Underground is an empty closed space between the ground and the floor of the room inside the foundation.
The underground of a house is a place where various personal communications, water and sewer pipes, electrical wiring are located.
Also, very often in the underground they arrange a cellar for storing stocks of vegetables and pickles.
The depth of the underground is made 50- 60 centimeters, maximum meter, which distinguishes it from basements.
There are two types of underground: warm and cold.
Cold is used for houses that are not heated during the cold period; for this, the floor is additionally insulated.
In such a subfield, the temperature depends on the temperature outside, and not in the house . Ventilation in the underground of a private house is carried out through vents in the foundation of the house; there is no air exchange with the interior of the house.
Floor with a warm underground is made in houses with permanent residence and heating. The temperature in the underground depends on the temperature in the house, since it is connected with the interior of the ventilation vents in the floor.
To reduce heat loss, the foundation is insulated.
Most often, the depth of the warm subfloor is made 15-25 cm. At a depth of more than 25 cm, heat loss increases, with a lower one, ventilation will worsen.
The underground is usually built under the floor of the kitchen or hallway.
First, the fertile layer of soil, the so-called sod, is removed, then a depression is dug out.
Deepening is done 20-30 cm deeper than the planned depth. The surface of the earth is carefully rammed.
Next, waterproofing is performed. Waterproofing is made only for moist soils. The waterproofing material is laid in two layers directly on the compacted soil.
Most often, roofing material or dense plastic wrap is used for this.
Oily clay is also sometimes used: it is laid out with a top layer, rammed, thereby making moisture barrier.
From above, the waterproofing is covered with a 5-10 cm layer of dry sand. Produce tamping. Next, a layer of crushed stone is laid, 10-15 cm thick and also tamped.
This will serve as the foundation of the underground.
If you plan to use the underground as a cellar, then it is desirable to concrete the base. Next, the floor is laid.
To avoid dampness in the underground, a favorable environment for the appearance of fungi and mold, the underground must be equipped with ventilation.
During the construction of a warm underground, ventilation holes are made in the floor in opposite corners of the room and covered with lattices measuring 10x10 centimeters.
To ensure free ventilation and good air circulation, it is not recommended to cover the vents with furniture and floor coverings.
Ventilation is also possible with skirting boards . To do this, they are fixed just above the floor level along the entire perimeter with a gap of 1-2 millimeters.
This will provide the necessary air circulation. This method is not very popular.
And this is due to the fact that the underground is partially open. Underground dust will also enter the house.
There is also a ventilation method through the windows cut in the baseboard.
On the back wall of the skirting board, there is a groove along its entire length, 1 mm deep, 4-6 cm wide. Windows 4-5 cm long are cut into this groove.
Two windows on opposite skirting boards will be enough to provide ventilation in the underground area of 20-25 m2. The windows are covered with bars. They are attached to the skirting boards with screws.
In a room with water heating, holes in the baseboards are made under the heating radiators. From the underground, the air rises through the hole in the baseboard, passes through the battery, heats up and rises, moving to the opposite wall.
Then it cools down and sinks to the bottom and returns to the underground through the hole in the plinth.
The basic principle of cold underground ventilation is the production of vents at the base of the foundation.
The vents are placed at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other. To prevent rodents from entering the underground, the vents are closed with gratings. During the cold season, the vents are partially closed, leaving a small passage for air circulation.
In the case when the air vents do not help and moisture accumulates in the subfield and fungus and mold appear, destroying the overlap, it is necessary to increase the air circulation. There are two methods: temporary (express) and permanent.
Temporary is suitable for one-time use and consists in installing on the vents of ventilation fans. A permanent solution is to install ventilation pipes in the vents on the leeward side of the house. The boxes can be made of tin or plastic pipes.
The thrust force and, accordingly, the efficiency of air circulation, depends on the height of the ventilation duct.
Well-installed underground ventilation will ensure the durability of the ceiling, sub-floor and the entire house. Repairing floors and ceilings is a laborious and expensive procedure. To avoid this, it is necessary to regularly monitor the condition of the underground and prevent condensation and moisture.
( 1 grade, average 5 of 5 )
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