Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Stone for cladding the lower part of the facade has been used for a long time. And despite the fact that today a large number of modern materials have been developed, this type of finish is widely in demand to this day. This material is attractive in appearance and practical to use. This article will describe in detail the main properties of natural and artificial stones, as well as the process of facing the basement with these stones.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Facing stone

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Facing stone for plinth

Functions of finishing the basement

Before choosing and purchasing a material, you should figure out for what purposes the lower part of the facade is finished and what functions it will need to perform.

Plinth finishing is not only about the appearance, it also implies many useful functions for the building. Thanks to the finishing of the basement, the foundation of the building becomes waterproofed. The finish determines the formation of the Ross point. This is a very important point. The watertightness of the basement determines the percentage of moisture both in the basement and in the entire building as a whole.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

An example of finishing the basement

So, finishing the lower area of ​​the building facade with stone:

  • is responsible for service life of the structure;
  • provides a comfortable microclimate inside the building;
  • in addition, the basement restrains temperature drops, which is extremely necessary in the off-season;
  • during the finishing process, additional insulation of the building occurs, which will affect the reduction of energy consumption, and reduce the cash costs of the owner of the house.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Finishing the basement of a residential building

Attention! When finishing the building, it is necessary to remember about the blind area. It increases the service life of the finish, and also carries a large number of other positive properties.

There are two types of stone - artificial and natural (natural).

Artificial base stone.

Main features

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Artificial stone for plinth

Artificial stone for plinth cladding is used much more often compared to natural stone and this is due to the following reasons:

  • the cost of artificial material is much lower than natural;
  • unnatural stone for cladding the lower part of the facade is lightweight. Thus, significant strengthening of the foundation is not required;
  • this material copes well with temperature drops and high humidity;
  • responds well to sub-zero temperatures. Thanks to this, artificial material can be used in any climatic zone;
  • the building materials market offers facing artificial stone of any shape, size, color. Thanks to this, the plinth of the building can be given an original and unique appearance;
  • all work can be done independently without assistance.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Decorative stone

Natural base stone.

Main features

Natural stone has several main advantages. Its main advantage is that it is an absolutely environmentally friendly material. Natural stone has no harmful effects on the human body and is completely safe. Also, natural stone has high strength, perfectly tolerates any weather conditions, is resistant to stress and abrasion, and is also not afraid of interaction with acids.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Facing the basement with natural stone

A basement made of natural material is offered at a fairly high price compared to artificial, much heavier and accordingly more difficult to assemble.

Prices for various types of facing stone

Facing stone

Restrictions in working with natural stone

Dense and frost-resistant natural stone should be chosen for facing the lower part of the foundation. As practice shows, stones of a dark color are often used. The basement of the building is most exposed to all sorts of adverse factors: contact with moisture and dirt, temperature extremes. The finishing of the lower area of ​​the foundation must withstand all of these phenomena for many years.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Facing stone for the basement

According to its characteristics, a natural magmatic stone - granite, labradorite - can best cope with this task , gabbro, etc.

In addition, quartzite and sandstone of a dark shade are often preferred. There is no need to use marble stone to decorate the lower part of the building's facade - after a couple of years it will lose its original appearance.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Granite finishing of the basement

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Labradorite

Attention! It is not recommended to use loose types of stone for facing the basement - limestone, shell rock, dolomite.

Choosing a natural stone, you must be as careful as possible in the process of sealing joints.

Table 1.

Comparative properties of GRANITAN, concrete, natural stone.

Type of material Compressive strength, mPa Bending strength, mPa Water absorption no more than% Water permeability, mPa Acid resistance,% Frost resistance, cycles Abrasion,%
Acid resistant tiles 50.40 25.15 3.5 / 4.

5

97/96
Acid-resistant brick 55/50/35 6/6. 8. 8 97. 5/97. 5/96
Refractory concrete 50 0.

8

75
Chem. -resistant concrete 30-50 6 87 80-100 0. 4
Hydraulic concrete 30-50 4-3. 5 6 0.8 300 0.

7

Natural Granite 100 15 0. 15-0. 48 97-100 . 800 0. 5
GRANITAN 120 .

18

1. 5-3. 0 1. 2-3. 0 97-100 1200 0.

18-0. 2

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

GRANITAN

This type of stone is selected primarily in accordance with the intended general design. However, there are some general requirements to be followed when working with granite and marble. So, the building standards state the following: facing elements, including basement natural stones, with an area of ​​up to 0.4 square meters and a thickness of up to 10 millimeters, can be laid on a cement mixture or special glue without using additional fasteners.

Elements of a larger area and thickness are laid using fasteners.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Facing the basement of the house

The main limitation in the process of choosing natural stone for finishing the lower part of the building facade is the incompatibility of silicate rocks (quartzite, sandstone) with carbonate (dolomite, marble, shell rock). If materials of different rocks are found next to each other during masonry, then the silicic acid that silicates have will begin to react to calcium carbonate, which is the basis for limestone rocks. Ultimately, due to the resulting reaction, both rocks will be destroyed. Other types of stones made of natural material can be stacked with each other, the interaction will not bring significant damage.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Brick house with an original base

There is one nuance in the process of work - the stone is laid with a decent gap, since it is a natural material can vary in volume depending on the weather and temperature, and each breed has its own individual characteristics in this regard. The gap is calculated based on the size of the granite or marble slabs and the density of the natural stone.

If the work on cladding the lower part of the facade of the building is carried out using several types of stone, then the gaps are calculated for that material, which is characterized by a higher coefficient of increase in its volume.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Finishing made with stone laid with gaps

The process of finishing the lower part of the facade with a stone made of artificial and natural material

The finishing works of the basement, using artificial or natural materials, are carried out according to strict rules and according to the corresponding scheme. All of the steps below are essential and should be performed as described.

Any non-observance of the rules will lead to a decrease in the efficiency of the work done.

Preliminary surface preparation

The first stage of preparation for finishing the basement floors with artificial or natural stone should be taken extremely seriously, since the durability and quality of the structure as a whole depend on it.

Attention! Before starting this work, it is necessary to assess the condition of your foundation (its strength, durability), it would be useful to invite a specialist to determine whether the basement can withstand the weight of the finishing material. Artificial stone is not heavy, but natural, on the contrary, has more weight.

Step one.

Initially, it is necessary to make the lower area of ​​the façade as clean as possible, completely removing the remnants of dirt and old materials. For this it is better to use a metal brush. If the old plaster is very strong and this tool cannot cope with it, you can do this work with a chisel and hammer.

Step two. After completing the cleaning, you will need to make the so-called "notches" on the plinth using an ax.

This procedure can be omitted by deepening the seam by 1 centimeter - this option will be more effective and will double the adhesion of surfaces.

Step three. Next, the working surface is treated with a primer. Its choice must be approached responsibly and only a deep penetration primer must be purchased. The liquid is applied with a spray gun or brush.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Priming the base

Step four. If the surface has a heterogeneous composition, it will be necessary to attach a construction mesh to it, thanks to which the connection of the surfaces will be stronger. The mesh is anchored with anchors that are driven into pre-drilled holes in the foundation.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Scheme of fastening the reinforcing mesh

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Scheme of fastening the mesh to the OSB surface or plywood

Attention! If you plan to use a construction mesh, do not lay stone on it. First you need to "throw" the cement mixture onto the surface.

A ladle is suitable for this - no need to "pour" the mortar, it is important to spray it, then let it dry.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Throwing the mixture onto the mesh-netting

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Leveling layer

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Base / plinth prepared for laying the stone

After applying and leveling the spray, prime the surface again.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Professional Primer

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Stir Primer Before Application

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Apply primer to the plinth with a brush or roller

Next, to complete the work correctly, you will need to define the installation line. In relation to the building, the ground surface is not perfectly flat in all places. This requires stretching a strict installation line.

This mainly affects the exterior of the building.

Step one. Set the risk in the area where the work will be performed.

Step two. Next, it must be distributed on all the other walls.

The ideal tool for this is a hydraulic level, which can be purchased at any hardware store, and it is also not difficult to make it yourself. It is he who will allow you to perform this stage correctly.

Step three . After installing all the risks, they will need to be connected. The usual nylon thread will help with this.

All the risks entwined with it form a line that was needed to start finishing work.

Step four . We fix the starting profile using dowels. Such a bar will not allow the finish to "slide" below the marked line.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

The photo shows the start profile

Required tools

It is important to prepare the tools before the beginning of the cladding, so as not to waste time in the process of laying in search of it.

So, the following tools are required for work:

  • grinder. This tool will cut stones. You will also need to get special discs for cutting stone;
  • electric drill. A necessary thing for preparing a solution. It is also worth equipping it with a special mixer for mixing;
  • building level.

    You will need to measure the level of placement of the order, therefore it is better to purchase this tool with a length of 90 centimeters;

  • trowel and spatula;
  • a template that serves to create a perfect seam;
  • a mallet with a working part from rubber and bar. This tool is required to adjust the prepared stones;
  • metal brush, large brush;
  • jointing required for finishing seams.

Prices for popular models of drills

Drill

Mortar manufacturing process

The cladding of the lower area of ​​the facade will be made with high quality strictly at positive temperatures. Although there are sweeps that allow you to do this procedure even at negative temperatures, their service life will not be so long. Masonry mortar largely determines the appearance and durability of the structure.

Its correct manufacturing will ensure high-quality and fast finishing. Although the modern market offers various adhesives and formulations, a cement mixture is often used.

Attention! High temperatures, over 23 degrees, will also adversely affect the work process. In the heat, moisture evaporates from the solution very quickly - the adhesion will be short-lived.

Step one.

First you need to select a container for making a batch. Do not use a container with uneven edges and bottom.

Step two . We fill the container with cement and then with sand in accordance with a 3 to 1 ratio (for M300).

Step three.

By mixing, we obtain a dry homogeneous composition.

Step four. Add some water.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Pour water first

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Pour dry mixture into water

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

We knead with a drill with a mixer attachment

Pour dry ingredients into a container with water. Using an electric drill with a nozzle, mix the mixture.

It is worth adding water in small portions. During the mixing process, it will become clear whether you need to add more or if you should stop. The mass should not be liquid.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Preparation of cement mortar

Attention! If you make a solution not with mountain sand, but with river sand, the mixture will sit down. To prevent shrinkage, a little of any laundry powder should be added.

Stone masonry

There are two types of masonry: with a seam and seamless. In the first, often used type, the correct seam and correct laying of the stone are important. The second type is much simpler than the first, here you only need to choose the right cut pieces of stones.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Unpack the finishing material

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Without using glue, lay out all the stones for adjustment

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

It is better to mark the laid out stones before attaching to the base

Step one. Masonry starts from the corner of the building.

Each row should be tied. This is not difficult to do, you just need to exclude the coincidence of the seam when ordering.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Applying glue to the element with a spatula

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Glue the corner element

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Stone bonding

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Plinth cladding process

Step two. An important requirement when laying stone (namely tiles of the correct geometric shape) is the constant use of the level. The masonry of each row should be checked.

It is necessary to achieve perfectly even masonry, only after that start work on the next level.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Bonding the finishing material to the base

Step three. Apply the previously mixed composition to the stone and lean it in the required area on the wall, press down. We carry out small rotational movements that evenly distribute the cement composition and prevent the formation of empty space in the masonry. In some cases, a rubber mallet can be used for effective shrinkage.

Step four. The seam line must be correct, that is, even, this will help the template.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Laying natural stone

Step five. During masonry, it is necessary to focus on finishing the corners, which must be done without any deviations. With the help of a plumb line, deviations of the stone attachment are revealed.

Step six. First you need to place two stones at the corners of the building. Next, you will need to stretch a nylon thread from the top of the stones, with the help of which to designate for yourself a strict attachment line for the rest of the stones. All discrepancies will be immediately visible.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Laying stone with jointing

Step seven.

The plinth facing will be correct if the stone is divided into the required parts with a grinder. The cut-off part is first "tried on" in its place, if everything matches correctly, a solution is applied to it and the stone is pressed against the wall surface.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Cutting the stone

Step eight. By the same principle, the laying of the basement stone is carried out along the entire wall.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Crosses are placed between the seams so that the seam is the same thickness

Step nine .

The next thing to do after finishing laying the stone is to grind the seams.

Grouting the joints between the base / plinth trim elements

The final part of the base / plinth cladding with stone is the grouting of the joints formed.

When the compound connecting the surfaces is dry (up to three days), you can start rubbing the joints. This process cannot be skipped in any way, since moisture penetrates through the left empty areas in the seams, under the facing surface, destroying the entire structure. To grind the seams, use a variety of compounds that fill the gaps.

A trowel or a wide metal spatula is perfect as tools for work. It is very convenient to apply the solution into the seams from a syringe.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Syringe grout

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Grouting between stones

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Application of grout from a bag

In order to fill the gaps evenly and beautifully, it is necessary to join the joints. For this work, not only a special tool is ideal, but also a rubber cable of the required thickness, which is embedded in a still wet solution.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Sewing

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Sewing the seams

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Sewing process

After the grout dries, all excess grout is removed with a coarse brush.

On the first day, the area where grouting took place must be reliably protected from moisture. Also, the finishing surface must be protected from direct sunlight and frost for at least seven days. 24 hours after the grouting procedure, it is allowed to wipe the surface with a cloth soaked in water.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

We clean the seams with a brush

The modern market offers a wide variety of different compositions for grouting: frost-resistant, elastic, and others. Also there are different colors sweep.

To give the plinth a natural look after finishing, it is necessary to choose a grout mixture of the same tone as the stone itself.

Video - Master class on facing the facade with natural stone

Video - Decorating the basement with a boulder

Video - Facing with decorative stone

Making a blind area

A blind area is an obligatory structural element ... The finish on the bottom of the foundation will be incomplete without it.

The blind area protects the basement area from the effects of natural factors, and prevents moisture from penetrating into the foundation, as a result of which the shrinkage of the building becomes more uniform.

The width of the blind area depends on the height of the eaves overhangs. Also, this value is also affected by the degree of planting of the land plot. If it is not so big, then the blind area should be more massive. It must be remembered that the width of the blind area should not be less than 60 centimeters.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

How to make a blind area

The work is performed as follows.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Markup

Step one. Initially, we make the formwork from unnecessary boards, which should be sprinkled with earth or reinforced with pegs so that the mortar does not flow over the sides.

Step two. We fill the formwork with rubble; you can also use any stones that are aimlessly located on the site.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Blind area filling technology

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Gravel filling the formwork

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Broken bricks can be used

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Formwork with reinforcement and expansion joints

Step three. We make cement mortar. It must be liquid enough to completely fill the contents of the formwork.

Step four . After completing the filling and leveling, we leave the formwork until the mortar is completely dry.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Pouring and leveling mortar

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Poured and leveled concrete layer

Now we give the complete look to the blind area, covering the entire surface with gravel. It is also necessary in case of rain - splashes will not fall on the base.

Facing stone for a plinth - DIY installation instructions

Decor with gravel

In order to additionally protect the base of natural stone from moisture penetration, it is recommended to cover it with a colorless moisture-resistant varnish. If you have done everything according to these instructions, the original plinth finish will delight your eye for years to come.

Prices for various types of cement

Cement

Video - How to make a concrete blind area

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