No house is built today without thermal insulation. The choice of modern materials allows you to choose insulation according to any parameters. When the main criterion is the price of the issue, the range of searches is limited. Among the materials for insulation typical for the Russian climate, ecowool is gaining special popularity. The first installations for its production appeared in 1993, although in Europe this material has been used for thermal insulation of residential and industrial premises since the 30s of the last century.
The construction of Scandinavian frame houses is not complete without this practical material and it is no coincidence: thermal insulation with ecowool of residential buildings and industrial buildings has its advantages. First of all, it is versatility. Insulation is used in partitions, walls, ceilings, roofing and enclosing structures and in private construction, and on an industrial scale. Lightweight material does not make the structure heavier, it is durable in operation ( up to 70 years ) Several variants of ecowool insulation technologies have been developed, differing in the method of its application.
What is ecowool? The insulation material contains 80% cellulose. Its fibers retain heat well and have the necessary characteristics to form a seamless fabric.
But cellulose for construction in its pure form is not suitable: it is flammable, under the influence of aggressive natural factors, its protective properties deteriorate. To enhance its capabilities, additional ingredients were added to the composition.
Table 1. Insulation composition:
|Cellulose fiber|| |
| Recycled materials such as newsprint. By many properties, ecowool is superior to expanded polystyrene or mineral wool.
It is ideal for walls, ceilings, roofs, floors between floors.
|Boric acid||12||Antiseptic protects the cellulose base from fungus, decay processes and rodent activity.|
|Borax||8||Fire retardant, ecowool were assigned fire safety class G2. It is clear that its capabilities do not allow insulating chimneys or heating boilers, although the material does not ignite.|
Basic characteristics of ecowool:
032-0.041 W / mK. Good protection from the wind, reduces heat loss in winter - a serious item of energy savings.
Ecowool has these characteristics in principle, but whether a particular brand will meet the standards depends on the manufacturer. It is necessary to purchase insulating material only from a large manufacturer, where all processes are automated and strictly controlled. Among the authoritative ones:
Unformed mass - bulk material. To facilitate transportation, it is compacted and packed in briquettes at 110 kg / cu. m . Before applying, the mass is unpacked and loosened.
The volume of the insulation will then triple.
In terms of its thermal insulation characteristics, ecowool is close to basalt slabs, mineral wool or expanded polystyrene, but it also has its own advantages.
Despite the stable air and vapor permeability, ecowool still absorbs moisture. But this process does not impair her protective capabilities. If mineral wool with an increase in moisture 1% increases thermal conductivity by 8-9% , then ecowool, even with an increase in this criterion by 25% , reduces the thermal conductivity coefficient by 2-5% . In addition, the hygroscopicity of cellulose allows it to absorb and release moisture without compromising its properties. If you insulate a wooden frame house with ecowool, humidity and temperature conditions will always be normal.
Pay attention! To exploit ecowool with maximum efficiency, it is necessary to create conditions under which the material will be freed from excess moisture. Because of these features, ecowool is not recommended to be used to protect ceilings in basements or basements, since the humidity in such places is usually increased.
The mass is placed in bulk in frame cells fixed to the surface. As a result, thermal insulation is obtained without seams. With high-quality installation, the material will fill the entire space prepared for insulation. The appearance of cold bridges or free voids, which worsen the thermal insulation, in this case is excluded.
Especially if the degree of shrinkage of the material is taken into account when filling ( about 20% ). When insulating a house with roll or sheet materials, they are laid in several layers - this increases the cost of construction.
The air permeability of ecowool cannot be compared with mineral counterparts, and its elasticity makes it possible to absorb sound waves (for example, expanded polystyrene does not have such capabilities) ...
A fifteen-centimeter layer of insulation absorbs up to 9 dB . This ability makes it possible to use insulation in the busiest areas: along the railroad tracks, near the airport, etc.
Reducing the noise level in the room does not contradict safety requirements: the environmentally friendly material does not contain phenol. Instead, natural lignin is used for the bundle, so you can not be afraid of harmful fumes. Borax and violent acid are not volatile substances and are safe in this regard. According to these characteristics, ecowool is close to expanded polystyrene.
Reasonable cost, waste-free laying technology ranks the material among the most demanded heaters for a private developer.
Of the shortcomings of the material:
The dry method creates a lot of dust and does not always contribute to proper compaction.
As you can see, ecowool is a specific material with its own application technology and application features. Considering all its features, it is possible to operate the insulation with maximum efficiency.
Ecowool can be filled in different ways.
On an industrial scale, wet material is sprayed onto the prepared wall. The fibers are placed in the framework with a compressor. A summer cottage, bathhouse or garage can be insulated manually, but in this case it will take more time.Ultimately, much will depend on the adherence to the technology and the qualifications of the master.
Wet fibers adhere well to any substrate. The insulation layer should be within 50-60 kg / cu. m. This method is good for insulating block or brick walls. The lathing is made from a bar or profile (the first option is preferable).
Insulation is applied using a professional installation. Loose cotton wool at the very outlet at the nozzle is impregnated with water and delivered to the surface under pressure. The wet method is easy and fast, indispensable for large volumes. The only disadvantage is the availability of professional equipment. For difficult surfaces such as the ceiling, on the underside, adhesives are dissolved in water for strength, helping the line to increase adhesion.
The excess is cut off in level and reused after drying. Actually, there is no waste for any installation option, since cotton wool is suitable for reuse.
When applying, they are guided by a simple formula: m = S * L * p, where m is the mass, S is the area; L is the layer thickness; P is its density. It is convenient to use a filling method to insulate floors, where it is possible to compact the layer to 35-45 kg / cu. m. In frame housing construction, when insulating wells, this method is used less often, since it is tamped to 60-65 kg / cu. m is not always possible.
With horizontal application, the distribution is close to 45 kg / cc. m. , with vertical - 65 kg / cu. m. With the industrial method of insulation, ecowool is applied in layers, using a professional installation.
The frame must be covered with foil or kraft paper. A hole for the supply hose is left in the upper part. With the flow of forced air, the fibers fill everything, including hard-to-reach places. Then the hole is closed. Craftsmen instead of a professional compressor use a homemade installation based on a garden vacuum cleaner.
For ecowool frame houses - ideal insulation : no need to bring a ton of material at once, tie the installation to the step of the lathing, it is easy to maintain the microclimate in the room, since you can insulate to a depth of up to 500 mm.
The logs of a wooden house are insulated on both sides. An important advantage is that there is no need for a film that traps moisture from the inside - the environmentally friendly material freely passes it through.The room, as they say, "breathes".
A block house made of aerated concrete, foam concrete, gas silicate can also be insulated with ecowool. It is usually applied outside. At the preparatory stage, a vertical crate is installed ( step - up to 1 m ).
The insulating material is applied with a wet adhesive method. The house breathes and therefore does not need vapor barrier. When insulating block structures, it is necessary to identify the location of the dew point in the puff cake so that it does not end up in the insulation. It is resistant to moisture, but it also has its limits. Such facades are usually clad with siding.
The manual method differs from the mechanized insulation by the duration of installation and material consumption. The main advantage of doing work on your own is considered to be resource saving. Manually insulate the floor, floors (starting from the second floor), walls. The surface is sheathed with self-tapping screws with building material (for walls - from bottom to top). The algorithm for thermal insulation with ecowool is simple:
It is better to insulate the house in a protective mask, since there is a lot of dust from dry ecowool. The floor is insulated by filling the logs up to a small slide. After laying the finishing material, the insulation layer will be compacted. When insulating the walls, the material is additionally compacted. As a result, the volume of the insulation is reduced by 2-3 times .
It is convenient to manually insulate small surface areas.
If you invite a team of professional builders, the insulation period will be reduced from two weeks to two days. Installation of ecowool with the help of special equipment allows you to more economically use insulation, minimize the likelihood of problems due to the human factor. The dry method is also used to isolate space in interfloor ceilings and non-separable structures, horizontal or inclined surfaces. The technology involves several stages:
Ecowool is in any case laid after the vapor barrier layer and kraft paper. Density standards - 44 kg / cu. m.
Thermal insulation of a house using a compressor
The method is suitable for insulating an open surface.
The advantage of wet material is that it adheres reliably to the surface to be insulated. High adhesive properties of ecowool are provided by lignin (when moistened, its adhesion is maximum). Wet insulation algorithm:
The material is left to dry for 2-3 days until a stable crust is formed.
The difference between this technique and the previous one is that glue is additionally added to the ecowool to enhance adhesion. This technique is indispensable for ceiling insulation, suspended complex structures with thin walls. It is important to take into account that shrinkage can also be avoided with vertical laying, if ecowool is sprayed as randomly as possible.
If the dry method can be used to insulate the room (horizontal ceilings) on your own, then for other options you need to invite specialists. It is better to insulate the walls with wet methods - the probability of shrinkage is lower.
At the preparatory stage, the roof is waterproofed, the bearing capacity of the rafter system is checked. If necessary, reinforce it with wooden beams and metal profile structures. The attic is cleaned of debris, protective screens are installed in the places where the cable is laid to provide access to them after the cotton is laid. Before blowing in, all the spaces that need to be filled should be analyzed: formed by the side rafter beams (the layer thickness will be identical to the width of the rafters), the upper wind shield, the lower vapor barrier.
The insulator exerts a certain pressure on the base, therefore it is important to control the gap between the vapor permeation membrane. Lay only high-quality material on the timber and without sagging. The counter bar must create a gap of 45 mm. At the bottom, the material is fixed with a bar 20-40 mm.
Attic roof insulation requires the following rules:
The roof cake consists of a roof covering, a frame, a waterproofing layer, ecowool, a vapor barrier and a finishing material from the inside.
The geometry of the roof is quite complex, so wet technology is recommended. Insulation instructions:
For example, let's take a one-story house with an area of 100 sq. m (building dimensions - 9x11 m ). We begin the calculation of ecowool by determining the surface area that needs to be insulated.
m of wall area. Insulating layer - 200 mm (150 + 50 cross). We translate everything into meters and multiply by the thickness of the interlayer: 120 * 0.2 - 24 cubic meters. m.
We will blow cotton wool into the walls with an approximate density of 65 kg / cu. m. As a result, we get 24 * 65 = 1560 kg of material with the wet method.
With a thickness of an insulating layer of 100 mm, 100 * 0.1 * 65 - 650 kg of material will be required. In total, double insulation requires 1560 + 650 = 2210 kg.
With a heater thickness of 200 mm, 99 * 0.2 = 20 cubic meters will be required. m (approximately). To cover the attic, it is necessary to increase the layer to 300 mm. Total: 99 * 0.
3 = 30 cubic meters. m. For 2 floors - 50 cubic meters. m. With horizontal dry blowing, the density is 35 kg / cu.
m. in total - 30 * 35 = 1050 kg.
So, a one-story building with a layer of 200 mm. for floor, 200 ml. for walls and 300 ml.
for the attic you need 3260 kg. insulation. In a standard bag - 15 kg , it turns out 218 bags (approximately, but always worth taking with a margin). The price of a bag of ecowool is about 500 rubles. The cost of such a quantity is approximately 115,000 rubles.
Estimates are approximate, you can reduce the layer in the attic (if there is not enough material).
For one cubic meter of floor insulation, professionals have to pay 2 thousand rubles . With self-installation, a cubic meter will cost 1,750 rubles. at a density of 50 kg / cu. Professional application with a machine provides a density of 40 kg / cu. Difference per cubic meter - 250 rubles.
If you want to compact 100 sq. m with a layer of 200 mm, it comes out 20 cubic meters. m. or 5 thousand rubles difference. If you compare in time, the compressor will complete this work in an hour and a half, and manually for such a volume of work will take 30 hours.
Similar calculations will be made for the insulation of floors.
The spaces between the battens are filled moderately. Otherwise, the protective properties of the material are reduced. The thickness of the insulating layer when applied to the floor, the interfloor overlap is 0.2 m.
Standard cake for this type of insulation: ventilation facade-MDVP-ecowool-kraft paper-frame-plasterboard.
After insulation, it is necessary to withstand several days until the lignin, the binder ecowool, upon contact with a moist environment, will create a 5 cm thick crust on the surface, which improves the insulating properties of the material.
The decorative cladding must be mounted carefully so as not to damage the insulating layer. To reduce air pollution when compacting the material, you can insert paper between the cotton wool and the trim.
For a cottage intended for permanent residence, the following insulation layer is sufficient:
When building a summer cottage, you can also save: 150 mm for the floor, 100 mm for the walls and 150 mm for the attic. In general, energy resources are constantly getting more expensive, so the savings should be reasonable.
In case of self-insulation, a garden vacuum cleaner is used instead of a compressor. Disconnect its moving part, and fix the terminals on the working area. A very long hose is not used as the power of the unit is reduced. The teeth are removed because the cotton wool will cling to them. The hose with the hole in the dust container is connected with tape.
To reduce dust formation, wrap a cloth around the corrugated hose.
Experts do not recommend using ecowool in floating floors or when insulating central heating pipes and similar surfaces. In winter, insulation works are carried out at an air temperature of minus 15 degrees . Add 30 liters per cubic meter of cotton wool.
Is it worth building a ventilation gap when insulating with ecowool? There are no special recommendations for this material: it all depends on the material of the facade and on the composition of the wall cake.
When finishing with siding, a ventilation gap is not required, but a wooden cladding is needed.
Wet ecowool can be sewn up with plasterboard, it is only important to let the insulation dry completely.
Mice do not eat ecowool, but if they get inside, they can build nests. For this purpose, nets are installed on the ventilation holes. The problem is relevant for other heaters as well.
It is best to have a cat as a safety net.
After ecowool on any facade, a windproof film will not be superfluous: it will protect the tree not only from dampness, but also from blowing. In a classic pie, there is a vapor barrier film inside the room.And ecowool in this regard is no exception. It is especially necessary to install a vapor barrier with high quality when insulating a bath.
Unlike alternative insulation options, ecowool is not afraid of dampness.
If the building does not have a solid sheathing, it will not work to fix the ecowool. It can only stick to a rigid base. A vapor barrier film can be laid between the layers of insulation. In this case, the cross layer is also recommended to be made with ecowool. The vapor barrier in the house is installed before insulation with ecowool.
Pipes and wires are also hidden under the film.
Kraft paper is also combined with ecowool. It is used for partial vapor barrier, when it is necessary to release part of the steam into ecowool, and it already sends it out. Kraft paper also protects the room from dust. Outside, paper is not used.
As you can see, ecowool is not inferior in its characteristics to other modern heaters.
In addition, cellulose is durable, safe, and the use of a professional installation allows you to insulate the house in the shortest possible time. And if we take into account the affordable price and waste-free technology, the choice of this method of insulation is obvious.
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