You will need such knowledge in order to control whether the installation is carried out correctly and with high quality, and will also help you understand what is needed to carry out such work: materials, tools and equipment.
Among other things, when living in a house, there are situations in which repair or replacement of individual links of electrical wiring in the house is required, but after all it is not always possible to call an electrician. This is where you need this information. Knowing how the installation of the electrical wiring was carried out, you will definitely have an image, the path where it is laid, from what material, what cross-section of wires, for what load they are designed.
To get started installation, you must start with preparatory work: draw up wiring diagrams, mark out, prepare to carry out punching work.
Firstly, you need to decide on the places where the supply cable is inserted into the house and the place where the switchboard is installed. Often, it is installed near the entrance to the house, at a height of 1500-1700 mm in a warm room.
Then you can draw up an electrical and wiring diagram of the wiring, on the basis of which it will be possible to mark the places where sockets, switches, electrical appliances, sconces, lamps, junction boxes, etc. will be installed.
After completing the marking of the location of the electrical equipment, you can mark the lines along which the electrical wiring will then pass to it.
So, in a private house requires the compilation of two schemes: electrical and installation.
Such schemes can be drawn up indiscriminately, without adhering to any requirements, sufficient for the concept itself .
In this case, it is useful to adhere to the following tips:
1. For sockets into which household appliances with high power will be connected, for example, a washing machine, an electric water heater, an electric stove, etc., it is required to work out the potential for connecting grounding and installing electrical wiring for this from wires ("phase", "zero", " land").
As a rule, it is not required to mount the grounding of luminaires, with the exception of rooms with high humidity, such as a bathroom.
In addition, luminaires and sockets are preferably grouped for the following reasons:
All wiring lines for connecting the lighting groups, individual and groups of sockets must be brought to a distribution board with automatic devices. For each group or individual outlet, it would be correct to provide a separate automatic machine.
Necessary requirement: matching the power of the machine to the wiring cross-section, which means that the machine must be triggered before the process of insulation melting or wire burning begins. As a rule, for lighting groups this power is 10 -16 A, for a group or an individual outlet - 16, 25 and even 40 A.
The permissible value of electric current for the conductor will depend on the cross-section , material and cooling conditions.
The permissible current density is the ratio of the max permissible current to the wire size. For copper wires of different types, it varies in the range of 7-15 A / mm2, for aluminum - 5-10 A / mm2.
To find out the current strength, it is necessary to divide the total power of consumers that are connected to this wire, in watts, 220 (single-phase network). That is, at a maximum power of the group of 5 kW, the current is 5000: 220 = 22.7 A.
You can determine the appropriate wire cross-section by dividing the maximum load current in a certain section of the wiring by the current density for this type of conductor, or you can select it according to a special table. That is, with a current of 22.7 A, and a conductor density of 9 A / mm2, a cross section of 2.5 mm2 is suitable.
When calculating the total power of energy consumers throughout the house, one must take into account the fact that usually everything is not turned on at the same time.
In this case, the demand correction factor is used. In the case when the total power is less than or equal to 14 kW, it is 0.8, up to 20 kW - 0.65, up to 50 - 0.5.
Work on marking for the installation of electrical wiring begins, with marking the main path of the wires from the electrical panel, as well as all their turns, branches and passages through the walls. When marking, we observe the following rules:
To mark the route, you can resort to using a special marking cord, you can buy it, or you can make it yourself, by painting a regular cord with paint, charcoal or chalk.
When marking, one end of the cord is fixed at the starting point, and the other is pulled parallel to the wall or ceiling, pressing it to the end point of the segment.
With the other hand, the middle of the cord is pulled back and thrown. When struck against a wall or ceiling, the cord leaves a clear mark.
After the marking is completed, do not rush to throw away the wiring diagram, it can be useful in case of repair.
Install Junction Boxes mark in places of branching of electrical wiring, descent to sockets or switches.
If you plan to mount concealed electrical wiring, in this case, mark the points for the installation boxes where the switches and sockets of the concealed version will be placed.
Switches, as a rule, are placed at the entrance to the room from the side where the door handle is located, either inside or outside it.
Switches are mounted at a height of 1.5 m or 0.5-0.8 m from the floor - this is the standard.
The most popular option is number two. When marking the path of the wires to the switch, remember that the distance to the door jamb cannot be less than 0.1 m.
The calculation of sockets in the living room is carried out, as a rule, as follows, for every 400 cm perimeter, at least one socket, rated for a current of 10 (16) A.
In the kitchen, as a rule, it is required to install about four sockets, which are designed for a current of 10 (16) A.
In the wall between adjacent rooms, it is possible to plan the installation of internal (hidden) switches or sockets, which will be located on the same axis on different sides of the wall.
When marking the installation of outlets, it is worth considering the safety rules, which read as follows: the distance to grounded metal devices may be at least 0.5 m. It is forbidden to install sockets in storerooms.
If the need arises, both the switch and the socket can be installed on the wall in front of the pantry.
For the washing machine, electric stove, air conditioner, electric water heater, shower cabin and electric boiler, individual sockets must be provided, with separate wiring from the switchboard.
When marking the installation of sockets and switches in the bathroom, toilet, shower or sauna, do not forget that these rooms have high humidity.
They have 4 zones for electrical safety:
K The 0th zone refers to the area where taps or mixers are located;
The 1st zone refers to the area where the bathtub, shower, washbasin, sink, sauna are installed;
The second zone defines the space within the radius 60 cm around the bathroom, shower, washbasin, sink, even if they have stationary partitions; the third zone is called the space within a radius of 240 cm around the second zone.
Switches and sockets can only be installed in the third zone, they must be protected by an RCD for a current up to 30 mA.
Ceiling lamp is usually mounted in the center of the room.
To determine the location of the lamp on the floor of the room, mark out two diagonals, the place of their intersection is the center. Using a plumb line, we transfer the center point to the ceiling and then mark the path for mounting the electrical wiring from the junction box to it.
If you decide to install several lamps on the ceiling of a given room, then first of all determine the center line at the center in the length of the room, and then mark the points for placing the lamps on this line, which are then transferred to the ceiling.
Before starting the installation of electrical wiring, it is worth cutting the wire into pieces, their length will be equal to the space between the junction and installation boxes, lamps and other devices.
The wire should be cut into pieces with a small margin of 0.1-0.15 m, which is necessary in order to connect them together and connect to electrical appliances.
In the event that the distance between the installation points is greater than the available pieces of wire, then it becomes necessary to install an intermediate connecting boxes, which is not very good. The best option is whole pieces of wire.
How to properly mount open and hidden electrical wiring in a private house?
Upon completion of the preparatory work, proceed to the installation of electrical wiring, using the previously drawn up wiring diagram.
For installation in a private house, it is desirable to use copper wiring with a cross section of 1.5 - 2.5 mm2. A wire of a larger cross-section is used when connecting large consumers of electricity, thereby reducing the resistance of the wiring and increasing its reliability.
The way of wiring installation can be open or hidden. This determines the material from which the walls are built and some other factors.
Open-cut electrical wiring is usually performed in wooden houses or when finishing work has been done in the room. In this case, the wiring is mounted on an asbestos lining, also in a corrugated hose or cable channels (electric boxes) or in plastic skirting boards.
Currently with open method installation, a corrugated hose or an electric box is used.
Since the type of corrugated sleeve does not pretend to be aesthetic, it is used when installing the wiring of utility and utility rooms, and for living rooms they use electric boxes (cable channels) or cavities of plastic baseboards.
You can fix the corrugated hose to the wall or ceiling using plastic holders, which are attached with screws, self-tapping screws or dowels - it depends on the material of the ceiling or wall.
To attach the cable channel, you must immediately fix the lower part, then lay the electrical wiring in it and close it with the upper part of the box, by pressing it against the lower part until the lock clicks. If it becomes necessary to check the wires, the upper part of the box can be easily snapped off.
In the places of branching of the electrical wiring, install special junction boxes.
Installation of sockets and switches, with open method, it is made on "socket boxes" of insulating material, which can be dry wood, plexiglass, textolite or plastic.
The socket is cut out in the shape of a circle, 6-7 cm in diameter and about 10 cm thick.First, the socket is attached to the wall using screws with a countersunk head or glue, and then a socket or switch is attached to it, which does not have an external plastic housing.
After that, "phase" and "zero" are connected to the socket, and in protected sockets and "ground".
The switch is connected to the gap of the "phase", which means that only the "phase" is led from the junction box to it, which, passing through the switch, will return to the junction box via another wire and in it is connected to "phase", which goes to the lamp, and "zero" is brought directly to the lamp, bypassing the switch.
You can determine the "phase" by marking the wires with a tag or remember the colors of the wire insulation. When the wiring is installed and connected, the indicator will help to determine the "phase".
Installation of hidden electrical wiring is carried out in monolithic houses, brick houses, as well as artificial and natural stones, etc.
In houses made of stone or brick, the installation of hidden wiring is carried out in special channels, the so-called grooves, they are cut along the path of future wiring, at the end of the installation they are covered with plaster.
It should be borne in mind that in the places of the future location of installation or junction boxes for sockets, switches or regulators, openings are made about 6-7 cm deep (this depends on the size of the boxes).
You can install and fix the boxes in such recesses using a solution of cement or plaster.
Installation of hidden electrical wiring is very laborious. And when the need arises to revise the wires, the walls will have to be damaged. but at the same time it does not spoil the view in the house, that is, it is aesthetic. As a rule, if the installation is carried out correctly, there are no operational problems.
For installation of hidden electrical wiring, all wire connections must be made only in junction boxes, all switches and sockets are mounted in installation boxes that are already pre-installed and fixed in places of marking.
Upon completion of installation and finishing, it is required to ensure free access to the junction boxes in order to control the connections in the future, when operating the wiring.
When buying these or those boxes, it is worth giving preference to quality devices that have a quality certificate.
Input of wiring into boxes is carried out with using sleeves made of insulating material or pieces of PVC tubing. This is extremely necessary for metal junction and junction boxes, because the edge in such boxes is often sharp, which can cause damage to the insulation of electrical wiring during installation.
In junction boxes, wires must be connected by welding (soldering), crimping in sleeves or clamps.
Switches and sockets are mounted after the installation of the installation boxes or socket boxes (with open wiring) and the wiring itself is connected to them. Depending on which installation method was chosen, switches and sockets can be open and hidden.
Installation of sockets and switches of concealed design is carried out in installation boxes. First of all, remove the top plastic cover from the socket or switch.
Electrical wiring is connected to the terminals of their inner part, in the same way as when open. Then the inner part of the socket or switch is attached to the box using spacer clips, that is, tighten the fixing screws all the way.
On completion, screw on the plastic protective cover of the housing.
Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020
Posted By: Work Style |12, Nov 2020
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Posted By: Work Style |13, Nov 2020