The foundation performs the function of taking the mass of the structure so that the load on the ground is evenly distributed. Safe and long-term operation of a building largely depends on the strength of the frame base. The foundation of the house is the most important stage in construction.
It is also important on what type of soil the foundation will be arranged.
If the device is located on rocky or clay soil, then there will be no problems, but on loose soil, appropriate calculations are needed, to find out the bearing capacity of the supports, etc. Let's analyze the technology how to arrange a foundation on sandy ground.
To determine which foundation is right for you, you need to study the type of sand. Sandy soil is different in fraction - from coarse to fine.
Sandy soils are essentially quartz with impurities and clay (less than three percent). Sand is divided into three types:
Also, depending on the composition and grains of the fraction, sand is divided into four types:
Such a mass is very poorly permeable to water, tends to sag and swell. On such soil, basically, they arrange a tape-like base with mandatory reinforcement with piles;
This is the most reliable option. Good moisture absorption, minimal susceptibility to frost swelling;
bases. He is not afraid of frosty influences, liquid does not stagnate in him and he steadfastly tolerates atmospheric phenomena.
Fine sand is essentially dust, and if it gets wet, water will pass through it. Therefore, due to stagnation, dirt will form in it, freezing will increase in size. So, fine-grained sandy soil is exposed to a greater degree of frost heaving. This is an important point when making calculations.
The formation of quicksands will complicate the process of arranging the foundation on such soil.
Quicksands are in those places where groundwater is located closest to the surface.
Important: Before starting construction, you need to order a soil study from a special organization. Otherwise, you may face serious problems, for the solution of which you will have to spend a lot of extra money.
If you are going to build a house on dusty or fine-grained sand, then the foundation must be extremely strong. It will be appropriate to use a tiled foundation here.
First, the fertile layer is removed, then concrete slabs are cast, which are larger in size than the structure. This type of foundation has the feature of moving along with the movement of the ground. Therefore, he is not afraid of seasonal changes in the soil. Such a foundation is also called floating.
The most common foundation used on fine sandy soils is the finely serrated tape type, which is made in a trapezoidal shape that expands towards the bottom.
This expansion will help to reduce external influences on it.
Before pouring, a waterproofing layer is placed in the trench.
Important: For foundations erected on fine sand, a drainage system is required.
For large buildings (for example, for a two-story house), erected on fine sandy soils, pile-strip foundations are mainly used.
The foundation is erected according to the following technology:
Then the pipe is completely filled.
Note: When pouring pipes, the fittings are lowered inward first.
Piles can be poured even without pipes, if the wells are not filled with water in a given area:
- the well is expanded from below with a special device - a plow;
- inside the reinforcement is lowered and the concrete mixture is poured;
- as the pile structure has completely dried out, the tape is poured.
Since coarse and gravelly sands are reliable, any kind of foundation can be used for a one-story house.
If the house will be without a basement, then it is more expedient to arrange a tape finely serrated base.
If the structure is made of light material (frame, shield), then the base can be columnar.
For massive buildings with a plinth, it is better to use a recessed belt type base.
The choice of the type and method of the foundation on the sand will depend on the characteristics of the soil and the location of groundwater in the area. Considering all the nuances, it is quite possible to build a house even on fine sand.
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