All structures of a frame house consist of the following parts and elements - lower and upper strapping, vertical rack, slopes, basement and interfloor ceilings, window and door openings. The sequence of assembly and installation of a timber frame house will depend on the applied engineering solutions.
The most popular are the so-called platform frameworks. Their name is explained by the fact that before the erection and installation of walls, a basement floor is first built on the foundation with subsequent laying rough floor. Fragments and structural elements of a frame house are assembled into frames on a finished platform, then they are installed and installed to the ceiling over the installed subfloor.
After this, the operations are repeated, interfloor ceilings are attached, on which the walls of the next floor are installed.
The advantages of this construction of a frame house are a perfected special technology and ease of performance and installation of work. The presence of a flat and smooth base significantly facilitates the layout and subsequent installation of all elements, and also allows the assembly of all frame walls with maximum accuracy and reliable quality.
The disadvantages of the platform design are that after laying and installing the sub-floor sheets, it is not recommended to let it get wet. And in conditions of cloudy and rainy weather, it is imperative to provide protective measures for the floors from rain.
Another disadvantage of is the repair of the platform-type frame floors. The walls of such a frame stand directly on the floor beams, and this makes it difficult to replace the main beams, without serious and thoughtful intervention in other parts and elements of the entire structure.
This problem will not be relevant, if all parts and structural elements are well and efficiently treated with impregnations, and they will be used in normal humidity conditions. The service life of the basement and its structures can be significantly reduced due to poorly ventilated underground, constant waterlogging and poor biosecurity. In connection with such conditions, during construction, access to the underground and basement floors should be provided for periodic technical inspection of structures.
There are many other types and options for the construction of a timber frame house and its basement floor. One of these is the installation of the overlap after the installation of the wall frame. The beams are laid on top of the horizontal wall board of the frame. This option will allow you to replace the floor beams whenever necessary.
In addition, it will be difficult to trim the slabs and insulation of the subfloor in the area of the floor and wall joints.
This method interesting in that, with better maintainability, it perfectly retains all the advantages of the platform. A floor box is initially erected on the foundation, and then all the walls are assembled on it. The main difference is that after the final assembly, the walls are placed sideways to each other, and not placed directly on the floor. The disadvantage of this design will be the use of a wider fundamental tape in comparison with the options that we considered earlier. This will lead to an increase in the cost of all materials for the foundation and an increase in its cost.
It is possible to erect frame houses on almost any type of foundation . The most common solution involves the use of a columnar or pile foundation. In this case, the tops of all the pillars are combined with a special thick strapping bar on which the frame is attached. Before installing the frame, a layer of rolled waterproofing is attached to the foundation.
During construction and repair, it is often necessary to connect elements and parts into units and special structures.
Connections of wooden elements and structural parts are usually called landings.
Joints in timber structures can be defined by five types of landings: tight, tight, sliding, loose and very loose.
Nodes are parts wooden structures at the joints of elements and parts. Connections made of wood can be divided into the following types: end and side, corner and T-shaped, cruciform and L-shaped, as well as box corner joints.
Joinery connections can have more than 200 variants.
We will consider only those connections that joiners and carpenters use in their work.
End connection of parts is a connection of elements and parts along the length, when one of the elements is a continuation of the other. These joints can be smooth, jagged and spiked. Additionally, they can be fixed with glue, screws or special pads.
Horizontal end connections withstand tremendous compressive, bend and tensile loads.
It is customary to build up all lumber in length, thus forming vertical and horizontal toothed joints at their ends. These joints are not under pressure during the entire gluing process.
Connections for wooden structures are made carefully and reliably, in accordance with three main classes of accuracy.
The first class is intended for special measuring instruments of improved quality, the second class is for products and parts of furniture production, and the third is for building parts, agricultural implements, and so on.
Side joining with an edge, multiple planks or planks is called joining. These connections are used in the construction of floors, doors, gates, etc. When covering walls and ceilings of a frame house, the upper boards will overlap the lower ones by 1/4 of their width. Outside walls are usually sheathed with overlapping horizontal planks. The upper board should overlap the lower one by 1/4 of its width, this will ensure the drainage of atmospheric precipitation.
Joining the ends of a part to the middle of another part forms a T-joint. This connection has a huge number of mounting options. Such connections (usually called knitting) are used when mating the lag of all floors and interior partitions with the strapping of a frame house.
The connection of elements and parts at a right or oblique angle is called a cruciform connection. This connection has one or more grooves.
Cruciform connections are commonly used in farm roof structures.
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