Brick is rightfully considered one of the best inventions of mankind - an artificial stone, which has long been used for the construction of houses. Previously, in order to give the facade a beautiful look, they used artistic masonry techniques. Today this process has been greatly simplified thanks to the production of stones with varying degrees of decorativeness. At the same time, the size of the facing brick, its strength and other characteristics meet all the requirements for the usual one, and it differs only in the best quality of the front surface, or the texture applied to it or a colored decorating layer.
From the name of the brick it is quite clear that its purpose is to be able to beautifully decorate the exterior of a particular design.
Although today there are products so beautiful in design that at least put them on the shelf and admire them.
They can be used not only for exterior facial work, but also for interior decoration. Moreover, today the presence of open masonry in the interior is in trend, and is the hallmark of many styles.
Especially in such cases, antique clinker is in demand. From it, for example, you can erect a partition that will not need further decoration, lay out a fireplace wall or decorate an arch.
But still more often brick with a front quality or decorative coating is used for external work.
Such aesthetic wealth, which was mentioned above, is mainly possessed by clay products, although other varieties of artificial stones (silicate, hyper-pressed) can also be used for facing work.
Their decorative effect consists either in the use of a pigment in molding, coloring the raw material in bulk, or in applying a relief on one spoon (sometimes a poke) by a mechanical method (rusty, chips, giving a curved shape). Most often they are used to decorate the upper part of the walls of low-rise buildings, to install fences, to build gazebos and other street structures.
But ceramics are suitable not only for the main external walls, but also for plinths - including for their construction, and not just the front design.
She has a much richer choice, since, in addition to the above-mentioned decor options, production technologies can provide for the use of colored clays, and their dyeing in bulk, and the application of textures.
In this case, surface staining is usually carried out by applying engoba (a thin layer of liquid colored clay), or by glazing with firing. A brick subjected to the shotcrete procedure looks incredibly beautiful, when particles of mica or quartz are sprayed onto its surface under pressure. And what beautiful facades and interiors turn out at the same time!
In general, the formats for all types of artificial stones, regardless of the material of manufacture and purpose, have the same standard, and the size range may be limited or expand at the discretion of the manufacturer. Naturally, we are talking about Russian standards, since foreign manufacturers, whose products are also many in our market, are guided by the standards of their countries.
Therefore, let's first consider all the possible formats that are prescribed by Russian GOSTs.
Table 1. Brick formats according to GOST
|Format name||Dimension and application features|
|This is a basic size, single (1 NF), in which both ordinary and facial products are made. All other formats are tied to it.|
|This option is called one and a half and denoted as 1.4 NF. With the same length and width, this brick is thickened and has a height of 88 mm instead of 65.|
| In this case, the increase is also applied a height that is already twice the corresponding size of a single format.
Therefore, this brick is called double.
| Sizes are not indicated in this picture, but even visually it is visible that it has a lower height. For the 0.8 NF format, it is 55 mm, all other parameters are the same as for the above options.
| Above were presented formats where variations only concerned the height of the brick. At 0.7 NF, it is standard, but the width is changed to the smaller side. Thus, with a standard length and height, such products have a width not 120, but 85 mm.
This makes it possible to reduce the thickness of the face layer of the masonry, and thereby reduce its weight.
| Format 0.5 NF is longitudinal half a full-sized brick.This option is very convenient for continuous cladding (no ventilation gap), as well as great for interior work.
The table shows the main parameters of bricks produced according to Russian standards. If you notice, with variations in height and width, their length remains the same (250 mm). However, it is also envisaged to manufacture modular products with a length increased to 288 mm. The 1.3 NF format has also increased the width (138 mm) , the standard height is 65 mm.
There is a size option, designated 1.8 NF, in which the thickness is also increased (88 mm).
For imported bricks, for example, of German production, the main parameters in length are 240 mm , and in width 115 mm (in the EURO version 100 mm ). Available in four thicknesses: 52mm (DF); 65mm (RF); 71mm (NF) and 113mm (2DF) . The Belgian hand-molded clinker has the WFD format - with a thickness of 65 mm, has a length of 215 and a width of 100 mm.
So, choosing a brick for decorating a building - especially if it will participate in laying out the front mile , look carefully at the sizes, and select them so that it is convenient to work.
Note. During construction, the length of the walls is determined based on the size of the masonry material, taking into account the mortar joints.
Brick of face quality, and even more so with a decorative coating, is suitable for any work related to the construction or design of structures. In addition to the walls of houses, these can be outbuildings, fences, paving paths and terraces (only for clinker), gazebos and even flowerpots for plants.
Read more about the "Bavarian" masonry in a special article.
If clay (without additional color decor) brick is used for facing work, its shades will vary from pale yellow to deep red. It depends on the type of clay used, which in nature is 6-7 shades due to the content of iron oxides.
Note! Of course, the cost of structures using front-quality bricks increases.But the difference is leveled by the fact that there is no need for plaster, and as a result, the need for its subsequent repair.
Interesting cladding effects can be achieved using profiled (shaped) bricks. And if a few decades ago they were made by trimming a simple brick, now you can buy products of all kinds of shapes. They are used either for laying architectural elements of the facade, or for decorating stoves, columns or arches.
The figured framing of architectural elements of a building is the most expensive, since the price of such a brick is higher, and the qualifications of a bricklayer must be appropriate. Therefore, most homeowners make the decision to decorate the facade through texture and color.
We have already mentioned and even cited examples of the technologies used to achieve its diversity. However, design isn't always about choosing one color. The best aesthetic effect is obtained by combining several (usually no more than five) harmoniously combined shades. An example of such a selection is shown in the photo below.
Shades can be varied both in the plexus of the entire masonry, and individual colors can be selected in a different color zones.
As a rule, these are openings and external corners of the house - as well as the basement, if it is also brick.
Glazed bricks are rarely used for full cladding, since it is very expensive, and the top layer is quite fragile, it can be damaged from impact. But its main properties are not inferior to clinker. More often, beautiful panels are created from it on the facade, or interiors are decorated.
We have also mentioned hand-molded bricks.
The main manufacturer supplying the highest quality product is Belgium, but some Russian enterprises also make such bricks of good quality. It is used to style the building with an antique exterior, or to match the interior to a specific architectural style.
This brick has a rough surface and deliberately uneven edges like on old crumbling masonry. It is this kind of brick that is also used for the restoration of the facades of old buildings, since the new one would look like something alien against the background of the old masonry.
But even from ordinary facing bricks that do not have surface decoration, you can make very beautiful masonry - due to various laying patterns that form an interesting pattern of seams.
And if you also combine colors and textures, you get an original and very aesthetic cladding.
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