When buying a land plot for building a house, the question often arises of unsuitable relief and geology of the area for use, including for agricultural purposes. This can manifest itself in standing puddles after heavy rainfall and during snowmelt.
Also soil can lose its bearing capacity when it becomes very loose. In any situation, excess liquid can adversely affect the foundation of the house and the landscape. There is only one way out - to raise the site.
The site is backfilled in order to increase the filtration of the upper layers of the soil or increase the level of the terrain.
There are the following reasons when the site needs to be backfilled:
Important: If the area is boggy, it will not be easy to determine the required amount of soil, because during the filling, the soil can be compacted under its own weight.
Note: The amount of soil required for backfill is calculated by measuring the area and the required rise, adding a margin for compaction.
Dumping is done, as a rule, before the construction of a house is started. An exception may be foundations for large buildings. Before the start of dumping works, the site must be completely cleared of everything that can create an obstacle to the laying of communication systems. Further, the top fertile layer is removed from ten to thirty centimeters, which is used later for the surface embankment of the site.
After the soil should settle for 7 to 10 days, during this time it will dry out.
Important: If the site is filled up without the construction of the so-called "strip foundation", then the soil will simply begin to creep along the sides.The tape acts as a support and when pouring it, future soil pressure must be taken into account. Laying under the strip foundation begins along the entire perimeter of the area to be lifted. It is made ten centimeters higher than the intended elevation of the site.
The soil is delivered and distributed over the territory manually or using machinery.
Important: When lifting, take into account a slope of about three centimeters. This is necessary so that rain and melt water flows naturally from the site.
The purpose of backfilling the territory is arrangement level area, which must have a slope and drainage system. The ideal bevel should be 3 to 4 cm / sq. m plot.
In which direction it will be directed is selected individually. It is done to prevent flooding of the area. Through the drains, water is removed from the site into the drainage ditches.
These ditches are also made with a slight slope. After the expiration of time, the overall level of the rise decreases, which can last for more than one month.
Important: The upper fertile soil must be removed before raising the territory.
By using zoning, you can save a little on material. For example, in the locations of garden beds or a lawn, you can make a backfill with ordinary sand. And in areas not intended for cultivation, sandy loam or loamy soils are quite suitable.
You can also save on using cheap materials for deep layers, such as recycled rubble or construction waste in the form of brick and concrete fragments.
This is especially beneficial if the expected height of the lift is more than thirty centimeters.
Note: The required volume of material is calculated based on the fact that when raising one hundred square meters of land by 1m in height, about 100 cubic meters will be needed. m. soil or sand.
It makes no sense in lining the entire embankment with fertile soil, and clay does not spread on top of chernozem.
First, the top layer of soil is removed to the clay layer, and then it comes back. In the case when the area is partially leveled, the excess land is thrown into the nearest territory, but if the entire plot is poured, then everything here happens in stages.
The soil is removed to eliminate the washout of the plastic layer, which is located between the dense layers, since there is a possibility that the embankment will begin to slide under the influence of its own weight. The only exception here is if the territory is located below the adjacent site by thirty centimeters without any slope.
If it is necessary to raise the territory by more than ten centimeters, then it is also not worth using fertile soil for this.
And there are reasons for this:
The choice of soil will depend on how much the land plot is developed.
That is, until the construction of the house is completed, it makes no sense to import fertile soil. Also, if chernozem is imported before the clay layer has finally compacted, then erosion and, as a result, loss of fertility are possible. Only spring and autumn plowing can partially save from this.
Chernozem should preferably be poured dry and not rolled, but should be leveled by hand. As a rule, before unloading fertile soil, formwork is mounted, the base of the building is cast and waterproofed, and then backfilled using rubble.
A surface retaining embankment is arranged according to the same scheme to chernozem.
Drainage is intended for areas with artificial leveling and large differences in height, where classical lifting is not enough. A small backfill with surface drainage should be in any area, since erosion processes can also occur in an area with a slight slope.
Along the slope along the two boundaries of the site, ditches are being dug, one of which, located below, will act as a receiver from the transverse trench located in the upper part. A crushed stone cushion is laid at the bottom of the trench, tree and shrub species are planted along its slope.
The depth of the trench is made from 20 to 30 cm, so that it reaches the upper impervious boundary and slightly cuts it. Important: For less disturbance to the relief, the depth of the trench can be adjusted with hygroscopic materials. If the slope differs in the direction from the trench by more than fifteen degrees, then there may be an increased flow of water. The upper trench should be covered with bricks. In such an area, it is better to level the soil only under the intended buildings.
Here, the place for the garden can be protected from erosion formation with the help of a trench located across the slope, where willows or birches grow along the upper edge. To prevent siltation, rubble should be poured onto the bottom of the ditch and along its upper slope.
In addition to the backfill and drainage system, there are other methods to prevent soil erosion. The most effective of them is the planting along the borders of the plot of crops with a very developed root system.
Also, bushes should be planted along the drainage trench to strengthen it.
You can use rose hips, blackberries and even reeds here. They do not create much shading and are excellent at absorbing liquid from the ground.
On very steep slopes, the embankment is reinforced using geogrids and underground drainage. But if the difference between the bulk level is not significant, then landscaping is quite enough.
When planning the dumping of a land plot in the country or outside the city, you will need professional measurements of heights using a level, as well as a correct calculation of the required amount of dumping.
It is impossible to determine to what height the site needs to be raised and, moreover, how much soil is needed. Therefore, such complex operations should be trusted only by qualified specialists.
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