When designing buildings, engineers do not always rely only on the efficiency and feasibility of building structures. There are such architectural solutions that combine beauty, create a unique inimitable style and give aesthetic pleasure.
The architectural elements of the facade of the building have been used since ancient times. Thanks to the unique combination of shapes and styles, architects managed to create buildings that carried cultural value, reflected the mood of the era and remained in the memory of people. In this article, we will look at the main architectural elements of the building facade, their varieties in form, style, and also purpose.
The details of the facade of a building can be of different styles, but the task of the architect is to bring it all together. So that the whole picture rivets the eyes of passers-by, gives aesthetic pleasure from contemplation.
Architectural elements for decorating facades
Difficult accurately determine the year of the appearance of decorative forms that adorn the facades of buildings. So, for example, in Rome from time immemorial, architects used glazed ceramic tiles to decorate houses. And in Egypt, architects preferred bas-reliefs depicting warriors, birds, animals.
An ancient bas-relief on one of the temples
Greece was always distinguished by a love of columns, on the very same facade canvas the creators applied volumetric drawings of the gods , Greek warriors. The classic Greek home of a rich man was a rectangular building with two columns in front of the entrance.
Vicenza, town hall, facades were built in 1549- 1614 according to the project of A. Palladio in the forms of the Renaissance
Munich. church of st.
Altenburg (Leipzig district), town hall
Since time immemorial, only wealthy people could afford to use architectural decoration , because the length of the process, the skill of the creators and the high cost of the material determined the high price for such art. Now, with the emergence and improvement of modern technologies, the process of creating decorative elements has become significantly cheaper, which allows it to be used in mass construction.
Today, the facade of the house is finished and decorated with all kinds of materials in color and style, which allows you to create truly unique design solutions.
Glass fiber reinforced concrete decor
Richly decorated facade
Of course, the world of architecture is multifaceted and large. It consists of many eras, cultures that have left their mark on the creation of decorative elements.
The concept of architectural style
Among the main types of architectural styles are:
Glorifying the beauty of ancient Italy, he manifests itself in complex ornaments and bas-reliefs, panels and carved balustrades.
Architectural elements not only carry in itself a decorative function. They allow you to harmoniously fit a building object into any space, visually change the linear dimensions. So, to visually increase the height of the structure, engineers use columns. Striving upward, they seem to raise the building several meters.
But the arches, on the contrary, are able to "expand" the object, giving it solidity and solidity.
The combination of arches and columns (building in Italy)
It is the decorative facade finishing that helps to give the object a finishing touch, it is beneficial to highlight it on background of other building objects, set the desired style (modern Art Nouveau, Gothic castle, Baroque or Rococo).
This is a whole art - to choose the right element correctly, to harmoniously fit into the project. Any decorative nuance increases the commercial value of the house, improves operational characteristics, protects against external influences (humidity, overheating, mold penetration, etc.), allows you to harmoniously fit the object or highlight it against the background of other buildings.
Decor for the facade
Entablature - represents the beam floor of the span. This type of decoration was widely used in Ancient Greece and during the Renaissance. There was a clear engineering law, according to which the entablature should not exceed 1/4 of the column height.
Arch represents the overlap of an opening or span in the wall. Depending on the purpose, shape, there are semicircular, lancet, bow and multi-layer arches.
Arcade is a structure consisting of many arches that are supported by columns.
Arches and arcades
Archivolt (translated from Latin, literally means "framing arc" .) Due to the special framing in the wall, architects manage to achieve a volumetric selection of the arch.Sometimes it is on this accent that the entire style and general concept of the building is built.
This is the lower part of the column, its base, which visually gives strength and stability to the structure.
Balcony , perhaps, is one of the most functional parts of architectural decoration. Being a protruding part in the wall, framed by a balustrade, the balcony can serve as a decoration for the house, or it can perform a purely functional task. The balcony is a kind of terrace, fenced area. The balcony allows you to use an unlimited number of materials for the production of fences and foundations (artificial stone, reinforced concrete slabs, metal, plastic, wood, marble).
French balconies have an exclusively decorative function and represent a small ledge in the wall, surrounded by carved balusters (forging, stone).
French balcony in the house
Baluster are figured posts that make up the fence. Between themselves they are fixed by the base and the railing. Balusters themselves can be decorated with carvings, decorative stucco moldings, drawings.
Balustrade is a stair railing, which consists of railings and balusters.
Architects actively use balustrades when designing balconies and terraces. Unlike other decorative elements of houses, the size of which depends on the total area, balustrades, as a rule, remain unchanged in shape. The size of the balustrade is usually closely related to the standard measurements of human height.
Bas-reliefs is rightfully considered one of the oldest architectural elements that can be found in the era paleolithic. This is a ledge decorated with stucco molding.
This element is less and less used in the decoration of the external part of the building due to the strong influence of climatic conditions.
Bas-reliefs on the facade of the palace
Bas-relief with the image of the gods
Cornice is the protruding moment that visually separates the wall from the roof. Moreover, the cornice is not always erected exactly under the base of the roof. Its main task is to separate the horizontal area from the vertical one.
Cornice of a house with wide brick brackets
Caryatid is a beautiful sculptural representation of a female figure that serves support, the basis for any code.
In modern architecture, it is difficult to find caryatid because of the complexity of reproduction. Such decoration was widely used by antique architects in Ancient Rome. It should be emphasized that these are certainly statues of dressed women, who often replaced a pilaster or a column.
Column is a special architectural part that acts as a base in a beam structure. Depending on the style, the column can be square or round.
It rests on a stable, bulging base, and a capital serves as the dome of the column. The column allows you to completely modify the object, play with proportions, and give artistic expression.
Columns, capitals, colonnades, caryatids
Classic column styles
Caryatids and Atlanteans
Console is a kind of support that protrudes from the wall of the building and supports the balustrade, cornice, balcony. Initially, the console, in Ancient Greece, served as a support for the doorway, and only later began to carry a decorative function.
Niche is one of the most common decoration decors that allows you to decorate your home, place in them statues, frescoes, paintings.
The location of the statues in the niches of buildings protects them from the negative effects of the external environment, burnout, humidity.
Panel is a three-dimensional image for filling a part of a wall or ceiling. This type of wall decoration was most widespread in the Renaissance, but now it is difficult to find houses decorated with panels from the outside. Increasingly, experts are using panels to create a unique home interior.
Majolica panels on the main facade of the Metropol Hotel
Triple window the first floor is crowned with a semicircular pink-purple panel
Parapet originally served as a fence on the roof.
This elevation is no more than 1 m high. But in the Baroque era, the parapet began to carry more of a decorative function, decorating the roofs of houses.
Pilastra is a decorative protrusion in the wall that visually resembles a column. It was widely used in the Renaissance. With the help of a pilaster, engineers reinforce the supporting structure of the wall, but more often than not, it serves exclusively as a decoration for the walls of the building.
Facade decor with pilasters
Rotunda is a round structure crowned with a dome. Most often, the rotunda is used in the design of terraces and gazebos. As a rule, it is erected surrounded by columns and balustrades.
Facade with a rotunda
Belle-floor, belvedere, rotunda
Rusty can often be found in modern architecture. This is the facing of the facade of the building with rectangular stones, which are laid in a certain sequence.
Rustic cladding allows you to visually modify the outline of the building. It can often be found in decorating window openings and beams. The use of rustic materials allows you to visually divide the facade of the house into several separate elements.
The panel highlights, sets the necessary accents on the outside. With the help of a panel, you can beautifully decorate a horizontal or vertical surface.
Pediment in ancient times was one of the obligatory architectural elements in Ancient Rome, Greece ... The grandeur of the columns and the wealth of the pediments testified to the status and wealth of the owner. This is the final finish under the roof slope.
Depending on the shape of the roof, the pediment can be semicircular, rectangular, triangular. In the rich architecture of ancient Rome, you can find buildings with pediments, which were decorated with panels, bas-reliefs, sculptures. In modern architecture, the pediment is less and less decorative and, as a rule, is finished with the same material as the general facade. The main purpose of the pediment is to protect the house from the wind, strengthen the facade, and provide additional support for the roof.
Triangular pediment with the Stroganov coat of arms
Bay window .
Many people confuse a loggia or a glazed balcony with a bay window. But unlike the latter, the bay window is a protruding part of the building, which carries the task of increasing the internal area of the room. Depending on the architect's idea, height, style of the house, the bay window can have a wide variety of outlines (round, square, have a cylindrical section).
The base is the lower part of the structure, a bulging base that gives the house power and stability ..
. The plinth performs not only a decorative function, it creates an excellent support and protective function. It is noteworthy that in translation from Italian, the base means "a shoe with a wooden sole". The plinth really performs a supporting function, therefore, when designing, it needs to be given the greatest attention. In order to separate the base from the main wall, to highlight it against the background of the building, as a rule, the base is processed with another material.
Previously, architects have always made the plinth volumetric, protruding beyond the main lines of the building. Now, modern engineers adhere to one straight line, but artificial stone and wood are used for decoration.
Base / plinth
For many people, when the word "fresco" is mentioned, there is an association with the decoration of the interior space. At the same time, modern technologies allow you to apply any pattern to the facade of a building, reliably protecting it from burnout, moisture, rain, wind.
The use of frescoes
Facade fresco has a lot of advantages when decorating houses:
Facade fresco is applied to the vertical surface of the building thanks to the reinforced mesh and the use of polymer decor.Due to its light weight, the facade fresco is widely used when decorating large areas of facades where heavy stucco molding, decorative finishing stones, ledges, bas-reliefs, etc. cannot be used.
The emergence of new technologies allows engineers to boldly design and create unique projects of architectural decoration of buildings. Modern materials are much more resistant to fading, weathering, and environmental influences. Today, decorative stone, porcelain stoneware and decorative plaster are often used for finishing the outside.
Decorative facade stucco molding, which adorns the vertical surface, is made of polymer concrete, polyurethane foam and cast plaster.
A very easy-to-work material that allows you to create a unique finish. It hardens quickly, dries and is highly wear resistant. Working with gypsum is quite simple and can be done according to the finished workpieces.
Stucco molding process:
All these components must be mixed in the proportion: 1 kg of dry powder per 700 ml of water. Stir well first with a wooden spatula and then with a construction mixer;
The plaster decor is taken out of the mold
Installation of plaster stucco must be done very carefully, because gypsum is an extremely fragile material, any careless movement may damage the structure.
Plaster molding elements
Step 1 . Mark the intended mounting location.
Step 2. Brush this area thoroughly to give a flat surface and rinse with water.
Step 3. Wait until completely dry, prime the surface well.
Apply primer with a brush or roller
Step 4. Scratches on the back of the finished molding to ensure the best contact with the wall.
Prepare a special adhesive solution (gypsum + wood glue).
Bone carpenter's glue
Step 6 . Apply glue with a brush to a clean surface of the stucco molding, previously moistened with water. The wall to which the decoration will be glued must also be pre-moistened with water.
Step 7 .
Gently place the stucco to the wall, press down slightly for maximum contact. Remove the remaining glue with a spatula, without damaging the decor.
Attaching elements to the attachment point
Step 8 . Wait until the stucco is completely dry, having checked the accuracy of the stucco sticker in advance.
Fixed plaster decor
Polymer concrete is a popular decorative material that looks like marble.
In order to improve the binding properties of the material, polymer concrete was created, where the basis is a polymer composition of crushed sand, granite chips, quartz, and the binding effect lies on resin and acrylic. Polymer concrete has a fairly light weight, and in order to further reduce the load on the facade, decorative elements are created not as a solid canvas, but in the form of separate, hollow elements. The main advantages of this material include high resistance to wear and cracking. It does not deform when squeezed / stretched, perfectly withstands large temperature drops and retains the appearance of a natural stone. The average service life of polymer concrete is about 100 years.
Facade decor made of composite polymer concrete
Decor made of polymer concrete
Making decor from monolithic polymer concrete
For complex moldings, architects usually combine polymer concrete with other materials (gypsum, polyurethane). Due to the heavy weight of the polymer concrete, the slabs are attached to the building by steel anchors inserted during the casting of the mold.
Step 1. The wall surface must be thoroughly cleaned and primed.
Wait until it is completely dry, and then apply the markings.
Step 3. Drill holes in the attachment points, insert dowels.
Step 4. Carefully connect the polymer concrete mold to the wall.
Fastening is done with an anchor end-to-end with a dowel. Use a rubber mallet to ensure a complete fit.
If desired, to improve the thermal insulation properties, you can make inserts of thermal insulation material, attach them between the cladding and the wall.
Installation of decorative facade cornice
Very strong lightweight modern material, which consists of glass fiber. In terms of its technical properties, glass fiber concrete is similar to reinforced concrete, but glass fibers play the role of reinforcement here.
Arched pediment made of glass fiber reinforced concrete with a texture like sandstone
The facade finish made with glass fiber concrete assumes a wide range of colors and is characterized by increased resistance to precipitation, burnout, temperature changes.
Installation of glass fiber reinforced concrete does not differ from facing of reinforced concrete structures. The slabs are attached to a pre-primed wall with concrete and hardware. Wait until it is completely dry before applying paint or other decorative finishes.
Facade decor made of glass fiber reinforced concrete
One of the main advantages of this material can be called light weight, which allows you to create fancy stucco patterns even on thin walls.
Decorative elements are poured separately in special forms, which are attached to the facade with special glue. After drying, this finish is painted in the desired color and covered with a protective varnish.
Installation of polyurethane stucco molding resembles working with plaster.
Inexpensive lightweight, it is quickly assembled. In addition, this material is completely environmentally friendly, which adds to its popularity in the modern market. However, it also has disadvantages: excessive fragility + short-term operation. As a rule, it serves no more than 10-12 years. Special processing allows extending the operation of decorative foam elements up to 15-17 years, but it is necessary to take into account protection in the form of visors, roofs, arches, etc.
Option for attaching facade decor
Trimming elements at the joints
Option for sealing joints
Installation of polystyrene stucco molding is carried out in a similar manner to installation with polyurethane, but there is a difference in drilling holes. They do not have to go through the forms.
Installation of foam plastic moldings
Adhesive for foam and polyurethane foam moldings
Foam elements are attached to special glue
Mounting the product on the adhesive mixture
Mounting the product on dowel-nails of the "mushroom" type and adhesive mixture
Mounting the product on the dowel-nails and adhesive mixture
Installation of the window sill
Installation of the window frame
The use of modern materials allows decorate the facade of the house in any style (from antique baroque to neoclassicism). Even minor elements of architectural decor make it possible to visually highlight the building, place the necessary accents and give it solidity.
gypsum stucco glue
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