How to make an earthen cellar with your own hands. It is almost impossible to imagine a private one with its adjoining territory without a cellar, since it is here that the owner of the house keeps all the harvest and conservation. Not every refrigerator can become a full-fledged replacement for a cellar - it is in this place that a comfortable temperature and the desired level of humidity are maintained, which allow vegetables and fruits to remain juicy.
It's great if there is already a cellar or shed under the house. But what if you don't have such a room? It doesn't matter - you can easily build an earthen cellar in the country with your own hands.
We will tell you about the features of the construction, as well as the installation rules, in this article.
Today, many options for buildings for a basement are known: cellars, aboveground structures, glaciers and storage sheds. These can be structures that are complex in terms of architecture, and the simplest, from the material at hand. It is to the simplest structures that an earthen cellar can be attributed.
Note that this structure is not suitable for every site - construction is possible only under the following conditions:
For the construction of such a cellar, the depth of the groundwater must be at least 2 m.In the case when the water is at a level slightly above the minimum, the problem can be solved in two ways: reducing the height of the ceilings in the cellar or creating a dump of sand and gravel so that the basement floor is slightly raised.
It is difficult to hold loose soil, so you will have to start strengthening the walls and ceiling, but even in this case, there is a high probability that underground water will penetrate inside.
Please note, that trees must not be planted near the earthen basement, as the walls of the building may be damaged due to their powerful root system.
It is generally accepted that it is in an earthen cellar that it is easy to maintain a pleasant microclimate, which is excellent for storing potatoes, turnips, carrots and beets. Thanks to the natural moisture, vegetables do not wrinkle or dry out, and even in spring, last year's harvest will be healthy and appetizing.
Although the design is considered simple, the question "how to make an earthen cellar? " still does not lose its relevance. You don't have to be a professional builder to do this, as even beginners can handle this task. You should start by creating a drawing / sketch, and it should be carried out taking into account the scale, and also indicate on it all the dimensions of the cellar and its elements.
It is important to remember the following important factors here:
You should know that it is best to engage in such construction in the summer, when the groundwater level will be at a minimum and nothing will interfere with the work.
So, when everything is verified and calculated, and the location is selected, you can start the construction itself. You should start by digging a base - a pit / pit, which will act as a storage for fruits and vegetables.
For the cellar, you can dig a hole without using special equipment, since it is usually made small in size - about 200 * 200 * 300 cm.You can reduce the height, this is especially important when the groundwater lies close to the surface ( 150 cm).
It is also important to remember that the pit itself needs to be made more than the construction site by 50 cm.
With manual digging, you will be able to maintain the density and relief of the soil and thanks to this, the walls will not crumble. The shape, namely the inverted trapezoid, will help protect the basement surface from collapse: the distance between the opposite walls should be less at the bottom than at the top.
Now let's think about how to make a floor in an earthen cellar. It can be different:
Nevertheless, the owner must assess the risks and understand that during spring floods there is a high probability of groundwater rise and floor wetting. In this case, you will have to pump out water and make racks on a hill. But the advantage of the rammed floor is that it will perfectly keep the temperature and humidity level, and the vegetables inside the cellar will be fresh and beautiful.
But it is difficult to make such floors, since the process is long and laborious, and good quality clay is not easy to find.
After the concrete is leveled by the rule, and the next day the lighthouses are removed, and the voids are sealed with concrete. Such a floor perfectly protects the earthen cellar from moisture - groundwater will not penetrate inside, and there will also be no capillary seepage of water.
Tip! If the earthen floors get wet in this case, then make all the pallets and racks on a hill.
For example, you can assemble wooden lattices, and put boxes and boxes on them.
When everything is decided with the foundation, you can start building walls. The ideal option is to leave the earthen walls, but this method is available only to those who have dense and dry soil on the site, and even in this case, you will have to deal with waterproofing and protection from crumbling.
It will be much cheaper to sheathe the walls with planks, vines or croaker. First, you need to hammer in wooden piles - these are logs, which should be at least 0.
5 m deep in the ground.
Please note that when erecting concrete or stone floors, the supports must be poured prior to pouring the base.
After that, you can start nailing the transverse beams along the perimeter of the base, which will hold the supports and serve as an excellent basis for the lathing. The best thing for this purpose is to use boards that have been previously knocked down into small shields. With this design, it will be possible to disassemble the cladding in the summer in order to check the condition of the walls, dry the wood and treat it with an antiseptic.
Often, to create a capital earthen cellar in the country with their own hands, it is sheathed not just with wood, but in addition they use insulation. Wall insulation can be done with any board material, for example stone wool or extruded polystyrene foam.
Often such basements are lined with bricks for exterior decoration. In this case, half brick masonry will be enough, but then both surfaces of the walls will have to be insulated with bituminous mastic or roofing material.
Important! Gas silicate brick, foam concrete, cinder block and other materials porous in structure are not suitable for cladding, since after some time water will seep through them, which can cause walls to be destroyed.
Most of the heat loss goes through the roof and ceiling of the cellar, and for this reason it is important to pay as much attention as possible to this element of the building. The ceiling needs to be strengthened so that it does not collapse. In bulk basements, wooden poles or woven vines are often used for this, but more resistant materials, such as boards or stone, can be used.
But you will have to tinker with the roof, and first to insulate it. The structure above the earthen basement should be gable.
Thanks to this, rainwater will drain quickly and will not penetrate into the cellar. Insulation and waterproofing should be laid on the very base under the roof. By the way, roofing material is perfect as insulation, and you can insulate the roof with any material that is not afraid of moisture (foam plastic, mineral / stone wool, glass wool, etc.).
Waterproof plywood, metal sheet or OSB should be placed on the roof.
The angles on the slopes should be 45 degrees. For the best protection of the basement from freezing, it is advised to cover its roof with a layer of peat (about 25 cm), and then cover it with another insulation (roofing material or film) and cover 12 cm of fertile soil.
Good advice! Sowing low-growing grass like lawn or moss into the ground can provide your roof with additional protection from cold and wet weather. In addition, greenery will make the roof look spectacular and give an unusual, sophisticated, antique look.
As with all storage facilities, even an earthen cellar must be equipped with a ventilation system.
If this is not done, then there will be stale air inside, and it will not be possible to store vegetables there, since it is in such conditions that fungus and mold feel best. The rules for creating ventilation in an earthen cellar in the country are as follows:
Important is that in a small cellar, you can install only one supply and exhaust pipe.
In the earthen basement in the country house, everything can be arranged the way its owner wants, since everyone has different needs: who- then they store potatoes in it, and someone wants a storage for wine. In this case, the storage is usually divided into two zones - on the right there are bins, where there are wooden boxes / compartments for apples and other things, and on the left there are racks for preservation and wine.
The shelves should be 0.5 m apart, but the size may vary depending on the height of the cans.
The material of the shelves is different - metal, wood. In the first case, the racks should be protected from corrosion by regular painting, and in the second, the wood should be treated with antiseptic agents or covered with oil enamel in a timely manner.
An irreplaceable attribute is a ladder.
It must be safe and durable, and it also needs to be processed on time so that there is no corrosion or decay.
The final stage is the supply of electricity. Do not forget about the microclimate and safety standards - in such rooms only lamps with a low voltage level should be installed!
An earthen cellar is the best way to create storage for crops and conservation. This basement will not only last for many years, but also will not require repair and additional maintenance, since all surfaces will be protected by a layer of earth.
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Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |04, Nov 2020