Kholmov's solid fuel boiler: features of use, technical characteristics. Kholmov's boiler is classified as a long-burning solid fuel boilers. By design, the device consists of two vertical shafts. The first chamber is more voluminous and is intended for stowing fuel and its further combustion. Combustion of the material takes place only in a limited space at the bottom of the bookmark, and therefore the device is also called as a bottom long burning boiler.
The second chamber is slightly smaller and afterburning of wood gases takes place in it. In addition, this is also the location of the heat exchanger: the most active heating of water for the heating system is named in this part.
Technical features of heat generation inside the device includes two types of generation at once heat - direct combustion of fuel and after - afterburning of pyrolysis gases. The design project was created in such a way that the flow of air that enters inside does not give enough oxygen for full combustion, and it turns out that part of the fuel burns, and the other part smolders.
Under the decay is meant the decomposition of organic compounds under the influence of high temperature.
The process is accompanied by the selection of large quantities of smoke with a high content of soot and tar. These smoke gases, when passing through hot coals, are enriched with additional substances and pyrolysis gases are obtained, which are an order of magnitude more active.
On one tab, Holmov's solid fuel boiler can work continuously till 12 o'clock. This is almost 4 times more than that of standard solid fuel heat generators. That is why it is called a long burning boiler.
The duration of the burning of one bookmark is achieved by limiting the combustion in the loading chamber. The same chamber is the largest in the unit and holds much more than standard solid fuel boilers.
At a boiler with a power parameter of 15 kW, the volume of the loading shaft is 185 liters. From the entire bookmark from the upper boundary to the grate, combustion will occur only at the lower 25 cm. The rest of the fuel will be above the interlayer and wait for the lower layer of material to burn out, and then will take its place.
The space above the coals that burn is about 30 cm and is called the area of active smoke and gas formation. Most of the air flow that enters enters under the grate and under them passes already into the second afterburner of pyrolysis gases. This air will draw in gases and smoke that are above the burning layer.
The chambers are separated from each other by a partition that stands strictly vertically. Only at the very bottom does the wall have a small gap.
Through this space, which is free, under the action of traction, the flame is sucked from the first chamber into the second.In this lower part, the gases are completely afterburned, and a convection heat exchanger is installed on top. The place with the peak temperature is at the bottom of the second shaft, where the temperature reaches up to +800 degrees. Approximately 65-70% of the heat in the area will be transferred to the boiler water jacket in the form of radiation type radiation. The remaining heat energy is collected in a water-tube convection heat exchanger.
Kholmov's boiler can operate on coal, wood, pellets, briquettes and other loose small materials, for example, on chips, sawdust and other types organic fuel. To get the most out of the device, the use of coal should be limited. By itself, fossil coal is a decomposition product of organic matter and during processing in the boiler, pyrolysis gases are practically not formed. It is much better to use firewood or briquettes from organic raw materials in such a heat generator - from husks, straw, wood and others.
The most tangible advantage is high efficiency.
With a well-thought-out scheme for the afterburning of pyrolysis gases, such a design becomes the second in terms of performance after pyrolysis boilers. At the same time, we note that the price for a really good pyrolysis boiler is much higher than for a Kholmov mine boiler. High efficiency is obtained due to a complex heat removal system.
It makes it possible to quickly and efficiently heat water in a heat exchanger due to two sources of heat at once - radiation, which occurs during the combustion of pyrolysis gases, and convection, which is formed due to thermal conductivity when heated gas acts with the heat exchanger body.
Another important advantage of the design is that the principle of bottom combustion is used.
Due to this, it is possible to achieve a long combustion period for one portion of fuel. In addition, unlike boilers with a long upper combustion, in this design, you can even throw up firewood during operation. Such popular units as the Stropuva boiler and others require waiting for the complete end of combustion before there is an opportunity to renew the fuel.
Kholmov's main competitor among long-burning boilers is Stropuva. The device of cylindrical boilers, which work on the principle of combustion of the layer located on top, not only reduces the degree of ease of use, but also limits the efficiency.
Here, even technologically, it is not possible to create such a complex heat exchanger, which is in the Kholmov and derivatives boiler.
But even such a wonderful mine device has certain disadvantages. To begin with, it is that tar and soot, which are formed during the pyrolysis of fuel, will always settle on the top of the loading chamber. An incomplete volume of pyrogas will be sucked into the second shaft during combustion.As a result, some of the gases and smoke will still be in the loading chamber and will result in tar settling on the walls.
There are certain difficulties with the combustion of pyrolysis gases, which require a large amount of oxygen.
The manufacture and sale of Kholmov's boilers have existed for several years and now on the Web you can find a huge number of negative reviews about the operation.
True, most often they are not associated with design features, but with the fact that production often ends up on sale for sale ...
For this reason, it is best to buy more reliable devices that come from trusted manufacturers. There are several companies that, based on the presented boiler, have designed improved versions of the unit, and the Thermiko boiler is of great interest now.
Engineers of the company did a great job and improved the technology of air supply so that it was possible to increase the efficiency of the device. At the boiler inlet, the air is immediately divided into two streams. About 80% (the bulk) goes under the grate and gives fuel combustion in the first chamber and afterburning of gases in the second.
And the remaining 20% immediately fall inside through a special channel, and move to the top of the mine loading. There, the air begins to displace the flue gases that have accumulated, and is sucked with it into the chamber and the heat exchanger through burning coals. After that, it turns out not only to avoid sticking of resin on the walls, but also to increase the performance of the heat generator due to the complete combustion of decomposition products.
The second important development of Thermiko engineers is a ceramic catalyst for the secondary supply of a portion of air. Secondary supply means the air that enters the lower space of the second chamber.
Thanks to this, the afterburning process is more efficient. The use of thermal ceramics when creating secondary feed channels makes it possible to bring the combustion rate of pyrolysis gases to the highest level.
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