based on the number of intended coating layers. For example, in a three-layer installation used in housing construction, only a third of the element is on the day surface.
Above verandas, baths and gazebos, wooden tiles are often laid in two layers.
That is, the number of harvested plates doubles, resulting in fourteen of them. With the overlap of each previous row by ten centimeters, in the case of a two-layer installation, about thirty cm of the board will be visible from under the next row.
Approximately three rows vertically . If you round up and multiply the resulting data, you get about 42 pieces. It is better to round this number up to 50: in any case, the remainder will not disappear.
The facade, pediment is trimmed with a shingle, and an internal facing is made of it.
Important note! A roof with tiles can have a rational slope from 55 to 71 degrees. Experienced roofers consider the slope indicators to be the main determinants of the life of such a coating. The slope of the slopes with an angle of 14-18 degrees is considered the critical limit. The steeper the slope, the more material it will need.
A roof made of wood is considered a medium-weight element.
Roofing shingles weigh up to 17 kilograms. She does not need to equip a powerful rafter system. But the step of the lathing should correspond to the step of fixing the individual elements. Qualified experts recommend making a crate without gaps, with a continuous flooring.
In the case that we are disassembling now, with a two-layer installation of shingles, individual slats should be located at a distance of thirty cm.When arranging a finished roof in three layers, to calculate one step of the sheathing, the value of an individual element must be divided by three, and round the resulting number down.
The plates are fixed and secured with special galvanized self-tapping screws for working with wood. You can use special grooved or screw-shaped nails for this. The mount should be no closer than two centimeters to the edge, in the upper corners of the shingles.
Important note! If it is planned to install a roof made of wood material with insulation, direct contact between the waterproofing material and the shingle is unacceptable.
By mounting a special counter-lattice between them, a mandatory ventilation gap is arranged. If the superdiffusion membrane plays the role of insulation, then the ventilation device can be neglected.
The main nodes of the roof are made of wood according to the traditional technological principle. Along all the abutment lines, as well as around the chimney, a tin apron is mounted, which is tightly fixed.
Convex corners and valleys are laid in a special fan pattern.
Laying a pair of long docked boards form the ridge. You can use the method of its arrangement for ceramic tiles - installation with an overlap of a pair of short boards. Or lay a stupid horse on the skate. This is the name of a special log with a longitudinal groove, laid in full length.
The groove is necessary for the upper layers of the shingles, which are wound directly under it.
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