Installation of internal sewerage in a private house
When creating and installing an internal Sewerage systems in a private house, not a single person is immune from mistakes, which are ways to lead to unpredictable consequences, from the formation of an unpleasant odor to complete systemic inoperability. Consider in the article the concept of internal sewage in a country cottage - the rules for design and installation, as well as an analysis of popular mistakes that sometimes arise in the process.
Today, the construction of a private cottage has experienced a real boom. For this reason, it became necessary to create a modern and convenient sewerage system that could be assembled by an ordinary person who does not have a builder's education.
This system must have excellent performance, because the number of plumbing devices that produce domestic waste has increased and significantly.
With the advent of automatic washing machines, dishwashers, showers and jacuzzis, the average person's water consumption increased by 250 liters per person per day.
The increase in the number of sanitary-type appliances leads to a tangible complication of the pipeline networks themselves. Fortunately, today PVC pipes are used to install the sewage system, which are equipped with auxiliary shaped components, through which the installation of the pipeline will be no more difficult than making crafts from a designer for children. All parts are equipped with O-rings that can be easily replaced if needed. The internal type of sewage system is a collection of fittings and plastic pipes for their fastening, which serve to drain waste water from sanitary-type devices.
The devices themselves are equipped with siphons, which are needed to prevent the entry of aromas into the room. The laying of pipes is subject to the strictest rules, and failure to comply with them is fraught with disruption of the system as a whole.
As a central outlet through the system the whole house is a riser. It can be one for the whole house. If it is very large or sanitary facilities are located at a great distance from each other, then there should be 2 or more such pipes.
They are pipes installed vertically and they start at the basement and end at the roof. The lower part of the riser is fastened with an inclined pipe of the same or even larger diameter, which is led out into a tank for collecting wastewater or into a station for purifying wastewater. The upper riser part will rise above the roof not less than 1/2 meter. It is open or even has a check valve. For what this is required - we will consider below.
All supplies that come from plumbing devices are connected to risers.
Liquid hydrodynamics in pipes
It is the pipe that is the cylinder with water inside. When the pipe is 100% full, a piston effect appears. This means that the pressure on the top of the water-type plug will quickly drop, and on the bottom, on the contrary, it will rise. In a situation where there is an explosive drain from the toilet tank, the resulting vacuum can suck out all the water from the siphon.
This can create an unpleasant odor in the room. But in the course of the movement of the liquid, an excess of pressure appears, which can push out sewage from the devices that are located below the toilet bowl.
If you ignore the laws of hydrodynamics, this will lead to two popular mistakes in the design and installation of sewers. The first mistake is the rejection of the ventilation device. The background pipe, which runs from the riser to the roof, not only removes the unpleasant odor, but also serves as a pressure compensator inside the system.
If it is present, the reduced pressure above the water-type piston does not suck out water from the siphon, but provides air from the atmosphere into the system, which again levels the pressure.
The second popular mistake is that all plumbing fixtures are connected through branch pipes to the riser, lower than the toilet itself. This should not be allowed, because it will certainly become the root cause of pouring the drain into the sink or shower stall when flushing. Similar problems can arise when the pipes are longer than they are allowed. To avoid such troubles, it is required to formulate certain important rules for installing a sewage system inside the house.
Sewerage arrangement rules, which cannot be violated
Do-it-yourself internal sewerage in a private house is possible. Violation of the rules set out above can lead to a tangible disruption in the functioning of the sewer internal system or the appearance of an emergency.
If diametrical enlargement of underwater pipes for some reason is not possible, then there is a method to bypass such a rule.This requires the end of the pipe to be brought to the roof and equipped with a vacuum-type valve or ringed on the riser above the other devices.
Characteristics of pipe laying for sewerage
There are scrupulous nuances, the embodiment of which ensures the operability of the sewerage system in an improved mode:
8 cm for each running meter.
Another popular mistake is incorrectly fitting corners. If you make right angles, then as a result of a rebound, a blockage from waste will appear in such a place, and the pipe will quickly become clogged.
For this reason, a smooth water flow is required at the corners, and for this, fittings are used that have an inclination angle of 135 degrees. Another mistake is the outlet of the fan type pipe not to the roof, but to the general ventilation of the house. This device creates an unforgettable smell throughout the house, and you can only get rid of it by reworking the entire system.
In order to not hear the sounds of water that moves, it is required to make noise insulation. To do this, wrap the pipes with mineral wool and place them in a box made of drywall sheets.
For convenient and timely implementation of preventive work, the pipes are equipped with an audit every 15 meters, and this can be attributed to all turns. And one more thing. A check valve is not installed in the pipe that connects the domestic sewage system and the septic tank. In this case, if the outdoor units become overfilled, water may rise up the pipes for disposal and flood the basement.
Work on the design and installation of an internal sewerage in a private house with their own hands should be carried out strictly according to the above rules.
Moreover, for their observance it is necessary to carry out certain calculations:
Usually, due to simplicity, a system is used in which water will flow under the influence of the gravity of the Earth. The main thing here is to calculate the slope of the pipes according to the rules set out above.
The above calculations, if performed correctly, make it possible to make the sewage system well functioning and efficient even when an overload occurs.
As mentioned above, the main thing when arranging a sewage system inside a house will be drawing up its detailed drawings with an indication of all devices and element sizes. For installation, sewage pipes made of polyvinyl chloride are used. Their device is such that two pipes can be fastened by placing the end of one in the socket of the other. For risers, pipes with a diameter of 10 cm are used, and for other devices only 5 cm.
A corrugated pipe is used to connect to an external type of sewage system, since it has the best resistance to ground movements. Of the tools, a saw for cutting plastic pipes, a sharp knife and rubber mounting seals are usually used. The pipes are cut with a saw, the cuts are leveled with a knife and chamfers are made. The seals are inserted into the sockets.
Different fittings are used to fasten the pipes into the system:
- Elbows or elbows, which are required to design corners.
They are produced with a bend of 90 and 45 degrees, and their ends are equipped with sockets with seals to create tight-type connections.
- In case it is required to connect pipe cuts of the same diameter, use special transition bends.
- Tees of different types are fittings for organizing branching of pipes.
- Reducing couplings are required to make transitions between pipes with different thicknesses.
A popular mistake when installing plastic pipes for sewers is ignoring their heating.
To make the pipes denser and easier to fit into each other, and into shaped-type connecting parts, and sockets need to be heated in hot water.
Installation is carried out in a certain order. First you need to install risers, bring their ends to the roof and to the basement. They should pass near the toilet bowls, and in the basement they are connected to an inclined pipe that goes out into the septic tank, and the upper ends are left open or provided with a check valve. Next, the toilet carts are brought to the riser.
They must be separate. Then connect the pipes from other devices to the risers above the entrance to the toilet. The fourth step is to install siphons on all devices. After connecting the siphons to the liners.This completes the installation of the internal system.
The main thing is that all the joints are tight, and the pipes are well attached to the ceilings or walls, and the discrepancy is excluded.
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