Although the material in the construction market has existed for several decades, for some developers it is still little known. In order to be able to make a conscious choice, you need to familiarize yourself with porcelain stoneware in more detail.
Facade porcelain stoneware
Installation of a ventilated facade
Artificial stone is made from powders by pressing under high pressure with subsequent firing. Pressing pressure up to 500 kg / cm 2 , firing temperature up to + 1300 ° C. The powder contains quartz sand, clay, kaolin, feldspars and mineral dyes.
Other additives can be used to give the original appearance. At first, porcelain stoneware was used only as a technical tile, later it began to be used for the manufacture of flooring and sanitary equipment. Recently, the facades of various buildings and structures have been tiled with ceramic granite tiles.
Porcelain stoneware slabs allow implementing complex architectural projects
One of the options for ceramic granite finishes
Unlike flooring, the thickness of porcelain stoneware tiles for the facade does not exceed ten millimeters. Otherwise, the large weight of the structures has a negative impact on the foundation of buildings.
In addition, the requirements for the bearing indicators of the facade walls are increasing, not all of them are suitable for cladding with such material. There are no standard dimensions, manufacturers are guided by their own specifications. But for facades it is not recommended to use too small or large tiles, the size should be at least 40 * 40 cm and not more than 80 * 80 cm.
Porcelain stoneware for the facade
Facing tiles from porcelain stoneware
Unfortunately, domestic companies ("Kerabud", "Estima" and others) still cannot produce high-quality tiles of large sizes for facade finishing. Professional builders strongly recommend purchasing goods from Spanish or Italian companies: Alfa Ceramiche, AO Ceramicas Aparici, etc.
You should not deal with the Chinese, the surface of the facade will be uneven due to problems with the accuracy of the plates. The material belongs to the category of expensive, you do not need to throw out a lot of money and, as a result, have curved facades, albeit from fashionable porcelain stoneware.
Table of variants of external surfaces
|Surface type||Features and manufacturing technology|
|The cheapest option, porcelain stoneware slabs are not polished after firing, but only polished.|
| More expensive option, performed after grinding surface polishing. Manufacturing requires sophisticated equipment.
Dust does not accumulate on the surface, but micro-scratches are noticeable. Recommended for use on prestigious buildings.
| Before firing, mineral salt is sprayed onto the surface - for technologists one plate can have different colors. Satin-finished porcelain stoneware makes it possible to create original geometric patterns on the facade walls. In terms of cost, it belongs to the middle segment.
|During polishing, larger fractions of polishing materials are used, the technology is somewhat simpler, losses in stone thickness are reduced, and direct production costs are reduced. This lowers the cost.|
| The surface has a matte appearance and imitates various types of natural stone ...
Features of ceramic granite tiles for facades
Companies produce mosaic, glazed and other types of ceramic granite tiles, but they are not used for facade decoration due to their very high cost. In order for the edges of the artificial stone to have the ideal dimensions, they are cut by high-precision machines during manufacture. The higher the quality of the tile and the smaller the deviation from the dimensions, the easier it is to work with it. But such material is not available to all consumers due to the high price.
Physical characteristics of porcelain stoneware
|Frost resistance|| At least 100 freeze / thaw cycles.
According to these indicators, the plates can be used in all climatic regions of our country without exception.
|Water absorption||The high density of the material and the absence of micropores significantly minimizes the ability to absorb water. Water absorption does not exceed 0.05%, this is one of the lowest rates among all materials used for finishing facade walls.|
|Hardness|| According to Mohs, indicators are in the range of 8-9, more than the value only for glass But high hardness becomes a disadvantage - there is no plasticity, the material becomes brittle.
|Wear resistance||According to international standards, the material is divided into five groups. For facades, the first group is used, in terms of wear resistance it takes the last place among all types of porcelain stoneware. Due to this, the cost of facing surfaces of facades is significantly reduced, and for them, wear resistance does not play any role.|
|Coefficient of friction|| Regulated by DIN 51130, minimum coefficient R9, maximum R13. For cladding boards, the coefficient of friction is not taken into account.
Facade ventilated porcelain stoneware with wood effect
Relatively high cost of facing material is fully justified by its excellent performance characteristics.
The material is absolutely non-combustible
It is easy to cut and does not crack or chip. During the cladding of buildings, unproductive waste is close to zero.
The same requirement applies to foundations.
Original facade solutions
Ventilation facade properties
In all respects, porcelain stoneware for facade cladding is superior to traditional materials. The only problem is the price, but when you consider the additional savings in surface maintenance and the excellent design performance, the high cost is justified.
Facade porcelain tiles are currently the most durable solution for cladding buildings
White and black exterior, porcelain stoneware finishing
Important. Installation of facade porcelain stoneware slabs is a very demanding job. If you don't have any experience, don't try. Poor performance will result in significant financial loss. In addition, a stove falling from a height can cause serious injury.
Follow all manufacturer's recommendations without question, use only those fasteners that are designed for a specific weight.
Wall cladding with slabs (ventilated facade system) consists of several structural elements:
All modern buildings must be thermally insulated, this is provided for by the current regulations. On older buildings, the decision on additional wall insulation is made by each owner individually;
For the production of work, you will need an electric drill with a perforator, a device for setting rivets (if the supporting frame is assembled with their help), wrenches, a plumb line and a long precise level. If there is a laser level - great, the markings will be made much faster and more accurate.
If not, you will have to use the hydro level.
Fasteners for installing porcelain stoneware
Before starting the installation, remove near the wall, collect scaffolding, think over the places of storage of materials. Be sure to work together, but preferably three. The final number of people is determined based on the dimensions and weight of the slabs. It is advisable to draw a wall on paper, indicate its dimensions and first think over a plan for placing the brackets, taking into account the linear dimensions of the plates and the method of their fastening.
Determine the places for fixing the brackets, calculate their number and linear meters of horizontal and vertical rails. Taking into account the weight, choose dowels or anchors, the heavier the slab, the stronger the hardware should be.
Scheme of assembly of substructure elements and porcelain stoneware slabs. Option 1
During preliminary planning, count the number of window openings and doors, determine the entry / exit points engineering communications. They must be accessible for prompt elimination of emergency situations.
Any installation of a ventilation facade must first be calculated correctly
Step 1. Wall marking. It is necessary to immediately indicate the location of the brackets on the wall. Drawings for the placement of brackets are included in the documentation for ventilated facades. Determine the extreme control points from them.
Important. The brackets must be at least 10 cm from the corner of the building, window and door openings, otherwise there are risks of breaking the strength of the frame.
Attach the two uppermost brackets, from them lower the long plumb line and mark the lowest points. Beat off the vertical lines with a blue rope.
Bracket attachment to the wall of the building
Taking into account the dimensions of porcelain stoneware slabs and manufacturer's instructions beat off the rest of the vertical lines at the recommended distance. For most cases of facade finishing with porcelain stoneware slabs, the vertical distances between the brackets are up to 1000 mm, horizontal up to 800 mm. When calculating the number for the entire wall, round the obtained values taking into account the dimensions of the facade wall.
Step 3. Using a laser or hydro level, make horizontal marks at the corners of the wall, beat off parallel lines with a rope with blue.
After marking on the wall of the house, a grid with the same mesh sizes should appear. Check them in all respects, everything is fine - start drilling holes. Keep in mind that supporting brackets must also be installed around the perimeter of window and door openings.
Step 4. Use a hammer drill with a victory drill.
The depth of the holes must be several centimeters longer than the dowels or anchors. For porcelain stoneware slabs, it is recommended to use anchors, they can withstand significant forces. It is not safe to work with dowels.
Marking and drilling holes
Installing the dowel
Step 5. Install brackets immediately within reach, carefully check the fixing strength.
To prevent the appearance of cold bridges, gaskets can be installed between the wall and the brackets. Use only paronite, they are more durable and do not deform under prolonged exposure to loads. Plastic ones can bend, which has an extremely negative effect on the strength of the entire structure. The design of the brackets has special holes to adjust their exact position.
L-shaped bracket for installing rails
After all the brackets are fixed, proceed to the walls insulation. Building codes and regulations allow the use of only non-flammable materials, only those foams that do not support open fire are allowed. But it is better not to use it either, during combustion it emits deadly poisonous substances. To lose consciousness, it is enough to inhale the smoke just a few times. The optimal solution is pressed mineral wool.
Schematic diagram of installation of insulation
Schematic diagram of installation of two-layer insulation
Practical advice. For insulation, take sheets with a thickness of at least 10 cm, thinner ones give an insignificant effect, and labor costs are the same. But the final decision depends on the thermal conductivity of the wall.
Glass wool is attached with special dowels with large heads. Press the mats tightly against each other, install them in a checkerboard pattern, do not allow the formation of gaps.
Any violations of technology lead to a significant decrease in the efficiency of heat saving. There must be at least five anchoring points for one standard size mat. Remember that a 2-3 cm gap between the glass wool and the wall reduces the heat saving efficiency by at least 60%. In the gap, air convection occurs due to the temperature difference, warm air goes out into the street, and the wall is cooled by the incoming cold.
The sequence of fixing the plates
Fastening the insulation with dowels
Installation of the insulation
Do not cut large holes in the locations of the support brackets or create additional heat loss areas. Estimate where the bracket will come out and only here cut the mat lengthwise or crosswise. How exactly to cut depends on the characteristics of the bracket.
Mineral wool should be reliably protected from water ingress. Cover it with a waterproof cloth, there is a huge selection of them on sale today.
Do not use plastic wrap, moisture will accumulate under it, and condensation will appear in winter. Mineral wool is moistened, with an increase in relative humidity, the values of heat saving rapidly decrease.
Scheme of installing a wind-waterproof membrane
This completes the first part of the installation of porcelain stoneware slabs, you can proceed to the second stage.
Step 1. Start setting vertical and horizontal profiles.
This is a very crucial moment, if all the elements are not located strictly in the same plane, then great difficulties will arise during fixing the plates. How to set the elements correctly?
Setting the guides
Never buy elements that are fastened with self-tapping screws, they are made of thin steel and are not designed for heavy loads.
Step 2. Mount the slabs.
They are fixed with metal clamps.
Scheme of fixing porcelain stoneware
This is how the clamps for installing porcelain stoneware look like
Attaching the starting clamps
Attach the two lower clamps, place the plate on them and fix the two upper ones. One kleimer has two ears, they must hold two adjacent plates. Due to this technology, their position is automatically adjusted, the edges will lie strictly on one line.
Installing porcelain tiles
Installing porcelain tiles
It is important to observe the gaps between the plates
The distance between the side edges of the plates is controlled visually, but some types of cleats have special stops.
They are faster and easier to work with, and the appearance of the façade wall is improved.
Ceramic granite fixing unit in the guide
Porcelain stoneware fixing unit at the inner corner facade
Feud attachment point on the outer corner of the building
Step 3. If on the wall there are outlets of pipes or electrical cables, then technological holes should be made in these places in the ceramic granite slabs.
On a properly installed frame, work is done quickly. Remember that the wasted time for marking and installing load-bearing elements always returns during installation.
Before choosing a specific installation method for porcelain stoneware tiles, consider the following factors:
The load-bearing elements of the frame must be made of the same metal, otherwise currents will appear at the contact points that accelerate corrosion. Never skimp on the strength of the brackets, always buy the most reliable. Porcelain stoneware has a lot of weight, you need to keep this in mind.
Work only in good weather, if there is a chance of rain - protect structures from water ingress.
Manufacturers assure that structures can be mounted at air temperatures down to -15 ° C, but we do not recommend listening to them. Not because the structures will not stand up, but because it is very difficult to work in such conditions. As a result, a violation of the technology, errors during marking or fixing the frame elements is possible. In addition, snow falling on mineral wool will definitely melt someday. And an increase in the moisture content of the insulation by only 5% increases the thermal conductivity by 50%.
Mineral wool gets wet quickly, but dries for a long time. Especially if it is protected by facade membranes.
Be sure to install vertical and horizontal support profiles for porcelain stoneware tiles. The combined frame evenly redistributes bending and torsional, compression and tensile loads.The design becomes very reliable and durable.
In case of violation of the strength of fixing of vertical profiles, the load is perceived by the horizontal ones and vice versa. The disadvantage of the combined system is the increased cost. But it's not worth saving on security.
Window frame installation scheme
Node of adjoining the facade to the window opening, bottom
Node of adjoining the facade to the window opening, lateral
Node of adjoining the facade to the window opening, top
Carefully make adjoins and frames, cover the side ends only with solid plates. Pay special attention to the plinth and joints to the roof.
Eliminate the possibility of moisture ingress, but do not block the ventilation. Inspection of faulty facades revealed that 55% of the problems are due to improper installation of porcelain stoneware slabs, 40% due to incorrect markings and 5% due to unprofessional selection of load-bearing elements.
Facade decoration - photo
This is how a ventilated facade made of porcelain stoneware looks like
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