Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Before deciding what the base should consist of, you need to know what it serves.

The basement is not just a protruding step, not a design element, it is a continuation of the foundation, therefore, first of all, it must be solid and protect the house from moisture, temperature extremes and possible groundwater. It is very important that not only cold and moisture does not penetrate into the room, but also steam is removed from the inside of the house.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Building façade elements

Preparatory work

If we do, then first. A common problem in the fight against humidity in the house is neglect of preparatory work.

It is very important to carry out all the installation and finishing of the base in dry warm weather. So, drainage is everything!

  1. Dig a trench around the perimeter of the building, 50 cm wide, 20 cm deep.
  2. We fill the trench with gravel, which provides drainage. If desired, it can be reinforced with a reinforcing mesh.
  3. The surface of the wall of the future basement - 50-70 cm from the ground, is cleaned of dirt, treated with water-repellent primers, so-called water repellents, if necessary, level the unevenness.

  4. If you are a perfectionist, you can additionally cover the wall with synthetic carpet with an air gap. This layer forms against the wall and allows some of the moisture to evaporate.
  5. We make thermal insulation. Can be insulated with polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, extruded polystyrene foam and mineral wool. The latter option is not very good, since mineral wool loses its insulating properties over time.

  6. Now we proceed directly to the plinth cladding.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plinth trim elements

Of course, before even starting the preparatory work, you must choose the cladding material.

Materials for finishing the base

When choosing a material, you need to take into account a number of factors: price, durability, degree of protection, lightness, appearance. The base may be non-protruding and protruding. If you chose the second option, you must use the ebb.

We will look at different types of base / plinth cladding with pros and cons.

Finishing the basement with plaster

The simplest option is plastering followed by painting.

Pros - an economical and relatively easy option. This work can be done independently without resorting to the services of specialists. Choosing a good facade paint can give your home a very neat look.

Cons - not resistant to chips and cracks, short-lived.

Stages of work:

  • we clean the working surface from dirt and irregularities.
  • we process the wall of the future basement with a primer. It is necessary to thoroughly lubricate all cracks, chips. It is important not to rush to the next step and let the primer dry completely.

    This can take more than two days.

  • Apply the plaster to the wall with a trowel.You can make the effect of a stone from plaster, but still, for this you need to have modeling skills, but you can look quite impressive, especially after coating with paint. If you do not possess such skills and work on your own, it is enough to smooth it with a spatula, let the composition dry, also for about two days, then sand and paint. Acrylic paint is most commonly used.

    It is waterproof, and at the same time vapor-permeable and frost-resistant. They also use polyurethane, alkyd and silicone paints. It is not recommended to use enamel paints, as it is environmentally unsafe and does not allow air to pass through.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plastering the base

If you decide to make the base using the method of plastering on the grid, you need to add an adhesive after applying a layer of plaster composition and press a polymer mesh into it by about a third, which is smoothed with a metal trowel on top.

After another two days, cover the resulting base with acrylic primer.

But that's not all. If you are not a sculptor, but want to make a natural stone effect with your own hands, rejoice, modern technologies have solved this problem as well.

So, on the pre-treated surface, first we apply a cement solution, then a decorative layer of plaster, level it with a spatula ...

and make an impression with a special mold. The downside, of course, is that it needs to be purchased. But on the other hand, everyone will take your plastered basement for a stone one.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Base / plinth finishing with a mold

Prices for popular types of plaster

Plaster

Plinth finishing with concrete

This method of finishing a plinth is safer than conventional plaster. It is also suitable for subsequent finishing of bricks, PVC panels and tiles.

But you can make it even easier. After concreting, paint the base with concrete paint.

Stages of work:

  • we fix the metal mesh on the base. It is better to choose a mesh with a cell size of no more than 1 cm with a three-dimensional structure. This will allow achieving a larger area of ​​contact of the mesh with the mortar, which will improve the reliability of the base.

    We fix the mesh with quick-assembly dowels or nail dowels.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Fixed mesh

  • make the formwork. When preparing the formwork, we put the guide boards and fix them with pegs that are driven into the ground. Next, we fix the shields in a vertical position, first on one side, then on the other. Every half a meter, we fasten the boards with spacers and additional clamps, they will not allow the formwork to open when pouring concrete.

    Outside can be secured with spacers or pegs.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plinth formwork

  • pour concrete, wait for it to dry, remove the formwork, paint it and voila - your plinth ready!

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Ready concrete plinth

Stone finishing

Finishing with a stone certainly looks better, although it tastes and color ... But nevertheless, a stone, natural or artificial, will last much longer, better protect against external influences.

Consider options for finishing the basement with stone.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Materials for finishing the basement

Natural stone

The natural stone used for the basement can be sandstone, limestone, granite and even marble.

Marble certainly looks rich. But this very expensive material has a big drawback - it absorbs moisture and dirt. It can be washed, but it is also very difficult.

Therefore, marble is rarely used. But that's not all. There are options and more expensive than marble, generally with exorbitant prices. This is, for example, labradorite. It combines the uniqueness of color and strength of granite, creates multi-colored reflections under different lighting conditions.

Your home will literally shine with colors at different times of the day. But you will have to pay a lot for this.

Pros: A house with a stone base looks much more solid and impressive. Longer service life, no need to repaint and finish, resistant to chips.

Cons: Natural facing stone will cost you more than plaster with painting and finishing with other materials.

Another disadvantage is stone - the material is quite weighty not only externally, but also in its mass, and this gives an additional load on the foundation. In such cases, the reinforced connection of the drain cushion to the foundation is mandatory. Often the stone requires a complex installation and, therefore, increases the cost of installation. For example, granite blocks must be reinforced in addition to the mortar and use special stops.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

The basement of the house, finished with natural stone

Stages of work:

Since natural the stone is very heavy, we need to strengthen the surface of the base:

  • with the help of special fasteners we mount the mesh to the wall.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Securing the mesh

  • then apply a solution of concrete or finishing plaster to the mesh.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Applying the solution to the mesh

  • After the surface has completely dried, we process the base with a primer using a roller or brush.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Base priming

  • The next stage, again after drying, is applied with a special glue of increased strength.
  • we attach a stone to glue in about the same way as a tile, it is possible without using cross-shaped beacons. Natural stone does not require the same distance between the seams, as the size of the stones can also differ from each other.

    Be sure to wipe off any excess solution.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Applying adhesive and fixing the stone

  • After complete drying, apply grout.

Artificial stone

The material is made on the basis of cement-containing mixtures with the addition of expanded clay crushed stone. Here there is simply no limit to imagination. Such material is made in various sizes, profiles, colors.

That is, you can choose the design, color, size for the style of the whole house, ideally choose the cornice of the basement. Artificial stone can be rough or smooth. All of the above can be attributed to the advantages of this coverage. The downside is the high price of the material.

Stages of work:

It would seem, what is the difference? Both that, and another stone.

But in this case, the weight of the artificial stone is still lighter and we can go in two ways of installation. The first, as in the case of facing with natural stone, we strengthen the surfaces of the base, the second way does not provide for such a solution:

  • leveling
  • priming
  • gluing the stone to the surface.
  • applying grout.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plinth finished with stone

Clinker brick finish

This material is made of fireclay - refractory clay, this is its plus and advantage over ceramic bricks and facade plaster. Water repellent and frost resistant.

Manufacturers give a 50-year guarantee for the brick. Cons - quite heavy weight and high price.

Stages of work:

The brick finishing technology is practically similar to the technology using artificial stone. Only cruciform beacons are mandatory.

It is imperative to take into account the curing and drying times of the adhesive mixtures used.

Important: start work from the corner and lay out bricks and stones from right to left.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Clinker bricks with installed cross beacons

Clinker tiles

You can't tell tiles from bricks in size and appearance. But the biggest difference between tiles is their thinness and lightness. Tile thickness from 8 to 21 mm. It is also convenient that there are corner elements, which allows you to perfectly close the corners of the base.

Pros of finishing with clinker tiles - it is frost-resistant, moisture does not penetrate into it, it is very durable and has a long service life.

When installing clinker tiles, like other similar finishing materials for external use, it is important to use frost-resistant adhesives and joint mixtures.

Work steps:

  • priming the surface

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Priming the base

  • apply special frost-resistant glue. Here it is important to apply a layer of glue for no more than 1 sq. m.

    , because after 30 minutes the glue hardens, and you simply will not have time to glue the tiles. In this case, we use cross-shaped beacons to create equal distances between the tiles.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Gluing the clinker tiles

  • after gluing the entire tile, fill the joints.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Finishing the seams of clinker tiles

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plinth finished with clinker tiles

Prices for different types of clinker tiles

Clinker tiles

Basement siding or PVC panels

The finish of the PVC panel can be attributed to one of the cheapest options, which is its plus. Also, this material is convenient in that it is easy to install, convenient to wash, it is very light, frost and moisture resistant, and it also does not burn well.

Here, as in the case of clinker tiles, there are also corner elements, which is very convenient. Manufacturers offer a variety of designs. You can install siding under brick, stone, mosaic tiles, wood. By the way, which is remarkable. With this material, you can finish not only the basement, but the whole house.

The method of fixing the panels to the plinth is completely different from the previous ones. There are no glue solutions, metal or wooden lathing is used, which allows the house to "breathe".

Do not forget to purchase connectors with plugs and guides.

The minus of this material is controversial. Someone believes that it contains substances harmful to human health, but manufacturers assure that this is not the case.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plinth trimmed with PVC panels

Work steps:

  • the first step in this case will be the manufacture of the lathing. The materials for the lathing are usually special profiles with wooden slats. Of course, all materials must have the main characteristic for the base - moisture-repellent. Therefore, we treat all wooden surfaces with moisture-proof impregnation. In the manufacture of the lathing, we use a water level and a plumb line.

    The material is large in area, therefore it is necessary to avoid distortions of the structure.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Base / plinth lathing for siding

  • Waterproofing film can be used as waterproofing
  • we mount the insulation using special clips or tape.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Insulation of the base with expanded polystyrene

  • using self-tapping screws we attach plugs and joints around the perimeter of the entire structure, to which panels will be attached.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Installation diagram of siding panels

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Installation diagram of basement PVC -siding

Prices for siding

Siding

Basement thermal panels

Manufacturers do not stand still, coming up with more and more economical and ergonomic solutions. The basement panels are clinker tiles or artificial stone tiles, reinforced on a thermo-insulating polyurethane foam base in strict adherence to the rows of "brickwork".

The advantage of is a more convenient fastening, since the panel consists of about 12-14 "bricks". Minus - artificial materials, as with PVC panels.

Polystyrene basement thermal panels are very short-lived. This is a temporary solution to the problem. The best material in terms of resistance for thermal panels is polyurethane foam.

Therefore, when choosing this material, be sure to take an interest in its basis.

The stages of installation of thermal panels are identical to the basement siding of PVC panels.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Installation of basement thermal panels

Prices for various types of basement thermal panels

Plinth thermal panels

Mosaic plaster

This plaster is completely different in its properties from ordinary plaster due to the bonding element - resin. The resin gives a very important property to the plinth - it becomes waterproof and vapor permeable. And this is exactly what you need! And also the advantages of this material include resistance to low temperatures and ease of application.

The plaster contains fine grains from 0.8 to 3 mm in diameter and looks like a multi-colored mosaic.

The downside is that it cannot be applied to limestone surfaces, heat-saving ones, as well as to artificial stone surfaces. It may also require adjustments during its operation.

Stages of work:

  • we clean and prime the surface of the base
  • apply a layer of ordinary plaster.

    You can do without it, but it will serve as an additional leveling step.

  • Apply mosaic plaster using a stainless steel float. It can be applied to lime-sand, gypsum, cement plastered surfaces and concrete.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Mosaic plaster application

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Mosaic plaster base / plinth

Porcelain stoneware tiles

Quartz agglomerate can also be referred to this - a slab of quartz or granite chips, again based on resin. The advantage of these materials is their high strength and resistance to external influences.

It can even be called eternal, it would be ideal. If not for the minus - the high cost.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

The scheme of finishing the base with porcelain stoneware

Stages of work:

  • install stainless steel frame to the wall with self-tapping screws, starting from the bottom of the structure, then guides and side strips. The distance between the wall and the frame is 2-5 mm. This is necessary for ventilation.

  • over the frame between the guides, we fix the waterproofing film.
  • we attach the tiles to the frame, after applying a thin layer of concrete mortar. The solution must be thick enough. We install the tile on the frame using the fasteners on the tile.

Important: Be careful when working with porcelain stoneware tiles.

Despite its strength, the edges of the tiles may chip off during installation, which will entail a loss of tightness between the seams.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Prices for various types of porcelain stoneware

Porcelain stoneware

Flat slate

Flat slate is made from a mixture of asbestos, water and Portland cement. Slate can be pressed and unpressed. In our case, it is better to use pressed, it is more durable. This material has a lot of advantages.

Due to asbestos in the composition, it is very durable and fireproof, does not lend itself to corrosion, is flexible enough, is not subject to temperature changes, is durable, does not heat up in the sun. Has good sound insulation and thermal insulation, resistant to aggressive environments. And most importantly, it has a low price. Cons - when cutting slate, harmful asbestos dust is formed, it is inconvenient to install it alone, assistants are needed.

Stages of work:

  • Prepare the surface of the basement, primer, insulate.

  • preparing a wooden crate.
  • we fasten the flat slate to the wooden crate, as well as to the drywall using self-tapping screws. We start from the corner of the house.
  • the slate attachment points at the corners must be closed with corners made of galvanized iron using screws.
  • paint the slate, best of all with acrylic paint.

Important: Before installation, it is necessary to treat slate sheets with an antiseptic composition. If the thickness of the slate is more than 1 cm, the sheet should be cut only with an electric saw in order to avoid a large amount of asbestos dust.

So, when everything is ready, we proceed to the installation of ebb tides in order to exclude damage to our basement by flowing water. Otherwise, all efforts will go to waste.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plinth trimmed with flat slate

Installation of drips

They can be metal, aluminum, plastic.

A more beautiful, but expensive ebb can be installed from shaped clinker bricks or beveled clinker tiles, but this is a rather complicated installation method, so you cannot do without a professional.

Finishing a private house: basement - detailed instructions + video!

Plinth ebb setting

Operation steps:

After cladding the basement and before cladding the walls of the house, it is necessary to strengthen the ebb.

  • for better adhesion of the ebb to the surface of the base, we make slopes at an angle of 15 degrees, align the upper line to horizontal, if necessary. The cement slurry must be thick.
  • we are waiting for several days, the cement should dry thoroughly.

  • we attach the ebbs directly to the wall on the dowel-nails.
  • if the facade of the wall will be sheathed along the guides, then the outflows must be attached to these guides with self-tapping screws.

Important: the ebb must protrude at least 50 mm above the base. The strips are attached to each other with an overlap, with the obligatory coating with frost-resistant sealant.

If you are using wide metal sills, you must additionally use wall mount brackets.

The process of finishing the basement is a rather laborious process, therefore it is important to use high-quality materials from the huge selection of building materials for finishing it, so that later you will not regret anything, since the basement is a very important part of the house for preservation of heat and strength of the building. And do not forget about the exterior of the building, everything should be harmonious.

Video - A beautiful do-it-yourself base

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