Electrical wiring in any private house, regardless of its size, simply has to be safe.
Therefore, the requirements for its high-quality conduct are so high.
It is permissible to make it with your own hands, but during operation all known installation rules must be observed. All works are usually divided into several episodes.
Step-by-step work algorithm:
To draw up the correct electrical diagram of a private house with your hands, you first need to determine the total power of the equipment. What should be the sequence of work?
If it is small, then one group is enough for lamps.
If housing is used as a summer residence, then it is convenient to make a separate switch to illuminate the yard. This is convenient: during your absence, you can de-energize your home without affecting the outdoor lighting.
All these points should be considered when arranging an electrician in a private house.
Since the number of active equipment in houses are constantly increasing, accordingly, the consumption of electrical energy increases. More recently, the number of energy-consuming appliances in the house was limited to a stove, a few light bulbs, and a TV with a refrigerator.
Today, it is a real kaleidoscope of various devices powered by the network - there are numerous kitchen appliances, and all kinds of household appliances, and heating elements, and special construction devices. Therefore, it looks quite natural that often in private households the owners began to abandon single-phase cables, preferring three-phase cables.
For some reason, users believe that a three-phase system more reliably provides the used power, allowing several energy consumers to operate simultaneously.
In fact, the permitted power is always indicated in those. condition for a specific connection, and should be guided by it.
Usually this number is 15 kW for household needs for a three-phase connection, and 10-15 kW for a single-phase network.
In other words, the benefit is either insignificant or none at all. The meter for a three-phase network is quite large in size, which for many is a significant drawback. But a separate bonus is the possibility of direct connection to a three-phase network of asynchronous electric drives and heating boilers when heating a frame house with electricity. This is a clear advantage.
Asynchronous motors operating from a three-phase network have the best mechanical and energy characteristics.
Switching on powerful consumers does not cause "phase imbalance". In a three-phase network, the normal operating voltage is almost 380 V, and this requires careful provision of safety issues, especially in a frame house.
Three-phase input: pluses
Undoubted advantages of three-phase input:
It is more expedient to use such an input in rather large houses with at least 100 squares of usable area.
With a large number of single-phase consumers, in this case, it is much easier to evenly distribute the load on the electrics in the frame house. Well, for the most powerful three-phase consumers, this is the best option.
Three-phase input: minuses
Minuses are present along with pluses.
This is the following:
In order to choose the right cable, you usually have to carry out complex calculations.
But when conducting electricity in a frame house, you can use a special table for this. For each group, a cable of a certain section is selected, in full accordance with its power consumption.
Copper cable NYM or VVGng-LS is most often preferred for wiring.
For this purpose, an aluminum cable is also used, but its cross section will be larger. In addition, its rather brittle veins can suffer from kinks.
Sockets are connected using a three-core cable with an obligatory grounding wire. The fact is that most of the devices used need to be grounded. According to the rules for arranging electrical installations, grounding is also required for lighting, but this rule is often neglected.
However, when planning the installation of serious lighting fixtures (floodlight, powerful luminaire), it is recommended to carry out the wiring in accordance with existing standards.
Wiring in a private house can be hidden and external (external).
Hidden is convenient in those options when wall cladding is provided for interior decoration, and it is located in a metal hose or a special pipe. This is done not only for fire prevention purposes, but also to better protect the wiring from accidental damage.
How to choose the right switches and sockets? Focusing on important parameters:
The input cable is selected based on from the maximum power of all electrical equipment available in the house. Particular attention is paid to this when reconstructing electrical wiring.
When replacing cables and increasing the rating of the switches, pay attention to the input cable: whether it has a sufficient cross-section. If it is less than necessary, a fire may occur with a noticeably increased load.
To replace the lead-in cable, it is imperative to involve an organization dealing with energy supply.
Usually, a meter is installed at the same time (and sealed).
The main switch of the machine has a special function. It reserves group automatic devices, and when a short circuit occurs, it is triggered, cutting off the flow of electricity to the house.
But under increased workload, it should not react in this way. A three-pole circuit breaker is installed for a three-phase network, two-pole or single-pole (zero and phase are brought in) for a single-phase network.
An automatic switch is often installed after the counter. You can do this before installing the meter, but then it will have to be sealed. Automatic switches for individual power supply groups, a meter, an RCD and an input automatic device are mounted in an electrical distribution board, the body of which must be grounded. All equipment is placed on a special DIN-rail, then, according to the electrical diagram in a private house, wiring is carried out.
Before proceeding with the laying of the cable, they are determined with the route: they make markings for switches, sockets and lighting devices, mount junction boxes.
If an external laying system is assumed, then the cable is placed in a special channel made of self-extinguishing plastic.
It is a neat box with a lid with a latch, and can be of different sizes. Usually it has a white color, but in another version it perfectly imitates natural wood. As a result, it does not compromise the aesthetics of log walls. If your plan is to maintain the aesthetics of an electrical home , keep this in mind.
Hidden wiring can be carried out in two ways: under some kind of casing, or in grooves. Both methods coexist quite peacefully, and are often combined in the same room.
Most household appliances made from various metals. According to the operating conditions, they need grounding.
When wiring in a private house, it can also be done independently.
This will require three corners or pins made of metal, up to 3 meters in length. To connect them, meter-long corner cuts are suitable.
The technology of work is as follows:
What is an RCD? This is a protective device. Its task is to prevent electric shock to humans or animals.
This can happen if it leaks onto the body of any electrical device or if the insulation is broken. The RCD responds sensitively to the violation of the correspondence of currents, determining even a tiny leak. Two parameters for choosing a suitable RCD are leakage current and nominal.
Even if you did an electrician in a frame house according to an educational video, strictly following the rules and regulations, after installation, you need to invite the official representatives of the electrical laboratory. They will perform all important measurements: phase-zero resistance of the loop and grounding conductor, insulation resistance, RCD testing and automatic loading of machines.
Upon completion of the work, the homeowner will receive a document confirming the correctness of all electrical work. It may be needed when sealing the meter. The wiring diagram with comments and corrections is usually glued from the inside of the switchboard.
If repair or adjustment work is required, this will facilitate the actions of the foremen. It should be noted on the diagram what group it is connected to and which machine supplies which group.
Even in a frame house made of wood, electrical wiring, made in accordance with all the rules and in compliance with the norms, will last a long time - while being completely safe.
( 3 marks, average 5 of 5 )
Posted By: Work Style |10, Nov 2020
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Posted By: Work Style |09, Nov 2020
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