Stone for cladding the lower part of the facade has been used for a long time. And despite the fact that today a large number of modern materials have been developed, this type of finish is widely in demand to this day. This material is attractive in appearance and practical to use. This article will describe in detail the main properties of natural and artificial stones, as well as the process of facing the basement with these stones.
Facing stone for plinth
Before choosing and purchasing a material, you should figure out for what purposes the lower part of the facade is finished and what functions it will need to perform.
Plinth finishing is not only about the appearance, it also implies many useful functions for the building. Thanks to the finishing of the basement, the foundation of the building becomes waterproofed. The finish determines the formation of the Ross point. This is a very important point. The watertightness of the basement determines the percentage of moisture both in the basement and in the entire building as a whole.
An example of finishing the basement
So, finishing the lower area of the building facade with stone:
Finishing the basement of a residential building
Attention! When finishing the building, it is necessary to remember about the blind area. It increases the service life of the finish, and also carries a large number of other positive properties.
There are two types of stone - artificial and natural (natural).
Artificial stone for plinth
Artificial stone for plinth cladding is used much more often compared to natural stone and this is due to the following reasons:
Natural stone has several main advantages. Its main advantage is that it is an absolutely environmentally friendly material. Natural stone has no harmful effects on the human body and is completely safe. Also, natural stone has high strength, perfectly tolerates any weather conditions, is resistant to stress and abrasion, and is also not afraid of interaction with acids.
Facing the basement with natural stone
A basement made of natural material is offered at a fairly high price compared to artificial, much heavier and accordingly more difficult to assemble.
Dense and frost-resistant natural stone should be chosen for facing the lower part of the foundation. As practice shows, stones of a dark color are often used. The basement of the building is most exposed to all sorts of adverse factors: contact with moisture and dirt, temperature extremes. The finishing of the lower area of the foundation must withstand all of these phenomena for many years.
Facing stone for the basement
According to its characteristics, a natural magmatic stone - granite, labradorite - can best cope with this task , gabbro, etc.
In addition, quartzite and sandstone of a dark shade are often preferred. There is no need to use marble stone to decorate the lower part of the building's facade - after a couple of years it will lose its original appearance.
Granite finishing of the basement
Attention! It is not recommended to use loose types of stone for facing the basement - limestone, shell rock, dolomite.
Choosing a natural stone, you must be as careful as possible in the process of sealing joints.
Comparative properties of GRANITAN, concrete, natural stone.
|Type of material||Compressive strength, mPa||Bending strength, mPa||Water absorption no more than%||Water permeability, mPa||Acid resistance,%||Frost resistance, cycles||Abrasion,%|
|Acid resistant tiles||50.40||25.15|| 3.5 / 4. |
|Acid-resistant brick||55/50/35||6/6. 8. 8||97. 5/97. 5/96|
|Refractory concrete||50|| 0. |
|Chem. -resistant concrete||30-50||6||87||80-100||0. 4|
|Hydraulic concrete||30-50||4-3. 5||6||0.8||300|| 0. |
|Natural Granite||100||15||0. 15-0. 48||97-100||. 800||0. 5|
|1. 5-3. 0||1. 2-3. 0||97-100||1200|| 0. |
This type of stone is selected primarily in accordance with the intended general design. However, there are some general requirements to be followed when working with granite and marble. So, the building standards state the following: facing elements, including basement natural stones, with an area of up to 0.4 square meters and a thickness of up to 10 millimeters, can be laid on a cement mixture or special glue without using additional fasteners.
Elements of a larger area and thickness are laid using fasteners.
Facing the basement of the house
The main limitation in the process of choosing natural stone for finishing the lower part of the building facade is the incompatibility of silicate rocks (quartzite, sandstone) with carbonate (dolomite, marble, shell rock). If materials of different rocks are found next to each other during masonry, then the silicic acid that silicates have will begin to react to calcium carbonate, which is the basis for limestone rocks. Ultimately, due to the resulting reaction, both rocks will be destroyed. Other types of stones made of natural material can be stacked with each other, the interaction will not bring significant damage.
Brick house with an original base
There is one nuance in the process of work - the stone is laid with a decent gap, since it is a natural material can vary in volume depending on the weather and temperature, and each breed has its own individual characteristics in this regard. The gap is calculated based on the size of the granite or marble slabs and the density of the natural stone.
If the work on cladding the lower part of the facade of the building is carried out using several types of stone, then the gaps are calculated for that material, which is characterized by a higher coefficient of increase in its volume.
Finishing made with stone laid with gaps
The finishing works of the basement, using artificial or natural materials, are carried out according to strict rules and according to the corresponding scheme. All of the steps below are essential and should be performed as described.
Any non-observance of the rules will lead to a decrease in the efficiency of the work done.
The first stage of preparation for finishing the basement floors with artificial or natural stone should be taken extremely seriously, since the durability and quality of the structure as a whole depend on it.
Attention! Before starting this work, it is necessary to assess the condition of your foundation (its strength, durability), it would be useful to invite a specialist to determine whether the basement can withstand the weight of the finishing material. Artificial stone is not heavy, but natural, on the contrary, has more weight.
Initially, it is necessary to make the lower area of the façade as clean as possible, completely removing the remnants of dirt and old materials. For this it is better to use a metal brush. If the old plaster is very strong and this tool cannot cope with it, you can do this work with a chisel and hammer.
Step two. After completing the cleaning, you will need to make the so-called "notches" on the plinth using an ax.
This procedure can be omitted by deepening the seam by 1 centimeter - this option will be more effective and will double the adhesion of surfaces.
Step three. Next, the working surface is treated with a primer. Its choice must be approached responsibly and only a deep penetration primer must be purchased. The liquid is applied with a spray gun or brush.
Priming the base
Step four. If the surface has a heterogeneous composition, it will be necessary to attach a construction mesh to it, thanks to which the connection of the surfaces will be stronger. The mesh is anchored with anchors that are driven into pre-drilled holes in the foundation.
Scheme of fastening the reinforcing mesh
Scheme of fastening the mesh to the OSB surface or plywood
Attention! If you plan to use a construction mesh, do not lay stone on it. First you need to "throw" the cement mixture onto the surface.
A ladle is suitable for this - no need to "pour" the mortar, it is important to spray it, then let it dry.
Throwing the mixture onto the mesh-netting
Base / plinth prepared for laying the stone
After applying and leveling the spray, prime the surface again.
Stir Primer Before Application
Apply primer to the plinth with a brush or roller
Next, to complete the work correctly, you will need to define the installation line. In relation to the building, the ground surface is not perfectly flat in all places. This requires stretching a strict installation line.
This mainly affects the exterior of the building.
Step one. Set the risk in the area where the work will be performed.
Step two. Next, it must be distributed on all the other walls.
The ideal tool for this is a hydraulic level, which can be purchased at any hardware store, and it is also not difficult to make it yourself. It is he who will allow you to perform this stage correctly.
Step three . After installing all the risks, they will need to be connected. The usual nylon thread will help with this.
All the risks entwined with it form a line that was needed to start finishing work.
Step four . We fix the starting profile using dowels. Such a bar will not allow the finish to "slide" below the marked line.
The photo shows the start profile
It is important to prepare the tools before the beginning of the cladding, so as not to waste time in the process of laying in search of it.
So, the following tools are required for work:
You will need to measure the level of placement of the order, therefore it is better to purchase this tool with a length of 90 centimeters;
The cladding of the lower area of the facade will be made with high quality strictly at positive temperatures. Although there are sweeps that allow you to do this procedure even at negative temperatures, their service life will not be so long. Masonry mortar largely determines the appearance and durability of the structure.
Its correct manufacturing will ensure high-quality and fast finishing. Although the modern market offers various adhesives and formulations, a cement mixture is often used.
Attention! High temperatures, over 23 degrees, will also adversely affect the work process. In the heat, moisture evaporates from the solution very quickly - the adhesion will be short-lived.
First you need to select a container for making a batch. Do not use a container with uneven edges and bottom.
Step two . We fill the container with cement and then with sand in accordance with a 3 to 1 ratio (for M300).
By mixing, we obtain a dry homogeneous composition.
Step four. Add some water.
Pour water first
Pour dry mixture into water
We knead with a drill with a mixer attachment
Pour dry ingredients into a container with water. Using an electric drill with a nozzle, mix the mixture.
It is worth adding water in small portions. During the mixing process, it will become clear whether you need to add more or if you should stop. The mass should not be liquid.
Preparation of cement mortar
Attention! If you make a solution not with mountain sand, but with river sand, the mixture will sit down. To prevent shrinkage, a little of any laundry powder should be added.
There are two types of masonry: with a seam and seamless. In the first, often used type, the correct seam and correct laying of the stone are important. The second type is much simpler than the first, here you only need to choose the right cut pieces of stones.
Unpack the finishing material
Without using glue, lay out all the stones for adjustment
It is better to mark the laid out stones before attaching to the base
Step one. Masonry starts from the corner of the building.
Each row should be tied. This is not difficult to do, you just need to exclude the coincidence of the seam when ordering.
Applying glue to the element with a spatula
Glue the corner element
Plinth cladding process
Step two. An important requirement when laying stone (namely tiles of the correct geometric shape) is the constant use of the level. The masonry of each row should be checked.
It is necessary to achieve perfectly even masonry, only after that start work on the next level.
Bonding the finishing material to the base
Step three. Apply the previously mixed composition to the stone and lean it in the required area on the wall, press down. We carry out small rotational movements that evenly distribute the cement composition and prevent the formation of empty space in the masonry. In some cases, a rubber mallet can be used for effective shrinkage.
Step four. The seam line must be correct, that is, even, this will help the template.
Laying natural stone
Step five. During masonry, it is necessary to focus on finishing the corners, which must be done without any deviations. With the help of a plumb line, deviations of the stone attachment are revealed.
Step six. First you need to place two stones at the corners of the building. Next, you will need to stretch a nylon thread from the top of the stones, with the help of which to designate for yourself a strict attachment line for the rest of the stones. All discrepancies will be immediately visible.
Laying stone with jointing
The plinth facing will be correct if the stone is divided into the required parts with a grinder. The cut-off part is first "tried on" in its place, if everything matches correctly, a solution is applied to it and the stone is pressed against the wall surface.
Cutting the stone
Step eight. By the same principle, the laying of the basement stone is carried out along the entire wall.
Crosses are placed between the seams so that the seam is the same thickness
Step nine .
The next thing to do after finishing laying the stone is to grind the seams.
The final part of the base / plinth cladding with stone is the grouting of the joints formed.
When the compound connecting the surfaces is dry (up to three days), you can start rubbing the joints. This process cannot be skipped in any way, since moisture penetrates through the left empty areas in the seams, under the facing surface, destroying the entire structure. To grind the seams, use a variety of compounds that fill the gaps.
A trowel or a wide metal spatula is perfect as tools for work. It is very convenient to apply the solution into the seams from a syringe.
Grouting between stones
Application of grout from a bag
In order to fill the gaps evenly and beautifully, it is necessary to join the joints. For this work, not only a special tool is ideal, but also a rubber cable of the required thickness, which is embedded in a still wet solution.
Sewing the seams
After the grout dries, all excess grout is removed with a coarse brush.
On the first day, the area where grouting took place must be reliably protected from moisture. Also, the finishing surface must be protected from direct sunlight and frost for at least seven days. 24 hours after the grouting procedure, it is allowed to wipe the surface with a cloth soaked in water.
We clean the seams with a brush
The modern market offers a wide variety of different compositions for grouting: frost-resistant, elastic, and others. Also there are different colors sweep.
To give the plinth a natural look after finishing, it is necessary to choose a grout mixture of the same tone as the stone itself.
A blind area is an obligatory structural element ... The finish on the bottom of the foundation will be incomplete without it.
The blind area protects the basement area from the effects of natural factors, and prevents moisture from penetrating into the foundation, as a result of which the shrinkage of the building becomes more uniform.
The width of the blind area depends on the height of the eaves overhangs. Also, this value is also affected by the degree of planting of the land plot. If it is not so big, then the blind area should be more massive. It must be remembered that the width of the blind area should not be less than 60 centimeters.
How to make a blind area
The work is performed as follows.
Step one. Initially, we make the formwork from unnecessary boards, which should be sprinkled with earth or reinforced with pegs so that the mortar does not flow over the sides.
Step two. We fill the formwork with rubble; you can also use any stones that are aimlessly located on the site.
Blind area filling technology
Gravel filling the formwork
Broken bricks can be used
Formwork with reinforcement and expansion joints
Step three. We make cement mortar. It must be liquid enough to completely fill the contents of the formwork.
Step four . After completing the filling and leveling, we leave the formwork until the mortar is completely dry.
Pouring and leveling mortar
Poured and leveled concrete layer
Now we give the complete look to the blind area, covering the entire surface with gravel. It is also necessary in case of rain - splashes will not fall on the base.
Decor with gravel
In order to additionally protect the base of natural stone from moisture penetration, it is recommended to cover it with a colorless moisture-resistant varnish. If you have done everything according to these instructions, the original plinth finish will delight your eye for years to come.
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