The ventilation system in a private house: how to do it correctly
A country house without an effective ventilation system is very difficult to call comfortable for living. The influx of fresh air into it from the outside must be constant and large, since otherwise the microclimate in the room will cease to be favorable.
It is required to make an exhaust ventilation system at home, and according to one of two schemes - with forced or natural draft. At the same time, it will be quite possible to perform installation work even on your own. But in some cases the project will need to be ordered from professionals.
There are also simplified calculations of the air exchange device in low-rise residential premises, but they may not always be suitable. Here you need to be as careful as possible to do everything right.
All variants of ventilation systems can be broadly divided into two types:
The first will assume the absence of various mechanical means for the circulation of air masses around the house.
In this case, everything will happen due to natural draft, which is formed due to the difference in temperature and pressure in different places of the ventilation system. But the latter, or rather their work, will be due to the presence of supply or exhaust air fans. So, we propose to consider everything in more detail.
To obtain a natural type of ventilation of a cottage-type house, you will need to make vents in the walls, as well as make an exhaust ventilation duct. This option will be the simplest and fastest in terms of implementation.
It will be enough to provide openings at the stage of construction of a private house for air to enter and exit. And if the house has already been built, then it is not so difficult to make ventilation holes in the wall structure.
Among the advantages of natural ventilation are the following:
- Not the most expensive installation work.
- High degree of reliability and complete energy independence of the system.
- No need for complicated maintenance.
- Quiet operation.
Please note that natural ventilation will never stop working during power outages, and there are also no mechanisms in it that can break down at the most unnecessary moment or make noise during operation.
But the shortcomings of the system will be enough, namely:
This ventilation system is recommended for use if your country house is located far from highways, as well as clean air around. That is, we are talking about a place where additional purification of the supply street air is not required, and there is also no noise. In most other cases, it is worth looking at the option where the fan is installed.
Let's consider the second type.
The forced ventilation system of a private house will be much more effective, and will also be able to control not only the temperature in the room, but also the level of humidity. But keep in mind that this will cost much more and require constant power from electricity. The main element of the system will be a fan in one form or another.
The advantages of such a system for ventilating a house with forced draft are:
The forced option will make it possible to more accurately control each of the microclimate parameters inside the rooms. But for this you will need to pay not only with higher construction costs, but also in the future with operating costs.
The disadvantages of a forced ventilation system in the house include the following:
- Requires electrical supply and costs.
- High cost of equipment.
- Additional costs of a financial type for the mandatory maintenance of electrical equipment.
- Increased requirements for the quality of the project and calculations.
The main nuance of the option will be the dependence on electricity.
The fact is that if the power supply is cut off, the fan will stop working and then the system will be useless. If the voltage in the network constantly disappears in the village, then during the arrangement of forced ventilation, you will need to worry in advance about choosing an uninterruptible power supply.
Schemes for the organization of forced-type ventilation in a country house are supply (the fan will operate to supply air to the room), exhaust (the fan draws stagnant air outside the house), as well as combined supply and exhaust.In the first two cases, the system will consist of a ventilation channel (supply or exhaust) with a fan and filtration systems for natural air flow. The third system is built of two ventilation channels, which have their own heaters.
With supply-type ventilation, air will be taken from the street, cleaned and heated / cooled if necessary, and only after it will it go into the room. Its exit to the outside of the cottage will take place through standard air ducts for extraction, as well as through vents located under the window. It turns out that there will be mechanical injection inside, and the exhaust air will come out on its own, in a natural way through ventilation-type openings, windows and doors.
Please note that in the simplest scheme such a system is made of one fan in the utility room and several ventilation ducts from this room to each living room. This option will make it possible to minimize the noise from equipment that is constantly working and greatly simplify the calculations.
If the ventilation system of the house will be in a small dwelling, then the above described method for the organization will be the simplest. It will be sufficient to correctly calculate the required air exchange and fan power. Installing ventilation afterwards is unlikely to be difficult. Air ducts for it are usually made of corrugated flexible pipes of the required diameter. And ventilation equipment with all filters, ionizers and others is purchased as a ready-made installation.
It only needs to be fixed in the chosen place, and also connected to the ventilation ducts.
In the exhaust system, everything is exactly the opposite. The inflow of clean air into the house will pass naturally, and this will require equipping vents and ventilation shafts with holes in the surface of the walls. And it will be necessary to pull air masses from the rooms by force, using a mechanical exhaust device with a fan. The main disadvantage of this method will be that cold air will be drawn in from the street, and if the cottage is built in an area with a cold climate and low temperatures, then an incredibly large amount of heat from the heaters will need to compensate for this moment.
These will be additional heating costs. But if you let the flow of cold air from the street not through vents in the outer walls, but through the underground, then on the way to the living rooms it will have time to heat up a little, and the problem will cease to be serious. But when designing such a question, it is important to calculate and foresee everything in advance.
This option is combined, it consists of two forced subsystems. One will be used for the air supply, and the second for the exhaust.
They can be separated, each by itself, and intersect only in the recuperator. This is the most complex system in design and construction.It will require many complex calculations and a large number of air ducts. But using it, the owner of the house will receive a guaranteed maximum comfortable microclimate in the house. Such a system will make it possible to automatically control all the parameters of the air in the room.
It is not for nothing that it is often chosen as one of the elements of a smart home.
Please note that to reduce the cost of heating air in winter, the supply and exhaust system should be supplemented with a recuperator. It will take some of the heat from the masses drawn from the cottage and give it back to those coming from outside. This will greatly reduce the cost of heating, because almost all the heat energy in the house will not leave it.
Proper ventilation is the one that was designed correctly from the very beginning.
It will be almost impossible or even expensive to correct the mistakes made in the calculations afterwards. It's better to do everything right away and according to the rules. For facing the basement of the house, you can take any materials, and there are no special building codes, but the project for a ventilation system or a pile type of foundation must be calculated according to all GOSTs and SNiPs, since otherwise the cottage will not stand for a long time or it will be uncomfortable in it live.
When designing, consider the following:
When you have a finished project on hand, it will not be difficult to install ventilation yourself in the house. Ventilation ducts are usually made of corrugated pipes or individual metal / PVC elements with rectangular cross-sections.
All this needs to be put together like a constructor.
For ease of operation of the air ducts, the following are now produced:
- Channels with different cross-sections.
- Various connectors with and without integral valves.
- Elbows with different turning angles.
- Holders and hangers.
- Grilles for air vents.
All this should be connected to each other and the ventilation unit, as well as a recuperator or duct fan. There shouldn't be any difficulties.
And now we suggest that you step by step consider the installation of the ventilation system in the house:
And in order to protect the air duct outlets from precipitation and debris on the street, they need to put nets, caps on them or deflectors. In this case, the street sections of mines, ventilation ducts and pipes will be subject to insulation.
If you do not do this, then condensation will fall out in them, and this will certainly lead to problems. It is not so difficult to make a ventilation system in a private house yourself.
If you have a project on hand with a specification of the necessary materials and a plan, then there should not be any big difficulties. And the most important thing at the end of the work is not to forget to put decorative inserts on the facade at the outlets of ventilation ducts. Otherwise, in the future, even on photos of houses with an exterior finish taken from afar, such places will look unsightly. A small trifle that is unfinished at the end can greatly spoil the appearance.
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