Electrical installation in a country house

Electrical installation in a country house Wiring in the house do it yourself (turnkey)

Installation work for wiring in private houses is a rather laborious process, but still, even novice electricians can do it. If you want to independently perform electrical installation in a private house, and you have all the necessary tools at hand, or you just want to control the employee, we suggest considering the whole process in stages.

To make the technology understandable even for beginners, we will take a step-by-step look at how the electrical wiring in the house should be done with our own hands.

General information

Process steps

The process consists of the following steps:

  • Selects the gasket option (hidden, open).
  • Making the scheme.

  • Layout work.
  • Selection of composite elements.
  • Installation.
  • Obtaining permission to connect to the local electrical network.

Using the example of a new country house, let's look at how to cope with the wiring on our own.

Selecting the type of electrical installation

So, it’s worth starting by deciding on the method of line installation. At the moment, there are options for manufacturing open or closed wiring. The first option is the fastening of the constituent elements to the surface of the walls (in this case, the routes are laid in special cable channels).

P The advantages of the method are that:

There is only one drawback - often it does not fit into the interior of the rooms, because the cable channels are not very attractive in appearance. Concealed wiring is more popular. In this case, cables and wires are laid in the walls, and this requires the manufacture of grooves - grooves in the wall, ceiling and floor, or installation behind suspended ceilings and sheathed walls.

Benefits of hidden wiring:

  • Will not spoil the interior of the rooms.
  • Fire safety.
  • Cheaper than outdoor.
  • The chance of damage is much less.
  • High durability.

And here there are more disadvantages than in the first version:

  • The complexity of repair work and use (to replace the wiring or connect a new the point will need to open the finish).
  • If they fail, it is difficult to find the exact place of breakdown, if you do not use special devices, for example, a metal detector.
  • It is forbidden to use in wooden houses according to PUE 7. 1. 38.

  • A lot of experience and a large set of tools are required for the work.

We advise you to stop the choice after all on the last method, because it is more durable and the whole line will not be conspicuous! With the selection of good quality components and the correct laying of the wire in the house, the probability of breakdown is very small.

Details of the question

Making a circuit

In short, it is worth talking about how to make a circuit for electrical installation in a private house, everything the main thing to know.

In order to draw a diagram, you first need to provide the location of several elements of the house:

  • Determine where the lead-in cable is located and where the electrical panel will be located.
  • Automation (residual current device, voltage relay, possibly an SPD or difavtomats).

  • High power household appliances (washing machine, stove or electric boiler) because they require a separate power line.
  • Ceiling luminaires.
  • Switches, sockets and distribution blocks.

It is worth immediately mentioning the following requirements and recommendations for creating an electrical wiring diagram:

  1. Electrical installation in a country house The wires must necessarily run along the ceiling and walls strictly vertically and horizontally, and turns only at right angles. You can also wire the floor if you use a special electrotechnical skirting board.

  2. Places of wiring should be at a distance of 20 cm from the ceiling, and at the same time, the lines should be directed straight down to the places where switches and sockets are installed.
  3. The net should be at least 10 cm away from window and door openings.
  4. Switches must be made at a distance of 0.8 meters (or 1.5 meters) from the floor, from the side of the door handle.

  5. Installation of sockets is performed at a distance of 0.3 meters from the floor, while above the countertop in the kitchen, the sockets should be at a height of 10 cm from the surface.
  6. In rooms where there is a high level of humidity (bathroom, balcony), it is better not to install switches and sockets on the basis of GOST R 50571.11-96.

Based on the advice, it is worth moving on to creating your own project for wiring electrical wiring.

By the way, it is best to always have a photocopy of the house plan on hand, because it is in this documentation that the exact dimensions of the rooms are observed, as well as the placement of doors, windows and walls. After the project is ready, you can move on to the next stage.

Marking

For wiring a house from a bar, and in general any other room, you will need to apply markings using chalk or coal - these will be routes the passage of the cable, as well as the place for installing the elements. To make the track smoothly and quickly, it is recommended to use a rope that is pre-painted in chalk or coal. It is called a marking / painting cord.

All that is required to create one of the sections is to attach one end of the rope in the starting position and carefully pull it to the end point (so that the rope does not touch the wall).Then pull it on and release it sharply to leave a mark. Afterwards, he advises to take a photo of the walls in the house in order to quickly find the wiring and repair / replace it if necessary.

Selecting electrical installations

In this step, you need to select all planned products for wiring. It is worth saving on materials if you want the wiring to serve for many years properly.

We recommend choosing the following elements:

  • Corrugation, junction boxes and cable channels should be made of self-extinguishing or non-combustible materials that will not spread combustion.
  • Copper cable (its service life is much longer than that of aluminum products). In addition, copper conductors can handle higher loads. We recommend making a choice in favor of the NYM or VVGng brand.
  • The cross-section of the cores per socket group must be at least 2.

    5 mm 2 (can withstand a current of up to 25 A, but is usually protected by a 16 A circuit breaker, and this is enough for home conditions) ... For lighting, select a cable with a cross section of 1.5 mm 2 , but for connecting household appliances with high power, choose thick conductors - 4 mm each 2 .

Separately, it is worth focusing on the choice of switchboards, which will contain all the circuit breakers. It will be good if the set includes an N or PE bus, a transparent door for the convenience of checking machines, and additional "chips". For example, in some shields, in addition to tires and doors, there is a built-in bubble level for installation accuracy and special markings for supplying a cable channel, while a box is made of ABS plastic.

Calculation of the amount of materials

Besides the fact that you need to calculate the exact number of sockets, switches, boxes, you need to take care of the length of the wire when installing all electrical wiring in the house. Be sure to take the length with a margin, so that there are no situations when only 10 cm is not enough to the end point.

We recommend calculating the length taking into account the following rules:

  • For installation boxes, add 15 cm to the length + a little more to the depth of the box.
  • To install luminaires, add 10 to 20 cm, depending on which luminaire you have. The length should be selected in such a way that the end sticking out from the ceiling can be hidden in the lamp, and also so that it is convenient to make the connection.
  • It is worth adding 15 to the length of each segment to connect the wires to each other.

An option for the lazy is to multiply the area of ​​the house by two, and you will get the required cable length for wiring.

Electrical work

Electrical installation in a private house can be started when there is a diagram, constituent elements and prepared walls. Let's look at all the stages step by step. For work, you will need a foam float, a spatula, a sharp knife, a trowel, a hammer, a chisel, and a screwdriver.Also prepare a wall chaser or small grinder with diamond discs, and a drill with a bit for concrete or brick. Then follow the instructions.

Grooving

Make grooves (grooves) for installing new wiring in the house with a puncher, chasing cutter, grinder or manually. The size of the groove should be 2 cm deep, 2 cm wide, but if there is only one cable. If there are several at once, then select the width in fact so that the cables do not lie too tightly. In the places for the installation of junction boxes, sockets and switches, make round indentations using a rotary hammer with a crown. Depending on the walls, choose a diamond or victorious crown (for concrete), or an extension for wood and drywall.

Fastening the distribution box

Install boxes and sockets in the wells (the idea of ​​round strobes). To install them, it is best to use screws with dowels or a layer of asbestos (about 0.2 cm). After completing the commit, proceed to the third stage.

Laying the cable

The strobe must be cleaned of dust, stones and other foreign objects, primed or doused with water, and then the cable can be laid in it.

We recommend using alabaster or plaster for fixing electrical wiring. Those who do not want to deal with the solution can attach the wire using dowel clamps. The tacking step is approximately 0.4 meters.

You can also use brackets, because this provides a secure hold of the wire, and also makes it possible to fasten several groups of cables in one route.

In order to attach the conductor, you first need to make the attachments yourself. You will need galvanized thin steel that is cut into strips. Each staple should be 6 cm long.

Cut the material into pieces, then drill a hole in the center of each. Then everything is simple - the wall is drilled in the right place, then a dowel is driven in and a "quick installation" is performed.

In addition, the staples can be hammered in with nails if the fixing is to wooden walls.

Connecting switches and sockets

As soon as it completely hardens with a solution (and this is about a day later), it should be thoroughly wiped with sandpaper, and then you can proceed to the installation of switches and sockets.

Obtaining permission to connect to the electrical network

So, in order to obtain permission, you will first need to pass acceptance tests (this means a technical examination of the object where electrical installation completed). If the results are positive, then you will receive a "Connection Approval Certificate", and on the basis of it, the owner of the electrical network must connect your residential facility. The rules for connecting to the electrical network are spelled out in the PP of the Russian Federation 861 of 27.

12.2004 and numerous editions (the document was updated until 2015).

After that, the company that deals with the power supply must connect to the electrical network for objects with a capacity of up to 15 kW, regardless of whether there is such a possibility. Connecting with a dedicated power of up to 15 kW, and the length of the line no more than 1/2 km, costs about 600 rubles. For this cost, you will receive a technical specification (i.

e. technical condition) for the connection. After assembling the switchboard, you will need to contact the RES and call an inspector who will perform the sealing, and then the electricians must connect your "box" to electricity, namely to the overhead transmission line support. This issue is well covered in the video.

Conclusion

So we examined how the electrical wiring in the house should be made, which will be done by hand.

We hope this information was useful and understandable for you, and the video helped you better understand the electrical installation process!

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