In the industrial production of lining, powerful woodworking machines are used to obtain products of excellent quality, but not all users can afford it. Is it possible to make a lining yourself and what is needed for this? We will talk about this in this article.
Molding with your own hands
Lining - what kind of material is this
You will need this knowledge to , in order to independently make the best decisions during the manufacture of lining at home. The process of industrial production of lining consists of several stages.
The logs are sawn on band or circular sawmills into a cut board of specified parameters. The thickness of the board is 15-25 mm, the width is 100-150 mm. The specific dimensions depend on the type of lining.
By selecting different cutters and knives, four planes are processed in one pass, and the desired profile is immediately created on them.
Lining production line
Warehousing of lining
That's all the technology, there is nothing complicated, modern equipment allows you to automate to the maximum production. It is impossible to achieve this at home; you will have to waste much more time for making distillation.
Classes of lining and their description.
|Class or Grade||Description|
|Free from cracks, knots and other defects. The surface is perfectly smooth and even.|
A or 1
| The surface is smooth or slightly rough. There is 1 healthy knot per 1 running meter (knot diameter no more than 1.
5 cm). There may be cracks: hair cracks - no more than 1/2 of the panel, blind cracks - less than 9.5 cm long (cracks exit is directed to the end of the panel), appearing during drying - no more than the width of the panel. Can be tarred and resin pockets 2 pcs. for 1 m p.
B or 2
| There are many knots, of which there cannot be more than 2 dropped out. for 1 m. There may be through cracks up to 1 mm wide and up to 15-30 cm long, hairline cracks are allowed along the entire length of the board. The presence of wormholes (3 pcs. Per 1 m p.
) And rot (no more than 1/10 of the panel) is allowed. Grade B lining is suitable for staining.
C or 3
| The quality is poor.Many different defects. This lining is suitable for upholstering technical rooms or rough work.
Classification of lining
First of all, you must have a special separate room for the production of work, woodworking machines create a lot of noise and dust. We'll have to fulfill the requirements of the sanitary authorities. Another condition is that the electrical wiring must withstand additional loads, and they, depending on the brand of machines and their number, can increase significantly.
Note! With your own hands you can make both the simplest and rather complex lining, we will consider both manufacturing options. But there are several prerequisites for all options.
Making lining with your own hands
On which machines and no matter how difficult you try to make lining, the following requirements must be observed.
If there are no such machines, then you can work with a manual electric plane. These works are quite difficult and long, and the quality will always be much lower than during the processing of sawn timber on machines.
Practical advice! We strongly recommend that you do not use the electric hand planer to plan your boards. It is much more profitable to take the lumber to a friend who has a double-sided gage, for an hour or two you will miss 1-2 m 3 boards - this amount is enough to finish a small village house. They will have to be planed manually for more than one day, while, as we already mentioned, the quality will be none.
This lining can only be used for finishing auxiliary rooms.
Fold them neatly, do not allow distortions to appear, properly lay the gaskets, be sure to press the upper tier with a load.
Drying the lining
This does not mean that machines should be feared, but they should be treated with respect. As for the use of mittens, then this issue must be approached wisely. Mittens protect hands from splinters, that's right. But it is also true that when the mitten gets under the cutting element, the hand or arm is tightened, injuries are much more dangerous.
Machine for making lining
What machines and equipment are needed for making lining with our own hands, we will tell along the way articles.
The fact is that there are a large number of technologies, taking into account existing machines, it is impossible to describe everything in one article. Let's start with making the simplest lining - such works are available to most inexperienced craftsmen.
Making lining using circulars
This is the simplest version of a circular saw, others have additional supports for fixing other woodworking mechanisms, which greatly expands their capabilities.
Universal woodworking machine
Step 1. Prepare lumber, decide on their amount.
For work, you will need boards planed on both sides with a thickness of about 15-20 mm and a width of up to 10 cm.It is not necessary to make it wider, this is due to the fact that the lining has the most elementary profile, and it cannot guarantee the absence of warping during operation. The lining will be connected in a quarter, and such a lock cannot completely eliminate warping. The wider the lining, the greater the warpage may have, therefore it is not recommended to make it more than 8 cm.
Determine the size of the boards
Remove the workplace. The workpieces should be located on one side of the saw, the finished products should be stored on the other.
Important! Nothing should bother you under your feet, all attention will be paid to the working saw, there is no time to look under your feet - this increases the risk of injury. If the boards are longer than a meter, then do not work on your own, as it is difficult and very dangerous. In addition, the risk of serious injury increases significantly and the amount of waste increases.
The fact is that at the exit of the board from the cutter you cannot normally press it against the ruler, at the ends the linearity of the milling is broken.
Step 3. Align all boards in length, inspect their surfaces. If there are black, rotten, loose knots, discard the lumber. At home, such knots cannot be processed, they will surely fall out.
When storing blanks, pay attention to the location of the fibers, especially carefully monitor the location of defects in the development of wood. Areas with curliness are very difficult to cultivate.Position the boards so that the curl location is in the direction of rotation of the cutting tool, otherwise the surface finish will be unsatisfactory. On industrial machines, such problems almost never arise, they operate at high speeds, have at least four knives on one head, mechanical clamps exclude the possibility of board vibration during processing. Due to this, the cutting conditions are perfectly observed, the quality of processing of complex surfaces is significantly increased.
We saw off one side of the board
Important! Never remove the guard and the spacer wedge from the saw. They are not needed to keep the sawdust flying into the eyes, as inexperienced carpenters think. Their main purpose is to prevent the board from returning impact, with such a departure it can pierce the abdominal cavity.
Unlike other safety gadgets, the ripple guard provides added convenience when sawing, so don't miss the opportunity to use it
This is what you should get
Step 4. Position the circular saw.
If the width of the boards is not the same, then you need to align them first. To do this, position the saw blade at the desired distance from the teeth and secure it firmly. Pay attention that the ruler is parallel to the saw, this is very important. Factory machines have special marks; for homemade ones, you will have to use a square. Verification of the correct position is done empirically.
Take a small piece of board and saw through it, check the width and parallelism of the position of the ruler. Repeat the installation if necessary.
The second side is cut along the ruler
The process of filing along the ruler
You should get the following
Step 5. A simple lining has a quarter connection, it can be done on an ordinary circular.
To do this, the height of the saw table and its distance to the ruler must be adjusted.
How it's done? To make the example easier, let's take a board thickness of 20 mm. Accordingly, a quarter will be 10 * 10 mm.
To do this, you can use this cutter
To do this, use any segments, skip a few for a test.
After the adjustment, your saw height and distance to the ruler should be 10 mm. If the boards have other parameters, then the distances must be adjusted in accordance with them.
Start making a quarter connection.The first pass is the board flat, the side surface is tightly pressed against the ruler. After completion, there is a cut on the board along the entire length.
This can be done with a mill, or you can do without it. In this case, take a small saw blade and set it obliquely.
The result is the so-called "drunken saw". This method is used when there is no cutter. It is much more difficult to set up and used when there is no other way out. It is still better to purchase a mill
Important! Do not press the boards near the saw with your hand; use a block of wood. To prevent it from sliding off the end of the board, saw through the recess - it should simultaneously rest against the board from above and against the end.
Never rest your stomach against the end of a long board, hold it only with your hands, and the body should be located on the side.
Step 7. Place the board on the edge, the cut should be on the side of the ruler, cut out a quarter. Immediately remove the cut-off rail from the table, do not clog the workplace.
Rotate the board 180 ° and repeat the operation on the other side. The lining should have a mirrored arrangement of quarters. If on one side the recess is on top, then on the opposite side it should be on the bottom. During the installation of the lining, the joints overlap and close the joints.
Here is such a lining
If possible, it is recommended to mill the visible side edges manually milling cutter. Select the profile of the cutter you like, firmly fix the board in an upright position and make a pass with the tool. How to work with hand cutters is described in detail in the manufacturer's instructions. By the way, the presence of a hand cutter significantly expands the possibilities, such a tool is recommended for everyone who is engaged in carpentry work.
Working with a hand milling cutter
If you use serviceable saws with victorious solders, and the machine has sufficient stability, then when making such a simple lining can be completely dispensed with a planer and a router.
Correctly selected saw speed and optimal feed rate provide a good surface finish. If necessary, the latter can be processed in some places with a sandpaper or a grinder, and the external surfaces of the lining will be quite satisfactory in quality.
It remains to take the waste and cut the laths. Moreover, the slats do not have to be made as long as the lining. In other words, the boards are on their own, the slats are on their own.
No one will notice the joints of the rails. The slats should be sawn thinner than our grooves. The slats will still adhere perfectly to the grooves due to their natural curvature. And, of course, the slats are just sawn. They do not need to be planed, especially since this is an extremely dangerous idea.
When using a good saw, the rail will be quite smooth anyway
This is how the ceiling of the cellar looks like, finished with such clapboard
Now consider how you can make your own lining.
This is more complex work, you will need a solid experience with woodworking machines. We will tell you about the technology, and choose the dimensions of the lining and the profiles of the front surfaces yourself, taking into account the availability of tools and personal preferences.
The design of the machine is quite complex. Without fail, a complete instruction must be attached to such equipment
We see an example of a homemade machine for the manufacture of lining, its components and parts
We see another example of a self-made machine for the production of lining at home
What is the difference between the euro lining and the usual?
Due to this, the risks of translucent seams are eliminated during a significant reduction in the width of the boards, and the installation of the cladding is simplified. It is easier to insert hardware for fastening into a deep groove.
Photo - Euro lining of category B
For the initial data, we assume that the boards of the required sizes have already been prepared, the material is sorted and folded in the right place.
Step 1. Install the cutter for making the groove and side decorative chamfer on the machine, adjust the depth. To do this, release the ruler, put the end of the board to the knife and, moving the ruler closer or further, find the desired position. Fasten the milling head and ruler with great effort.
Milling cutters used in the manufacture of lumber
In order to correctly set all the knives on the head, you need to stitch a piece of board for a test.
Then again put it on the cutter and, slowly rotating the head in the opposite direction, check whether all the knives are working. You can find out by sound, if everything is fine, then the number of minor touches on the board should correspond to the number of cutters. For example, if the head has four knives, and you only feel three touches, then this means that one knife is not working. Find which one, adjust its position. It is quite difficult to do this, it will take several attempts.
Make sure that the knife spacers are firmly pressed against the head.
Several different attachment knives on a homemade machine for making lining will allow you to create a variety of wood products
Step 2. Fix the top and side pressure stops, set the desired distance.Such stops make the milling process much easier, improve quality and increase work safety. Skip all the boards on one side.
Step 3. Change the cutter to a new one, it should cut the groove and remove the decorative chamfer. The clamps do not need to be adjusted again, the width of all boards is the same and did not change during the first pass.
Step 4. Remove the side cutter, release the ruler and clamps.
Install a groove cutter on the inside of the lining. The dimensions and number of grooves do not matter, select them at your discretion.
Production of Euro lining on a milling machine
Practical advice! If you don't have special knives for sawing grooves - not a problem, you can use the same ones that were used for sawing a groove. Lift the head so that the slot knife is in the middle of the board. The slot knife is longer than the chamfering knives, adjust the distance to the ruler so that only it works.
The depth of the groove in this case will be about 3-5 mm, which is quite enough for the groove.
Working with lumber is much more difficult than with metal. In nature, there are no two completely identical boards, not to mention the different properties of soft and hard rocks. The metal has no knots, does not absorb moisture, has no malformations, etc. And these indicators affect the processing technology.
Industrial equipment allows you to greatly simplify the process due to the large mass of machines, accuracy of adjustments, stable mechanical feed and strong pressure.
At home, all cutting parameters must be observed independently and quickly changed depending on the characteristics of the board and the capabilities of the machine ... What to remember?
Saws and cutters must be sharp. If you make your own milling cutters, use only strong grades of tool steel. The geometry of all cutters must be the same. Otherwise, some of them will not work, and this is a very undesirable phenomenon.
It is very difficult for an inexperienced master to set all the cutters at once, do not be discouraged. Waste more time, but achieve the desired result. Lost time will pay off in excess in the future.
Cutters form a tenon and a groove, and also define the geometry of the lining
Four milling cutters slightly increase the installation time, but then the machine runs more time - they are less blunt.
Milling cutter set
This is a very important condition. Cutting modes include the number of shaft revolutions, the number of cutting planes, feed rate and sharpening angle. You can talk on this topic for a very long time, cutting modes have a huge number of options. Novice craftsmen need to get acquainted with the theory at least a little, and in the future everything depends on the ability to practically learn and the desire to work with woodworking machines.
The lining is folded in even stacks
Nails for lining
Fasteners must securely hold the lining and at the same time be completely invisible.
Self-tapping screws, clamps, screws are used to fix the panels to the crate, but the most practical option is nails. Here are just nails for the lining are needed not ordinary, but finishing, differing in the shape of the cap and some characteristics.
Subject to the above recommendations, it is not necessary to use abrasive paper for the final fitting of surfaces. Remember that only amateurs make lining in such a way that it then has to be polished for a long time and tediously by hand.
Posted By: Work Style |11, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |11, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |05, Nov 2020