Enamel paints - varieties, composition and application features

Enamel paints - varieties, composition and application features Enamel paints - varieties, composition and application features

With any repair work, homeowners begin to think about the colored coating of walls, floors and other decorative elements. The choice often falls on enamel-type paints and varnishes. They have many benefits that attract potential buyers. What is enamel paint, what are its advantages and disadvantages, types of means, we will consider further.

Benefits and Features

For some reason, many people think that enamel paint and enamel are one and the same, but this is fundamentally wrong.

Enamel is a glassy type coating, which contains quartz particles, metal alkali, pigments and other components. When the surface is treated with an enamel coating, it is thermally fixed, which ensures the strength and resistance to wear of the object. Often ceramics, dishes and bathroom surfaces are covered with this material.

These paints were created by chemists who were able to saturate pentaphthalic varnish with special alkyd resins. In contrast to a simple paint and varnish material, enamels are made on an oil base of natural drying oil.

Manufacturers mark such an item on the label with information about the composition, and the presence of the component is indicated by the letters PF, oil-type materials have the abbreviation MA. The first one has a dense, uniform and shiny coating, and for many such factors are decisive when choosing.

Enamel paints - varieties, composition and application features Enamel paints and varnishes are a watery or gel-like agent, where there is an organic type of solution, which creates a film on the surface. This process occurs due to the presence of alkyd resin in the varnish composition. Certain manufacturers use different components, but with similar chemical type properties.

After the paint dries, a dense film appears on the base, which performs a protective function and increased resistance to surface wear. It protects against abrasion, minor scratches, water and dirt due to its repellent properties. This point is extremely important for most women who hate or do not want to spend a lot of time on the cleaning process. It is enough to wipe the enamel-coated surface with a damp cloth, and it regains its original appearance.

Another great advantage of enamel paints and varnishes is their beautiful luster, which will give the base a beautiful rich appearance.

This property depends not only on the film former, but on specialized additives. Most professional painters prefer to paint surfaces with enamel compositions - they are simple to work with, they are easy to apply and lay down in an ideal layer. They should be applied on a primer, wood and metal.

Enamel paints and varnishes can be applied in a single layer, and modern manufacturers offer a wide range of such materials that have a different color palette.All buyers can choose their own colors depending on the desired shade and preferences.

The democratic cost of goods gives a paint and varnish enamel agent with a greater value to oil analogues.

In addition to many advantages, such paints have nuances that are important to consider when buying. A huge disadvantage will be a sharp and toxic aroma, which is not found in simple paints. Working with such varieties is required carefully, and you also need to wear a respiratory mask to protect the body from toxic poisoning. It is required to store jars in a special way, they should only stand upright, and also away from small children.



Classification of enamel-type paints is carried out by composition, and there are a lot of them. Let's consider the most popular ones.


The main component of this composition is cellulose nitrate. In addition to it, the composition contains pigments, special additives, solvent and fillers. As a rule, concrete, metal and wooden surfaces are painted with these compounds.

Paints are sold in cans or cans. They have a pungent and toxic odor, and nitrocellulose paints and varnishes cannot be combined with other types. Never apply an oily composition to nitrocellulose paint - it may start to curl. If such materials come into contact, the base will become covered with small air bubbles and may begin to swell.


There are many types of enamel paints, and one of them is an organosilicon composition, the big advantage of which is the ability to apply it on all kinds of bases.

Such funds are fully resistant to moisture, and also have a high degree of density, very resistant to wear. You can apply this material to dry acrylic paint if you wish.

Glyphthalic and pentaphthalic

Such products are very similar to the oil subspecies, as they are made from combined on drying oils of artificial origin after modification by means of alkyds. These materials can be combined with epoxy and acrylic paints.


Enamel paints - varieties, composition and application features Such compositions are made on latex base, and they have a water consistency, they can only be combined with water-based paints and varnishes.

When carrying out special preparation, it is possible to combine it with other types of coloring mixtures.


Such enamel compositions are strong enough and resistant to wear, and therefore they can be applied over epoxy, oil and pentaphthalic coatings of paint and varnish type.


This type of paints and varnishes is the most popular, hit of sales. Alkyd enamels are highly resistant to weathering, mineral oil, chemicals, gasoline.If you apply it in a couple of layers on the surface prepared by means of a primer, and it will be able to maintain its characteristics for 4 years.

The resulting film is resistant to temperature changes down to -55 degrees. It can be used only for internal and external work.

Primer enamel

This agent is a combination of anticorrosive particles and pigments, and they are able to dissolve in an alkyd medium. During manufacture, organic substances are added to the composition, as well as target components. The product hardens quickly, creates a strong and uniform coating that is resistant to corrosion processes and the phenomenon of the atmosphere.

Due to this composition, you can significantly save on the preparation work before painting.


These paints have a special purpose. Despite the one likely color that comes in various shades (gray), ball paints are quite popular. They are used to paint the sides of warships.

How to choose

When purchasing an enamel product, you need to pay attention to certain details that are extremely important and help you make the right choice.

  1. It is required to carefully examine the jar from different sides, and there should be no dents or other damage on it. In the event of a leakage, the internal type composition may lose its parameters.
  2. Look at the expiration date because old paint does not give the desired effect.
  3. It is required to look for the inscription "GOST" on the bank, which will be a guarantee of high quality products.

We recommend paying attention to the material code, which is indicated in large numbers and letters on the front of the package.

It is required to think over everything in advance so that each symbol is studied. The first are the letters PF, followed by three numbers. The first will help you understand what type of work the product is intended for (1 for external, 2 for internal). The remaining two numbers will tell you under what number such paint is presented in the catalog. One of the best Russian manufacturers will be Lakra, which produces coatings of various types.

A wide palette of paints with different colors, and the most popular are red, white, green, black, navy blue and yellow.

How to use

Alkyd enamel paints and other analogs have their own instructions for use. They need to be applied using a special method. Initially, it is important to thoroughly prepare the base, otherwise the paint and varnish material may begin to peel off within a week after staining.

For the preparatory stage of the surface, it is required to completely remove the old layer of material, but there are certain nuances here too.

  • Old coating should only be removed if it peels off easily.
  • If it is very dense, you will need to clean it and process it with coarse sandpaper, and then remove the dust and wash the base with soda lukewarm water, and after simple clean.

After the base is dry, you can start painting. If necessary, dilute the materials with special solvents and stir, and then apply the enamel paint in three layers, while each layer is required to be applied after the previous one has hardened.