The porch must be attached to the house if the height of the basement part of the foundation does not allow you to immediately leave the room. By choosing the best option for a porch made of wood, not only the comfort of using the building increases, but also its appearance is improved.
Do-it-yourself porch made of wood
Design options there are a huge number, and there are only two architectural options.
A railing and a canopy can be used as additional elements. If desired, such a porch can be protected from the wind from the sides. In terms of complexity, construction is a simple option, it does not require special training and professional skills.
Frame porch made of timber and boards
Allows you to create building facades in a traditional rustic style. The log porch can be used as an entrance group of residential buildings, baths, outbuildings, gazebos, etc. For construction, you need to be able to do carpentry, handle an ax and a gasoline saw.
We will tell you step-by-step instructions for creating both types, indicating the features and secrets of construction work. But first, you should consider the general requirements for all elements of the porch.
Before starting work, it is recommended to make a sketch of the structure, while taking into account the following provisions.
The platform for the porch should be spacious enough
It can be located on separate vertical supports or on one side be fixed to the front wall. There is one recommendation in size - the width should allow at least two people to diverge without problems, in most cases 1.5 meters is enough.
In addition, the platform should allow the door to be opened by a person entering from the outside.
The bottom edge of the door must be 5 cm above the porch floor
There is one height restriction - the level of the platform must be below the level of the bottom the plane of the doors by three to five centimeters. This is explained by the fact that the porch in the winter time will rise, if you do not make a gap, then the doors can jam. The opening of the entrance doors for safety reasons must necessarily be outward, and the difference in height eliminates the negative consequences of the heaving of the earth during freezing / thawing.
The width of the steps of the stairs
The width of the stairs is not less than a meter, the height is about 16-18 cm, the length of the steps is 25-32 cm.How to calculate the parameters of the steps? For example, the height of the platform is 120 cm, we divide this value by 18 cm and we get 120: 18 = 6.66. We round to the nearest whole number, in the end we should have 7 steps. The distance between them is 120: 7 = 17.
14 cm. You can make six steps 17 cm high, and the last or first 17+ (0.14 * 6) = 17.8 cm. It is much easier to make porch parts this way.
If you chose a step length of 30 cm, then the bottom point of the ladder support should be at a distance of 7 * 30 cm = 210 cm from the edge of the platform. That's all the calculations, simple and accessible, there is no need to learn complex formulas.
The main indicator when calculating a flight of stairs is its slope (steepness), which depends on the width and height of the steps of the stairs
Choose only high-quality lumber for the manufacture of a porch, do not allow damage by pests, diseases, rotten knots and through cracks. The breeds are only moisture resistant: coniferous or hard trees. It is also not recommended to use boards with significant natural developmental defects.
Buy only high-quality sawn timber
It is advisable to treat the materials several times with antiseptics.
Bioprotective wood treatment
Be sure to use reliable waterproofing of all elements with concrete surfaces.
Take all possible measures to prevent the accumulation of water on the steps and platform. You can make them with a slight slope or leave gaps between the individual boards within 2-3 mm.
Diagram of the construction of a wooden porch
For the final paint coating, use only high-quality paints.
They must be durable, not afraid of moisture and hard ultraviolet radiation. Another requirement is that when painting surfaces, strictly follow the recommendations of the manufacturers, do not try to simplify the technology by skipping some stages. Remember that there are no wooden structures in the house that operate in such difficult conditions. It is very difficult to restore the original appearance of the paint; you will have to completely remove the old coating. Such work requires a lot of effort and time, and it is rarely possible to completely get rid of traces of old paint.
The porch made of wood is placed on a separate foundation, there is no need to tie it to the existing strip under the house. Under the structure, you can use two types of foundations: columnar or cast reinforced slab. Both in terms of bearing characteristics and performance indicators are equivalent.
The porch is installed on a columnar foundation
The main task of the foundations under the porch is to keep light weight. As for swelling, it is not economically feasible to combat this phenomenon.
We have already said above that in order to eliminate the negative consequences, the porch site is located below the plane of the door opening. The columnar foundation will cost a little less, but there are more problems with it during the device. It is necessary to maintain the plane of all columns horizontally, after the concrete hardens, correct the bearing surface according to the water level, make formwork, etc.
Classic concrete foundation
If possible, it is better to pour a reinforced concrete slab with a thickness of about 5-10 cm. The slab, among other things, will exclude the germination of plants under the porch.
You will have to deal with them constantly, and it is difficult to get to them due to the low height of the structure.
The most durable and strong construction, gives the house an original and solid look. Above the porch of logs, you can make awnings, enclose the site with railing with carved or chiseled balusters, use other decor elements in a rustic style.
A porch made of logs on a columnar foundation
To make such a porch, you will need not only materials, but also the ability to work with an ax, gouge holes , chop logs under the lock, etc. The design of the chopped porch should exclude the accumulation of moisture in the internal connections, otherwise the likelihood of putrefactive processes increases sharply.
Therefore, do not use the lower bowl during the construction of the porch; the bowl should always lie on the connected logs upside down. If it is difficult to chop off the bowl, then make the joints in ocher, they are much easier when cutting and allow you to use a chainsaw. The best wood for a wooden porch is larch or oak, but cheap conifers can also be used.
Step 1. Making a concrete base.
We have chosen the concrete slab option. Make pegs of the platform according to the calculated dimensions of the porch, check the corners, if the two diagonals have the same length, then the corners are 90 °.
Foundation marking scheme
The depth of the pit for the slabs is within 30-40 cm, for backfilling take a sand-gravel mixture. Flatten and tamp each layer approximately 10 cm thick. It is recommended to water it with water before compaction.
The photo shows the formwork and gravel bedding. The work is carried out in the same way for the porch foundation
It is permissible to use broken brick as a bedding
For concrete, you can take a bucket of cement 3-4 buckets of sand and gravel mixture, the thickness of the slab is about 5-10 cm, be sure to use construction reinforcement of periodic profile Ø 5-8 mm. To reduce the amount of moisture penetrating from the soil into the concrete, put two layers of roofing material or other waterproofing material on the backfill.Prepare the formwork from edged boards up to 10 cm wide, install it in place under the level.
The upper ribs of the formwork boards serve as guides when leveling the concrete. To drain water, install the formwork with a slope of about 2-3 cm from the foundation of the house.
Fix the position of the formwork with wooden or metal stops, hammer them flush with the boards so that they do not interfere when leveling the concrete. Pour half the thickness of the concrete into the formwork, level it and lay the reinforcement, pour the second layer and level the upper surface with an even bar. Tamp the mixture well, remove air pockets.
Leave the structure for 7-10 days to harden.
Place reinforcement on the first layer of concrete and pour mortar
Reinforcement and pouring concrete
Level the mixture with a shovel and rule
While the board is gaining strength, you can start preparing the lumber.
Step 2. Making blanks for stairs and landing.
For work, you need to have logs with a diameter of at least 30 cm (along the width of the step).
Mark the ends
Use a blue cord to beat a straight line
Sawing a log with a chainsaw
A log cut in half
Thus, blocks are harvested both for the steps and for the platform.
Sawing the log along
Step 3. Fit all blocks for the steps to the same width.
We have already mentioned that the width of the steps can vary from 25 cm to 32 cm. Select the specific size taking into account the thickness of the logs in such a way as to reduce the amount of waste.
Draw cutting lines on the front surface of the block, cut off with a saw or use an ax to remove excess material, align the cut. To prevent subsequent chips, remove the chamfer slightly. In the same way, finish all the blanks on the platform and steps.
Step 4. Preparation of the bottom (covering) logs.
The first crown of the porch consists of two side lower logs, a step and a covering log. All logs must be sanded and the dark top layer removed with a scraper.
Cutting the log - tools required
Place them on the concrete slab and measure the same height. At the end, draw a horizontal line of the haft, transfer the dimensions to the side surfaces in the same way as it was done during the manufacture of the blocks. Use a saw or an ax to remove excess wood, level the surfaces.
Processing a log
Practical advice. Due to the fact that the concrete slab has a slope, mark the logs with the thick end outward. Due to this, it will be possible to reduce the amount of wood removed during leveling.
In order not to confuse the parts during the assembly of the porch, number or mark them in any other way. To make it easier, make small cuts at a distance of about 2-3 cm.
Step 5. Marking the first crown.
Place the workpiece of the first step on the lower logs, level it in width, measure the overall height. Due to the fact that the distance from the concrete to the platform of the first stage we took 30 cm, measure the actual height of the assembled workpieces. The difference in values gives us the depth of the castle.
Mark the fixing log on the other side of the covering logs in the same way. Mark the width and position of the plane of the bowl. We have already mentioned that we choose the simplest option for connection.
Fixing log bowls
Step 6. Making a bowl.
First, use the saw to cut along the lines to the depth of the bowl, then make several cuts in the middle. It is not necessary to cut to full depth, leave a few millimeters to prevent errors. In the future, if necessary, the excess thickness will be removed. Make the same bowls on the lower logs.
First step bowl sampling
Under the lower logs, be sure to use pads made of any materials that do not absorb moisture. Cut them to size, drill holes and attach them to the bottom plane of the cover logs with self-tapping screws or nails. The distance between the pads is approximately 40-50 cm.
Making and installing the pads
The pads will not allow the wood to get wet from below.
Making the second crown.
Lay the logs and measure how much you need to remove their ends so that the plane is horizontal. If there are differences of a few centimeters, no problem. This position will improve the flow of water from the steps. In the above way, mark the position of the bowls, mark the height of the excess logs, which will later have to be removed.
Cut through the longitudinal groove and the bowl, put the side logs in place, you do not need to put anything in the groove. Check their position, if the upper crown is loose, then the cause of this phenomenon should be found and eliminated.
We mark the position of the logs of the second crown
Check the horizontalness of each log
Mark the ends
Mark the riser line
Mark the groove and bowl
Cut out the bowl and groove
Use the template for precision punching
Second crown stacked logs
Step 8. Measuring and punching out the second stage bowl.
Remember to dodge.
The overhang of the second step above the ends of the logs should not exceed 2-3 cm, otherwise the effective width of the staircase will be significantly reduced. Do not forget that all bowls must be upside down, which means that it is not done in the lower longitudinal logs. Due to this technique, water does not accumulate in the recesses, the wood dries quickly and does not undergo putrefactive processes.
Second step trying on
Step slope 2 cm
Step overhang above the ends of the logs 3 cm
Logs the second crown
In order not to lead the steps, fasten them with long wood screws, two pieces on each side. For screws, you must first drill holes with a diameter of 1-2 mm less than the diameter of the metal body.
Make the heads of the hardware flush with the surface of the step.
Fixing the steps with screws
Before final fixing, check the position of the steps again, including the slope. Control the quality of teska by level. There is no need to achieve a perfectly flat surface, the main thing is that the elements are stable. Small gaps speed up the removal of moisture, which has a positive effect on the condition of the wood.
Use the same technology to make and place all the crowns. The amount depends on the size of the porch. On the last crown, logs are laid under the platform. The last crown is fixed to the penultimate one with dowels, the process is the same as in the construction of a log house.
Scheme of the third crown, posts and railings
Laying the third crown
Marking and trimming logs
Fixing the third crown with screws
Laying the steps.
We put sticks for the same gap
Practical advice. To facilitate the manufacture of the bowl in the block of the platform, grind the logs of the upper crown along the same width. This will allow you not to measure each bowl separately, but to make it the same on all elements.
Level the upper plane of the platform with a plane. At the same time, finally trim the ends of the platform logs and steps.
Pull the thread between the extreme ones, make marks and saw off the protruding end parts with a saw.
Align the upper plane with a plane
Fasten the steps with screws
Step 9. Arrangement of the handrail.
Turned balusters can be used for racks, height approx. 1 meter.
To securely attach the racks to the steps, you need to make a spike, measurements are about 5 * 5 cm. The spike is inserted into the hole in the steps and logs of the site.
Making the spike markings
Important. The spike should enter the groove with effort, do not rush to immediately adjust all the balusters to one size. The exact fit is done on a case by case basis.
Installation of racks
Railings to the balusters can be fixed with metal squares, self-tapping screws, or you can also make a spike / groove connection. The specific fixing option depends on the shape of the railings and balusters. Spikes are much easier to make on a circular. Mark the start and end lines of the tenon on the machine table, this will speed up the work and eliminate errors. Use an ax to remove the sawn sections and slightly smooth the surfaces of the cleats.
The defect will have to be corrected; during the corrections, the hole size will inevitably increase. In order for the balusters not to stagger, you need to put wooden wedges, and they dry out over time, the strength of the connection is broken.
To prevent the bottom of the step under the hole from falling through during chiselling, remove it and put it so that the place under the hole rests on a flat board. To control the dimensions of the holes, you can make a template with the dimensions of the pins. With its help, not only linear dimensions are checked, but also verticality.
Step 10. Installing the racks.
After all the pins and holes have been prepared and checked, start the installation of the structure. First, install the first and last balusters, sit them on PVA glue. Install intermediate supports without glue, they will have to be removed. When the extreme elements are in place, draw a line along all the side balusters at an angle of inclination of the steps, cut off excess material. Thus, a platform for attaching the railing is prepared.
Bevels can be cut with an ordinary hacksaw or miter saw. Everything is ready - put all the stands on the glue. If there is hesitation, immediately find and eliminate the cause.
Installing the racks on the glue
Step 11. Installing the handrails.
Fixing the handrails
They can be fixed in a tenon / groove or with self-tapping screws. To make the screws invisible, screw them in at an angle from the bottom of the handrails. Recessed the head, and seal the hole with wood putty or plug.
Install the plug and sand
It remains to impregnate the structure with antiseptics and paint. There is a desire - make a canopy over the porch.
The shape and size of the porch can have a huge number of options, choose the most appropriate for yourself.
Porch to the bathhouse
Steps made on a milling machine
Small log porch
Porch protected with a layer of varnish from atmospheric precipitation
It is made much easier from a bar of approximately 100 * 100 mm in size, boards with a thickness of 25 mm for steps and a platform and boards from 40 mm for stringers. A frame is made from a bar according to the dimensions of the porch. You can fasten the frame elements with metal corners and self-tapping screws. Do not forget to waterproof between the uprights and the foundation.
Frame porch (markings)
Marking cutouts in stringers for steps
Use logs for flooring the platform, the distance between them depends on the load and the thickness of the boards. Check the position of the lag by level, they should all lie in the same plane.
The calculation of the stringers is the same as when building a wooden staircase. If there is a desire, then the entire frame can be closed from all sides with boards, this will improve the appearance of the porch. There is no desire - close only the upper belt of the frame to hide the ends of the timber and the fixation points.
It is advisable to treat all lumber with special impregnations to increase the service life.
Installation of the porch
Drawing up a sketch of the porch is a prerequisite. Apply all the dimensions on it and, taking into account the drawing, prepare the blanks. If you are confident in your abilities, then you can prepare the boards as a set, and then fix them to the frame. No experience like that - measure each board separately.
More time is required, but the possibility of errors is excluded.
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