The facade, faced with Dagestan stone, looks prestigious and gives the impression of the homeowner's wealth. However, the cost of such finishing is relatively small and comparable to the cost of a "wet façade". Therefore, with relative cheapness, you can get an impressive result.
Facing houses with Dagestan stone
Facing with Dagestan stone
Dagestan is not called any kind of natural stone, but their whole category. It includes dolomite, limestone and shell rock.
But these stones are mined on the territory of Dagestan. Hence the name of this category of finishing materials.
The texture of the Dagestan stone
They have their own characteristics, so they can be distinguished from, for example, the Kuban shell rock. The reason for the high aesthetic characteristics lies in the uniqueness of the Dagestan climate. It is the weather and temperature conditions of this region that give natural stone a special structure.
Experts note such a property of the Dagestan stone as its high vapor permeability. This is an important factor that must be taken into account when facing the facade with natural stone. The Dagestani has one more advantage: it is a good heat and sound insulator.
Dagestan sandstone is a natural Dagestan stone, which has a very high strength
Dagestan limestone is almost entirely composed of calcite and has a unique internal structure: the pore volume inside the stone reaches 20-30% of the total volume
Dagestan dolomite stone is wear-resistant and frost-resistant
Any house should age beautifully. And natural stone, in contrast to artificial, will, over time, give the façade even greater solidity and a special flavor characteristic of prestigious buildings.
Therefore, cladding with this material is in all respects the right decision.
Problems that may arise over time.
You just need to know when and how to apply them.
It is believed that due to the low thermal conductivity of the Dagestan stone, it will be able to act as a heat insulator. Thus, they decide to save on the installation of materials intended for insulation of facades.
This is an erroneous conclusion. Natural stone is used to add special beauty to the house, and not for insulation.
Facade decoration with Dagestan stone
Characteristics of Dagestan stone
|Material / Characteristics||Density||Weight||Water absorption|
|Dagestan stone||From 1600 kg / m3 to 2900 kg / m3||700-1800 kg / m||0.2 to 4% by volume|
Example of finishing a house with Dagestan stone
Decorating with natural stone is not an easy task. In addition, a significant part of the work will need to be entrusted to specialists, since they have the appropriate equipment.
The first question that will have to be addressed is stone cutting. The machines designed for this purpose are expensive, therefore, with a small volume, it is unprofitable to purchase them.
There are a sufficient number of companies that offer materials ready for finishing works. But in this case one more question will have to be solved: with the thickness of the stone. If it is difficult to make a choice yourself, you can turn to specialists for help.
Each enterprise of this profile has designers and technologists.
The next important point is the preparation of the bearing surface. The walls of the house must be a reliable support that can withstand the considerable weight of the finishing layer. Permissible load for facing with any natural stone 22-24 kg / m2. Therefore, before starting the finishing work, prepare the walls and basement.
Next, you need to decide if the building needs insulation. If necessary, choose a heat insulator. The optimal solution is extruded polystyrene foam (EPS).
Slot-ribbed slabs made of this material have a sufficiently high bearing capacity and are a reliable "solid" base. This is exactly what is needed for the installation of the Dagestan stone.
Experts recommend using 2 cm thick EPSP groove-ribbed slabs for insulation. They will perform two tasks at once: insulate the walls and strengthen them.
Extruded polystyrene foam
For installation of the Dagestan stone will need a facade metal mesh, which is attached to the walls.
Plaster metal mesh
Thus, two issues are solved at once: they strengthen the bearing surface and provide high-quality adhesion to the finishing material. There are different types of meshes:
Expanded mesh (CPVS)
Mesh wire steel braided
In each of these groups there are two types of nets: galvanized and non-galvanized. The former are moisture resistant, therefore they are not subject to corrosion. As a result, they are the best choice for strengthening the façade.But since galvanized nets are much more expensive, non-galvanized ones are often used. These materials can also serve for more than one decade.
The optimal mesh size is 20x20 mm.
Plaster metal mesh
Step 1 . Carry out a thorough examination of the walls and remove anything that weakly adheres to them.
Check the wall and plaster for strength
An audible sound indicates reliability and the strength of the plaster
Depending on the degree of destruction of the material, a decision is made as to whether it is necessary to replace the facade elements, seal cracks, or plaster. This stage of work can take a lot of time, but it cannot be ignored.
Close cracks and irregularities
Seal large potholes with a solution of glue or cement
Step 2. The metal mesh is fixed to the walls with dowels. For 1 m2 of area, 10-16 fasteners are required. Therefore, the next step is to drill holes for the dowels. The choice of tools for this task depends on what the walls of the house are made of.
If the facade is brick or concrete, you will need a punch or drill with a punch mode. The drill must be particularly durable: with a diamond or victorious tip.
Many people use such a reliable tool as a winder drill. It is made from an alloy of tungsten (90%) and cobalt (10%)
The easiest way is to drill holes in foam concrete (aerated concrete) or wood. In this case, you can use a conventional medium power screwdriver.
Particular attention is paid to the choice of dowels. Fasteners with a plastic rod are designed for fixing lightweight materials. The metal mesh is not one of those. In addition, it will have to withstand the substantial weight of the cladding structure. Therefore, for the installation of the mesh, dowels with a metal rod are needed.
Facade dowels with metal rod
But you can also choose fasteners made of impact-resistant polypropylene (for example, Kelner type KI-10NP0). These fasteners are able to withstand significant weight loads despite the fact that they are equipped with a driven plastic nail.
The hole in the wall should be 10 cm longer than the dowel insertion depth. A drill is selected in accordance with this requirement.
According to the technology of installation of metal plaster nets, 16 attachment points are required per 1 m2. This is a rather large consumption of materials, so there is another installation method: using a Z-shaped binding of the dowels with a knitting wire. Thus, a fairly tight fit of the mesh to the facade is obtained. With this mounting method, 10 dowels can be used.
The rod of fasteners is disconnected from the nail and driven through the mesh into a hole drilled in the wall.Then the nails are driven in.
Installation of a metal facade mesh
Option of fixing a metal reinforcing mesh
There are two ways to install decorative natural stone.
The first is suitable if the back of the stones is fairly flat. But this characteristic is most often inherent in artificial materials. Therefore, for Dagestan stone, it is advisable to use the method of installation on metal profiles. But this method also has its drawbacks.
In the Caucasus, houses are traditionally faced as follows:
An example of finishing a private house
Despite the simplicity of this technology, the cladding stays on the walls for many years. For a more severe climate, a method of gluing natural stone using CORAL building compounds is recommended. The following materials will be needed:
Adhesive for natural and artificial stone Coral CG-12
Deep penetrating primer Сoral СPP-8
Step 1 . Clean stones from dust using a stiff bristled brush, water and rags.
Leave to dry completely.
Before laying, the stone should be cleaned from dust
Step 2. Apply to the walls with a paint roller primer. You can use "Betonokontakt".
Concrete contact vapor-permeable
Application of primer
Mix the solution from the adhesive mixture CG-12 at the rate of 300 g of water per 1 kg of dry powder. Since there is a large amount of work ahead, a metal mixer is bought in advance. This is a special attachment for a drill, with which construction mixtures are mixed. The freshly prepared solution should settle for a few minutes.
A construction mixer is used to thoroughly stir the glue
In one step, knead enough glue so that it can be worked out in 2 hours.
After this period, the composition will begin to solidify.
Step 4. Mix the grout mixture, which is necessary for sealing the joints. The fact is that when facing the facade with Dagestan or any other natural stone, grouting is performed as the facing layer is installed. After laying a few stones, the seams are closed.
Step 5. Apply the adhesive to the mesh with a notched trowel so that it is completely immersed in it. The surface of the layer should be embossed, which is ensured by the trowel teeth.
Applying glue to the mesh
The adhesive solution is applied with a small or spatula, and then make a relief with a comb
Step 6. Press the stone to the facade and, slightly shaking, immerse it in the adhesive layer.
In order for the facing material to connect to the wall as tightly as possible, tap on it with a rubber or wooden mallet.
Bonding the stone
For a tighter fit, hit the stone with a rubber hammer
When gluing the next stone between the first and the second, insert metal (plastic, wooden) strips with a thickness of 5-10 mm. Thus, the distance required for the formation of seams will be observed.
Step 7. Take a spatula with a straight edge of a metal blade, pick up the grout mixture and press it into the distance between the stones.
The excess is removed with a damp plastic bag. If necessary, gently beat off the protruding parts of the stones with a hammer.
Apply the grout with a spatula 3-5 cm wide in such quantity that the next stone has contact with it along the entire face
Step 8. After 24 hours wash the cladding with a brush, water and rags.
After the grout has dried, the stone is washed
After the stones have dried, they begin to apply a protective varnish. This work is done with a paint brush.
Varnish for natural stone (acrylic-silicone, hydrophobic, antifungal)
Section of the wall after applying varnish
The method of gluing natural stone is relevant only for regions with dry and warm climates. In places where the humidity is high, it is necessary to install a ventilated facade. Therefore, for facing the house with Dagestan stone, another method of fastening is chosen: on metal profiles.
Special hinged facade systems have been developed that can provide the most reliable fixation of heavy finishing material. But to use them, stones are required that have a relatively regular rectangular shape and are equipped with slots along the upper and lower ends. It is with these that artificial stones are made, intended for installation on a hinged facade.
Ventilation facade substructure made of natural stone
Natural Dagestan stone does not differ in the correct form. In order to obtain the necessary cuts and parameters, additional processing will be required, which can be performed with high quality only if special expensive equipment is used.
Cuts for profiles can also be made using a angle grinder with a stone disc. But in this case there is no guarantee that the cuts are correct.They can be uneven and the stone cannot be supported on the rails of the attachment system. Therefore, any attempts to reduce the cost of additional stone processing are ineffective. But you can do your own installation of the hinged system.
Step 1. The wall is marked for the installation of the vertical guides of the frame of the ventilated facade. The uprights should be spaced 60-80 cm apart.
Step 2. According to the marking, holes are drilled in the wall.
They are necessary for fixing brackets, the step between which should not exceed 50 cm.
Drilling a hole
Step 3. Install the brackets with dowels.
Bracket and gasket, layout
Anchor and reinforcement washer for bracket attachment
Step 4. Insulation plates are placed in the openings between the brackets .
.. You can also install it directly on the brackets, having previously made narrow slots in the right places.
Step 5. Drill holes in the wall through the insulation plates and fasten them with plastic dowels-nails.
Fixing the insulation
Step 6. Install the vertical rails, fixing them to the brackets with anchors.
Mounting the bracket extensions
Step 7. On top of the vertical ones, special facade profiles are attached, which should be located in the horizontal direction. In order to maintain the required distance between the facade profiles, a template is used, the width of which is equal to the width of the facing stone.
Fixing vertical guides
Step 8. If the quality of the stone processing allows it to be mounted after the entire frame has been installed, do just that. If the size of the stones is not the same, the horizontal profiles are installed gradually, after each row of laying the finishing material.
Since the shape of the stones is relatively correct, they tend to be installed as close to each other as possible. This minimizes seams.
There are special thin plates on the facade profiles, which are folded back after the stones are installed. This provides additional fastening of the cladding layer.
Mounting the starting tire and natural stone
Step 9. Fill the space between the stones with a transparent moisture-resistant sealant.
Installing the private tire in the slab slot
Example of a ventilation facade clad with natural stone
If the installation of the Dagestan stone is done correctly, the facing layer will firmly adhere to the wall for many years.
It can collapse from an excess of moisture. In such a situation, blackening, cracking and shedding of stone chips are observed. In order to prevent the occurrence of all these troubles, the facade is hydrophobized.
The solutions used for such processing do not change the vapor permeability of the finishing material, but give it the property of moisture resistance. Then the stone stops "pulling" water from the environment.
Thus, the maximum possible durability of the cladding structure is achieved.
There are three categories of water repellents, differing in the degree of material protection provided.
For facade work, it is necessary to use the compositions of the first category. These are the following means:
Water repellent "Tiprom U"
Water repellent Bionic MVO
Neomid H2O Stop
To apply protective solutions, use a brush, roller or paint sprayer. Before starting work, you must read the manufacturer's instructions. Many water repellents are hazardous to health.
Therefore, when working with it, you must follow the rules for protecting the respiratory system and skin.
Hydrophobization of the facade (example of spraying the agent on the wall surface)
Stone after hydrophobization
Deep penetration primer
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