There must be a barn on the territory of each private house. It will solve various economic problems. A room of this type is intended for storing tools, firewood, garden tools, blanks, fertilizers or any kind of machinery. A workshop can be equipped in the barn. [contents ]
Today, there are a huge number of options for building a barn with your own hands, it can be: frame-panel, with a shed or gable roof, insulated and without insulation.
Below we will consider how to build a high-quality frame shed with your own hands at an affordable price and not complex drawings and diagrams.
Despite the complexity of the structure, it is necessary to take into account some details before its construction:
- on the territory, when viewed from the main entrance, the barn should not be visible. The best option would be to place it in the background. No matter how beautiful and neat it is, do not forget that first of all it is an economic block;
- the approach to the barn should always be free, since you may have to bring in and take out large-sized things (when repairing in a frame house) or building materials;
- it is better to place it on a hill, while protecting the building from melt water or wet places. With this arrangement, there will be no dampness and mold in the barn, and there will be no rotting of wooden frame parts and elements;
before construction shed, carefully consider the layout of the room, in the future this will help you avoid various changes during construction.
If you plan to install a workshop, playroom, summer kitchen or place for chickens in the barn, then you will need to divide the room into two main parts: a household or a workshop. In this case, it will be necessary to make two separate entrances;
- a frame-type shed, built by oneself, has a rather long service life. To install walls, standard lumber and OSB are often used. A beautiful and neat look can be given to the building with the help of lining or siding;
- a utility block with brick walls will last forever, but at the same time its cost will increase significantly. In this case, it is necessary to make a base of three to four rows of clinker, lay a layer of waterproofing and continue the construction with logs.
- most often they install a frame shed with a gable roof, but if you wish, you can put a gable. For the roof, euro slate or profiled sheet is more often used, but for the shed you can choose the building material that covers the main roof of the house;
- before starting construction, you need to accurately mark the location of the door and roof slope, if this is not done by raindrops or melt water will fall directly over the entrance;
- when building a shed, you must also take care of high-quality waterproofing.
Foundation for frame shed
Protect the wooden frame from moisture and dampness with strip foundation, the ideal option would be to make a base of concrete.
This foundation is not suitable for sedimentary or peaty soil. This base is perfect if you plan to make several rows of clinker, then there is no need for a basement floor.
Let's consider the main stages of installation of a strip foundation for a frame shed:
- At the beginning of work, a special trench is prepared with a depth of at least 40 cm and a width of 30 cm, into it covered with 15 cm of sand cushion.
- Insulation is placed on top, because when pouring a concrete mixture, "milk" can be absorbed into the sand, and this will reduce the strength properties of concrete.
- Then the formwork is installed. The height of this structure above the ground should be equal to the height of the base. If necessary, the upper part of the formwork is secured with props.
The main attention should be paid to the corners, because they are where the main load goes. After the fittings are mounted, they are fastened to each other with wire, welding of the cells is categorically unacceptable.
- It is advisable to lay the concrete mixture in one go. Do not perform this work in rainy or hot weather, as this may further affect the strength of the entire base.
- In two weeks, you can safely proceed to the installation of vertical supports, at this point in time the concrete will be strong enough
A columnar foundation is applicable to buildings with light weight.
The main stages of work:
- Along the entire perimeter of the structure and at the corners, "chairs" made of baked brick are installed. Their width is 240 mm - these are two bricks, and the height is exactly 195 mm - 3 bricks.
- Laying must be done with bandaging of the seams; cement of the M400 brand is ideal for preparing the solution. To avoid skewing the building, follow the vertical and horizontal lines of the brick posts.
Hollow concrete blocks can be installed as posts, which are filled with a special concrete solution.
When choosing a wooden foundation, it should be performed from larch logs with a thickness of at least 300 mm, several times beforehand having processed them with liquid bitumen.
Let's consider the main stages of work when installing a wooden foundation:
- Shallow holes are drilled and prepared wooden piles are inserted into them.
- For better installation and reliability, concrete can be poured into the hole.
- Logs can be replaced with metal piles.
Installing the floor, walls and roof
Below are some tips on how to build a frame shed:
it is possible to fix the strapping beam to the wooden piles with the help of nails driven in obliquely;
- to the brick grillage installation is carried out with T-shaped anchor pins.
- at the stage of installation and installation of the strapping, it is necessary to lay a waterproofing layer, and already from above, the strapping will be carried out with lumber.
- For the frame, a beam of 100x100 mm is used, the joints at the corners are made in a "half-log", that is, cuts of about 50x50 mm are made at half the thickness of the entire beam. If there is a need with a chisel or a sharply sharpened ax, fit elements and parts to the corners of the entire frame.
- Beams-lags are mounted from a board installed on an edge. All parts are fastened together with nails or with self-tapping screws.
- Before installing the wall uprights, you need to check the horizontal lines and check all the diagonals of the bottom rail.
- Vertical posts are connected using L-shaped metal fasteners or standard nails with a slanting face. The distance between them is no more than 1.5 m. To increase reliability, it is customary to fasten them diagonally.
- Not corner supports, so that they do not diverge, are strengthened with jibs, after the upper strapping they must be removed.
The location of the wooden posts for the door will depend on its type and size.
If the door is single-floor, then the installation of vertical supports will be of two types:
- due to the support of the box on one side, a corner bar will serve, and then it will be necessary only one wooden post;
- but if the door is located in the center of the wall, 2 posts will need to be installed.
Next is the installation of the horizontal strip, it will correspond to the height of the door . Bars of certain sizes are also installed on the walls and in the places where the windows will be located.
After that, the upper strapping is performed, the same lumber is used. At this stage, you need to insert into wooden posts. Install load-bearing ceiling joists from boards.
For a single-pitched roof - one of its sides is raised with the help of bars to the required slope. When installing and installing the rafters, they must necessarily protrude about 300 mm beyond the edge of the roof.
And you need to expose the rafter legs.
Cross planks must be installed with a ledge. Next, complete the crate for installing the roofing material. By the type of material, it can be of a solid or discharged type. Roofing material or membrane film is well suited as a waterproofing material.
Consider the stages of cladding a frame shed with our own hands:
- For cladding, use a variety of materials: corrugated sheet or boards, they are fastened vertically and horizontally.
- You can use clapboard, but this option will come out much more expensive.
- The interior of the utility block can be insulated, it all depends on its purpose.
Do-it-yourself plastic or metal frame shed
Modern technologies in construction today are a plastic or metal shed.
The advantages of this type of buildings:
- Such options will be ideal for those who save their time and do not want to breed construction "dirt" on their site.
- The elements of the household block come packed in boxes - this ensures convenient delivery to the desired point.
- This structure can be easily moved, since its installation and dismantling is quite simple and will take several hours.
- A barn made of these materials has a beautiful appearance, due to its various colors.
- One of the advantages is its practicality, it does not require special care, such as treatment with special antiseptics or seasonal painting. Caring for this utility unit is the usual washing with water.
- For its installation, a specific foundation is not required, a base of crushed stone or sand and gravel mixture is sufficient.
When building or installing a finished frame shed, it must be borne in mind that any building of this type must be removed at a certain distance from the street line. And the position on the territory of the site and orientation to the cardinal points is already a personal choice and preferences of the owner.