Foundation is the main part of the house. The durability of the entire structure depends on how strong it is. If you do not attach importance to its waterproofing, after some time, as a result of exposure to soil, rainwater and low temperatures, it sags and deforms. To neutralize their impact, foundation waterproofing is needed.
Doing this work with your own hands is not very easy.
Its technology requires knowledge and understanding of the processes taking place in soil and concrete, as well as orientation in waterproofing materials. Before proceeding with the waterproofing of the foundation, consult with a specialist.
In order to find out what waterproofing measures to carry out, the following conditions should be taken into account:
Any foundation must be protected from precipitation and groundwater.
The blind area protects from the negative influence of precipitation.
It must always be done without exception.
Waterproofing from groundwater is done depending on the depth of their occurrence.
If the level of soil water is more than 1 m below the foundation, it will be enough to make vertical coating insulation and horizontal, using roofing felt.
If the soil water level is higher, but does not reach the level, then for high-quality waterproofing it is necessary will perform horizontal waterproofing in two layers, smearing them with mastic. For vertical insulation, it is possible to use both the coating method and the coating with roll materials.
It is advisable to make penetrating waterproofing of all elements of the foundation and basement.
If the water level is above the bottom of the basement and basement, it is advisable to build drainage around the entire house. This is done due to the fact that water located above the level of the foundation creates pressure, due to which the foundation shifts.
Good waterproofing of the foundation is also necessary if the house will be located on waterproof grounds. Since they do not allow sediments to quickly go into the lower layers, and the water moves to the foundation.
The composition of soil water is also very important. In some regions, there are aggressive ones that cause corrosion.
Aggressive pressurized soil waters are most dangerous for a concrete foundation.
It is more correct to select waterproofing, taking into account the type of foundation and the pressure of groundwater.
All groundwater can be divided into:
This type is carried out for strip and monolithic foundation only at the construction stage.
Before starting work on the arrangement of the foundation, you need to fill up and tamp with a layer of clay on the bottom of the pit.
Pour a layer of concrete on top, and let it settle for 10 - 15 days. Then coat the concrete with bitumen mastic, and lay a layer of roofing material on top of it. This operation is performed twice. Pour a layer of concrete on top again and level.
The pile and strip foundations also need to be waterproofed.
To do this, the surface is covered with bituminous mastic, and covered with roofing material or a similar material. This operation is performed in two layers.
To do this, dig a trench around the object. The bottom is laid with geotextiles. Gravel or crushed stone is filled up.
Then the drainage pipes are laid with a slope towards the well. Gravel is filled in. Then everything is wrapped in the remaining edges of the geotextile. The pipes are led into a well and covered with earth from above.
Different materials can be used for its implementation:
This option is the cheapest.
It is suitable for protection against capillary rise of soil water and possible penetration of sediments. Pour used oil and bitumen in bars into a large container, heat it up to the state of a liquid mixture and apply it to the leveled surface with a roller or brush. We apply several layers of bitumen.
Such waterproofing must be protected from mechanical influences:
You can use these insulation materials on your own, and at the end of the coating method.
The most used material for this is roofing felt.
Before fixing it, the surface of the foundation is treated with mastic. Then heat the roofing material sheets with a gas burner and attach them by fusion to the foundation with an overlap. You can also fix it with special mastics. The operation is performed in two layers.
In this case, the edges of the horizontal waterproofing are folded down and pressed against the roll material.
In addition to roofing material, they use: Technonikol, Stekloizol, Rubiteks and others.
This material adheres well to the base, is non-flammable and durable. The surface is seamless when used. When doing work with your own hands, for example, Elastopaz is suitable. It is also applied in two coats with a roller or brush, the surface must be free from dust and primed before application.
This type of insulation needs protection from external environments. For this, the foundation is covered with geotextiles or a pressure wall is equipped.
It is easily and quickly applied with a special spray, and does not require surface preparation, but needs to be reinforced with geotextile material, which also performs the function of protection for it. This type of insulation is used for foundations of complex shape
It is made using materials that penetrate into the structure of concrete and crystallize inside.
This prevents water from entering the concrete and prevents corrosion.
This type includes Penetron and Aquatron-6. They often process the inner surfaces of the foundation or basement.
Penetrating waterproofing is applied to pre-moistened and dust-free concrete in several layers. After it dries, the outer film is removed.
For isolation it is also possible to use special plaster mixes with moisture-resistant components: asphalt mastics or hydro-concrete. After the layer has dried, it is important to protect it with a clay lock and backfill.
For this method, bentonite mats are used. They are fixed with an overlap on the treated foundation with dowels. Then a pressure concrete wall is created nearby, which does not allow them to swell.
Created in order to keep pressure water out of the foundation. A trench is dug near the foundation. The bottom is covered with gravel and rammed with clay in several layers. The remaining space is covered with gravel or clay, and a blind area is created on top.
Waterproofing for a pit with walls 90 °.
If the foundation is erected close to the walls of the pit, then the pit is made with the walls at an angle of 90 °, pressure walls are erected close to its walls, and waterproofing material is nailed to them. This structure is called “lost formwork” and the associated reinforcement is placed in it and the foundation is poured. The formwork remains in the ground.
Such insulation is laid on the base. The surface of the base is leveled, dried and treated with bituminous mastic.
Then two layers of roofing material are laid. This so-called continuous gasket must go through the entire thickness of the wall.
Insulation of pile foundations is done according to the grillage. it is almost impossible to waterproof pillars or piles, therefore they must be made of moisture-resistant concrete
The foundation of wooden piles must be worked out with an anti-corrosion solution.
At the same time, it is not advisable to carry out measures to lower the level of soil water, for example, drainages, because wooden piles do not rot only if they are in water.
Otherwise, there is a great risk of reducing their service life.
Base / plinth waterproofing protects the walls from precipitation.For this, the plinth is lined with a water-repellent material, such as a water-repellent tile.
For a house with a basement, it is necessary to have a waterproof blind area, which will reduce the flow of surface water to the basement walls.
Waterproofing in two layers of rolled bitumen material is excellent for waterproofing the basement floor.
Basement walls are processed according to the same principle as strip foundations. The above-described concrete mats waterproofing is also suitable for basement insulation.
We have covered the most common methods of isolation. But if you want to do all the work yourself, remember that the main thing is to choose the right materials and follow the technology. In this case, the foundation will last a long time and there will be no need for costly repairs.
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