Home construction has been gaining popularity over the past two decades. This is due to the emergence of modern building materials that simplify the process, as well as the development of new technologies that allow building using conventional - not specialized - tools. Drawings of frame houses are created by the future owner himself, guided by the characteristics of the site and his own needs. But a large number of typical schemes can be downloaded on the Internet.
The construction of houses always begins with preparatory actions:
The main feature of frame housing construction is the use of elements of walls and ceilings for the base - beams and metal profiles. As filling - different insulation (mineral wool, polystyrene), which are closed from the inside and outside by various panels - wood, metal, plastic or combined. The structure is gradually mounted on the foundation and sheathed in parallel - from the inside and from the outside.
This allows small teams of workers to erect buildings - from two people, and also not to use construction equipment - everything is done by hand.
As a result, the owner can get a unique building with the properties he needs, which depends on the purpose of the building, local climate and financial possibilities.
In most countries of the world, frame construction is becoming more and more popular every year. There are several reasons for this:
The buildings are able to withstand tremors up to 8-9 points.
Separately, it should be clarified that if necessary, you can erect such a house, which can be quickly disassembled, transported to a new location and reassembled. Such mobility is provided only by frame and frame-modular construction schemes.
Important! Often, it is possible to prepare foundations of medium or shallow depth for the construction of a house - the weight of the structure is small, therefore, if the soil allows, it is allowed to use simple and light types of bases. But for this you need to carefully study the area.
Some types of soil require the creation of a capital foundation, otherwise the house will deform or completely collapse over time.
But there are negative aspects:
To reduce the echo of the whole structure, you will have to lay heavy types of insulation in the walls - for a summer residence this is not very important, but a house that is intended for permanent residence, will require you to do so.
A reliable frame house can be built only after scrupulous calculations. It is very difficult to draw up correct drawings without the appropriate education, therefore it is recommended to consult professionals. This will require the allocation of part of the budget for ordering project documentation, but it will guarantee that the house will not fall apart in a year or two.
After analyzing the type of soil, you should understand which type of foundation is suitable for a frame house. The foundation is the most important element, which is practically impossible to change later, the reliability of the entire building depends on the correctness of its calculation. Experts are guided in the development of the foundations of buildings SNiP 2. 02. 01-83.
Types of foundations:
After the pillars are inserted into the ground, they are tied with beams;
Standard foundation - rectangle with sides 6x6 meters, 6x8 or 6x4 .
.. A separate drawing will be required for the construction.
Before designing a building, you need to step by step decide on the following points:
Step 1. Purpose of the house - for example, a non-residential building may not require insulation, the walls will be thinner.
Step 2. Heating - it type (separate boiler room or powered from existing utilities), heat consumption per living space (the more rooms, the more expensive it will be to heat them), chimney device.
Step 3. Number of residents - from this the number of floors and bedrooms depends.
What materials will be used - wood products are often used, as they are available in all regions, but it is important to understand that long elements (over 6 meters) cannot be purchased. For example, beams for strapping the foundation will have to be joined. This will require relevant experience.
Step 5. Location of communications in the building - external or internal.
In the first case, maintenance of pipelines and electrical wiring is facilitated, but the appearance of the premises deteriorates. In the second, if repair is necessary, you will have to disassemble the skin.
Step 6. Finding bathrooms, kitchens and other household rooms - they try to group them close to each other - to facilitate piping.
Layout - the most difficult stage for future owners. Comfort depends on the correct location of the premises, and it will be difficult to make changes after construction. It is recommended to use computer 3D modeling - this will make it possible to visually verify the correctness of the decisions.
Step 8. Balconies and loggias - do if the building is (at least) two-story.
Elements should also be foreseen and calculated in advance.
After that, you should decide on the dimensions. They depend on the size of the site and its quality.If the landscape has large differences in height, this will have to be corrected in advance.
Typical projects and drawings
One-story house 6x6 is one of the best solutions for an average family of 2-3 people. Such projects are often chosen for construction in private gardens, houses are suitable for rest and sleep on summer days. Drawings for one-story houses 6x6 can be created by almost any owner of the site.
One of the options (general plan):
The floor plans can be selected depending on the purpose of the house. Some experienced builders create such houses even alone.
6x4 projects also compact, but not suitable for a large family.
Often used for the construction of summer cottages, hunting lodges or for household needs.
The main feature is the fastest possible construction, if a one-story house is selected. Buildings are also lightweight; on stable and stable soils, they will require the simplest foundation.
In such buildings, 3-4 residents will already be comfortable. There are projects of two-story and one-story houses.
In the upper part there is an attic or attic, this is not considered the third floor.
The choice of layouts is diverse. On the ground floor, you can provide a living room, bathroom, kitchen and a small utility room. On the second floor there are bedrooms and guest rooms. In the attic room - a workshop, a gym, or additional rooms.
A foundation is the basis of any structure. The type is selected depending on the soil, climate, weight of the future building.
Walls look like a cake - several layers of different materials, reinforced inside the frame and sheathed with panels. At the same time, to prevent the ingress of moisture from the outside (plus - protection from the wind), as well as to prevent the accumulation of condensate inside the walls, it is imperative to follow the rules: a wind shield is pulled from the outside of the house, and a vapor barrier film from the side of the premises. As a result, the "filling" of the pie, represented by the insulation, will "breathe", but will not get wet and will not lose its properties.
Vertical slabs and internal walls - also consist from several layers. But here the insulation can either not be laid at all, or combined with soundproofing materials.
Thermal insulation materials
Chimney - its device depends on the type of boiler room and from its location. Some modern boilers allow vertical piping - then it can be taken out through the wall closest to the boiler. But some types of boiler rooms will require a vertical device.
Then you will have to include it in the project. It is important that the upper part will cross the roof slope; careful calculations must be carried out for installation.
Roof - consists of a rafter system, lathing (internal and external), insulation and sheathing. That is, it also looks like a pie.
It is important to calculate the structure considering:
As a result of this, over time, the structure "leads" (due to changes in humidity), deformation leads to the destruction of the nodes, and sometimes the entire roof.
On the Internet there are many drawings of typical buildings related to frame houses. But you will have to prepare a complete set of documentation to start work yourself. This is especially true when it is decided to build a four-story house. Then you will have to conduct a construction expertise without fail.
The easiest way to prepare documentation is to contact a construction office. The designers will propose a basic design, after which the customer will make the necessary changes and amendments to it, which may relate to:
Pay attention! If you decide to build a house yourself, it is recommended to do additionally: sketches, plans, 3D images for a better understanding of the structure ..
You can prepare drawings of a frame house with your own hands in two ways:
When choosing the first option, you need to take into account that professional builders, if they are engaged in construction, better understand the documentation that is executed according to building codes.
To make a drawing at home on a PC, it is not necessary to purchase expensive professional programs - there are free (or inexpensive commercial) software for beginners.
With its help, you can create not only visual drawings, but also 3D models for better visualization.
During design, inexperienced landlords make mistakes:
They start construction without a project - often it ends up unnecessary costs. Without clear planning, it is impossible to calculate how much material will be required to manufacture a particular unit, element. This does not take into account local loads acting on important points in the building. This can end in tragedy - the house will deform and collapse.
Incorrect calculation of overall dimensions in relation to the thickness of walls and partitions. Many people forget that walls are made up of several layers, and as a result, the scheme is incorrect.
Inadequate structural analysis. Sometimes they plan to build an overly powerful foundation for a small house, and sometimes, on the contrary, a two or three-story structure is made of too thin or low-quality elements (metal profiles, boards, bars). In the first case, significant funds are wasted, and in the second, there is a risk of the house collapsing.
Responsible units are built from raw wood - after a year moisture will come out of the elements, and then the wood will deform. At best, the entire building will be skewed and significant alterations will be required.
Construction of wood materials without preliminary antiseptic treatment is unacceptable - even in the most correctly designed frame or ordinary wooden house, a certain amount of condensation will inevitably fall out on the sections (boundaries) environments, which are much more in frame houses than in buildings made of traditional massive materials. Moistened wood, containing organic elements (polysaccharides) in its structure, becomes an excellent breeding ground for various forms of microflora and microfauna, whose representatives can easily destroy wood fibers in a short (1-2 years) period of time.
Impregnation for wood
Important, that materials capable of bearing loads are used for sheathing the frame.
For example, OSB should be structural and intended specifically for the production of outdoor work.
Thermal insulation of the pie of vertical frame walls is allowed only with rigid plates of construction insulation. Filling and roll materials, due to shrinkage and downward movement over time, can only be used on horizontal parts or in roofs with a slope up to a 1: 5 ratio.
When using economical versions of low-density insulation boards, it is recommended to secure each row of boards with spacers between the boards to prevent slipping. Such a solution will make the structure more expensive, increase the thermal conductivity of the walls, so it is beneficial to use high-quality insulation of higher density.
The size of the openings between the frame racks should not exceed the transverse dimension of the insulation plates - 600 mm. Even better, if the size of the opening is reduced to 590 mm, to exclude gaps between the posts and the insulation plates. You cannot fill the walls with scraps of insulation - there will be many cracks.
Any construction is unthinkable without creating project documentation, which includes building drawings, plans, a list of parts, and an estimate. It is important to understand that you will always have to collect the mentioned documentation, except for cases when construction is carried out on the territory of gardening or a summer cottage.
Otherwise, a building permit will not be issued, and the house will be considered an illegal construction. As a result, the authorities may demolish it.
Also, take a look for the amazing chalet style house designs.
It is best to entrust the development of drawings either to specialized engineering offices, or to private individuals, if they have the necessary qualifications. The first option is preferable, since the company gives guarantees for work, and in most cases offers additional services for project approval.
If the construction will take place in the country, then the drawings can be drawn up independently. To do this, it is better to use special PC programs that simplify the work, do not require the skills of a professional engineer. The main thing - neatness and attentiveness.
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